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Training and development Essay

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Training and development is another important department in human resources. It specialises on getting its employees to their full potential therefore making the business more efficient thus creating productivity hence making more money!

Why train?

By making the employee better at the job they were hired to do it gives them confidence, making them feel like they have mastered their job, which increases job satisfaction. Also, by making the employees ‘better’ then the advantages could be ==>

i) Fewer accidents>>>>> fewer accidents means cheaper insurance premiums and also less court cases for claims to personal injury of which there are many these days.

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ii) Employees become more versatile and adaptable>>>>> this has its obvious benefits of employees becoming able to do more then what they were employed for, Which means there isn’t as greater need to employ new people.

iii) Greater productivity and better quality>>>>> as it says, with training the overall quality of your employee’s work will increase with more of it coming as well.

iv) Less need for close supervision>>>>> before, if a employee needed supervision then this would take up someone else’s time and effort. After training this would become obsolete and unnecessary.

v) Less scrapped work>>>>> as the amount of mistakes would dramatically decrease, so would the amount of scrapped work.

vi) Higher job satisfaction>>>>> this will prove itself by the annual labour turnover dropping and also less absence from employees.

vii) Better attitudes>>>>> training can help develop right attitudes in employees and in certain jobs, attitude can be just as important as skills or knowledge.

Reasons for training

Even though most companies train as part of their routine with UFI being no exception, every so often an event my happen which will require extra training ==>

* A realisation that the business isn’t performing well>>>>> if the businesses profits drop then training may be the only answer.

* An increase in the number of accidents>>>>> if this occurs, then the staff may need more health and safety training in addition to the training they’ve already had in this area.

* Technology and new equipment>>>>> if new technology is introduced into the business then training on how to use the instruments may need to be done.

* Promotion or other internal staffing changes>>>>> if an employee has been promoted or transferred from another department/area of the business, then he/she may not have the efficient knowledge to do his/her new job thus training is needed.

* A change in working methods>>>>> undoubtedly there is going to be a change in working methods every so often, if there wasn’t, we’d still be practising the same business as we did in the 1980’s.

A change in working methods also means a change in training methods as well, as you obviously cant train out of date techniques to a modern business.

The systematic approach to training

Obviously training needs to be carefully planned and supervised, or you will end up teaching things that are unnecessary to the employees job and thus wasting money. The following is the “dead basic” approach to training==>

* Firstly the job needs to be analysed and defined. This step may be linked with the job recruitment section of human resources e.g. using job descriptions, person specifications etc.

* The standards need to be set for minimal performance.

* The employees are then analysed to discover whether the employee needs training or not

* The amount of training needed by the employee is then assessed. This is known as the ‘training gap’ (see below for an explanation)

* The training programme is then devised. This should include, where, when and who.

* The quality of work after training is compared with performance before training to check if the training has sunk in and been understood.

* The amount the training cost the company is compared with the financial gain achieved by the training given to the employees to see if it was financially worth it.

* Evaluate if the complete training process went to plan and check for any flaws that could be corrected next time to save the company money.

The training gap

The training gap is the gap between the skills and knowledge you know, and the amount of skills and knowledge the company wants you to have.

This diagram should explain! ==>

Training methods

There are many ways to train. These are usually divided into two sections; on the job training and off the job training. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Here are the main ten methods of training:

1) Lectures and talks ==> these are a good way to train if you have, say, a room full of people to teach. But if someone dosnt understand then they are less likely to ask when they are in a group rather then individual one on ones.

2) Classroom instruction==> pretty much similar as lectures and talks but these come in a series of lessons rather then one off’s.

3) Group discussions==> a group discussion is a good way of getting people to join in with the training with there own ideas and feel like part of the training itself rather then just on the receiving end of it.

4) Case study analysis==> this is the best way to teach an employee what to do in a certain situations that may occur in his/her job. These may be high-pressure situations, which need a cool head when it happens and needs the minimum amount of mistakes.

5) College and university courses==> this is quite a one for the future. If human resource planning shows that in 2/3 years time that you are going to need a specialist in a certain area which may require a college or a university course, then it is a good idea to do this form of training now.

6) Job instruction==> this is when someone tells you what to do whilst your working.

7) Learning from a more experienced colleague==> this is also known as ‘sitting with Nellie’. This is a good way to teach methods of a practical job to someone. It is where you shadow a fellow employee for a day and watch how they do the job.

8) Coaching/counselling==> this is similer to above, but is a mixture between sitting with Nellie and job instruction.

9) Delegation==> this is to pass work down from one level of hierarchy to another.

10) Secondment’s==> secondments mean to go and do another job for a year or so which gives the employee experience and hopefully some new skills. There is quite a risk in doing this as when the employee has finished the job, his/her original job may seem incredibly boring and tedious compared to the one that they have just done.

All the text in blue are examples of ‘off the job training’.

In off the job training, the push for learning is usually towards providing background knowledge of certain areas and developing an understanding of general principles of the business.

All the text in red are examples of ‘on the job training’.

In on the job training, the emphasis is more on learning of specific areas of local knowledge in a realistic situation.

Developing skills from training

A “skill” is described in the English dictionary as==>

\Skill\, v. i. 1. To be knowing; to have understanding; to be dexterous in performance.

And the two main factors of a skill are:

1 The persons store of knowledge

2 The persons attributes.

So to train up new skills in your employees then you need to take these to things into consideration. Research has shown that the best training methods to use to develop skills are ==>

Thinking skills

* project work

* problem solving

* case study exercises

* setting written questions

Manual skills

* job instruction

* “sitting by Nellie”

* off the job instruction

Communications and social skills

* report writing courses

* role play exercises

* discussion groups

* leadership exercises

I asked a UFI employee about their training scheme==>

“Ufi have a learning and development team – there is a budget for it split across the 5 directorates. I have to keep track of every training thing organised to keep track of the budget. Ufi don’t do any training in house, we use external consultants or buy courses (if they are not available on learndirect – this is the first option- so if you want to learn about word processing you would do a learndirect course, if you want to do a Degree – Ufi will pay for you to go to Uni).

Ufi will send you on a course via a training organisation as well. We get training on all sorts of things, from computers to finance, to health and safety, first aid, fire fighting, setting work objectives, balancing work and life and leadership.

an example of good training was, work asked everyone to carry out a risk assessment on their working environment (i.e., their desk and surrounding area) nobody knew what to do so didn’t bother. Then we all got training and everyone could fill it out properly. The objective work setting was the same. Nobody was sure what type of objectives they should be putting until training was given.”

As UFI do learndirect courses they can then give these to their employees to learn from. This is extremely useful, as they aren’t spending as much money on training as any other company the same size would be. But as the learndirect courses don’t cover such as fire fighting then they will send you off the job “via a training organisation” to learn these skills.

When an employee wants extra training in whatever area they so choose then they ask for the following document to fill in from human resources. The document following that is a evaluation form to fill in after the training has been finished. This is a chance for the employee to give his/her opinion about the training, I.e. if it was good or bad, was it worth the company’s money or not? This is a clever thing to do by UFI because they then know where the training needs to be improved and of it is worth it overall. This is an example of Quality Control.

Request for Learning and Development


Job Title:


Learning and Development required:


Preferred supplier and cost if known. (if not learndirect please state why)





Line Manager’s endorsement: (Timing, location and resource)

Please provide details of individual/team/corporate benefit.

Please complete and send an electronic copy to Lindsay Atkinson in HR.


How well did the training / development meet your objectives?

(Please tick as appropriate and add any comments)





Not at all

Below Expectations

As Expected

Above Expectations


How would you rate value for money?

(Please tick as appropriate and add any comments)





Very Poor

Worse than

Alternative use of


Good Value

Exceptional Value


Any additional comments you would like to add in relation to the provider or the content:

A member of the HR team may contact you at a future date to discuss how you are using the skills you have developed within the team.

Also every year UFI release a “UFI Learning and development programme” (SEE BELOW) this gives general information to the companies employees about what UFI have planned for the year. This features a FAQ section which answers all the questions that employees might want to ask and if there isn’t an answer there that they want then there are some contact numbers at the end to ring up for enquiries.

Again UFI succeed in doing everything necessary to inform their employees about what’s happening in the business and how they can get about doing it themselves. So in the area of training and development, UFI are very well organised and will only keep improving with the quality control that they’ve got in place.


Learning and Development

Programme 2002-03

1. Headlines

We provide a range of development opportunities to support the achievement of objectives and longer-term aspirations and we encourage a wider organisational understanding through our Company Wide Development initiative. Resource is also available to support team and corporate development. The Learning and Development programme for 2002-3 is at Appendix 1.

Our pace project remains at the heart of our corporate development during 2002-03 with 2 new modules being developed – Negotiation Skills and Business Unit Reporting. In addition we are looking at what further skills are required across the company to ensure we meet our business objectives.

We are looking at how to build on the already very successful culture development work and considering what we can do to develop a wider understanding of equality and diversity.

In partnership with ICT, we will ensure that a range of training options is provided to support the smooth changeover from our current IT system to XP.

The very successful ICT e-lunches continue during 2002-03 and other teams are considering how to adopt this approach for their particular areas of work.

We are again supporting Learning at Work Day (16 May). This year we have a range of workshops available from Managing the life / work balance to truffle making.

We are also preparing for a full company conference in January 2003.

Our Induction Programme is moving from its current format to an online, interactive package specifically designed for Ufi. We will also be launching our induction checklist for managers early 2002-03. In the meantime we will continue to induct our new people through the Welcome Pack and our 2 x half day face to face sessions. Giving new people the opportunity to understand the complexity of Ufi is really important in helping them understand how they contribute to our exciting agenda, it is therefore essential everyone attends at the earliest opportunity.

Supported by the Learning Team, we have a group of people from the Marketing and Communications Team working towards a Post Graduate Certificate in Management in a High Technology Environment. This development is through the Learning through Work Initiative. We also support several individuals to pursue longer-term development.

We demonstrate our support for Skills for Life through encouraging everyone to become involved. Helen Milner champions this initiative.

We work from a list of preferred suppliers for all of our learning and development consultancy support. These are organisations we have identified through a tendering process, as being able to support our L&D activities. We only use organisations outside this list in exceptional circumstances when we identify a specific need not covered by any of the companies on our preferred supplier list.

2. How much is in the pot?

For 2002-03, 439k. Directors have a notional budget to fund individual development across their team. The balanced is used to fund corporate activity and venue costs associated with this activity. Much of this corporate budget is already committed to supporting the actions in Section 1. Therefore we must manage the budget carefully to maximise everyone’s opportunities for development.

Every cancellation means less development opportunities for everyone. Anyone who is unable to attend a planned event, will seek to provide a substitute to attend in their absence. Cancellations are only made if there is an overwhelming business priority that is supported by the team Director. Where Directors agree the cancellation people will be provided with one more opportunity to attend.

L&D will raise the POs for funds from the L&D budget. POs raised or commitments made without prior agreement with the L&D team will be met by the Directors team.

3. How do I request individual development?

When you agree objectives, consider and discuss any development needs and how important they are to achieve your objectives. Essential development is recorded on the planning and feedback form. learndirect will always be our first choice to meet individual development needs, however if there is no suitable course available we will source a cost effective alternative.

When the Planning and Feedback forms are received in HR, the information is extracted and a summary of learning and development needs across the company is produced and action taken to ensure individuals receive the appropriate training at the correct time. If there is more demand for training than the budget can support, Directors prioritise requests for their team.

L&D pay for the agreed cost of the development and accommodation if the course is residential. Travel costs to and from the venue and any other accommodation costs are paid from individual team budgets.

Requests to attend a conference are discussed with the line manager. Where it is considered attendance is business critical or supports continuous professional development the manager makes a request to the Director for funding from a team budget.

4. What happens if I identify training outside the planning and feedback process?

Development can be identified at any time during the year although it is likely the majority will be identified and discussed during the planning and feedback meetings. Where development needs are identified at other times, the request is made on the form at Appendix 2 which can be found on inSite under Corporate Development, HR and Central Administration, Learning and Development, L&D Request Form. At the next planning and feedback meeting, this additional development is added to Section 3 of the form so that a complete record of L&D activity for the year is held.

This procedure is being streamlined as we develop and fully implement Fountain, the Learning and Development area of our e-HR system. We will provide further information when we complete our development work.

5. I am temporary, can I receive any development?

We recruit temporary people to cover a specific piece of work and recruitment to that temporary post is based on the person having the necessary skills to do the work. However we recognise that things can change quickly in Ufi and temporary people may be asked to become involved in wider activities. If this requires additional skills we support this by providing development, through learndirect, if it is anticipated the temporary person will be with us for at least a further 3 months. We are not able to fund external development or attendance at conferences for temporary people. This also applies to anyone working with Ufi on a consultancy or agency contract.

6. What do I do if I want to pursue some longer-term development?

Where possible, we support individual requests to pursue longer-term development leading to a qualification. The request is supported by a business case endorsed by the Director, see Appendix 3. The business case form can be found on inSite under Corporate Development, HR and Central Administration, Learning and Development, Business Case. The business case is then forwarded to the L&D Manager. Conditions of support are at Appendix 4.

7. How do I arrange a team building event and who funds this?

All costs for team building activity is met for the Director’s budget. Heads or team managers wishing to arrange a team building event should agree budget support with their Director.

L&D will assist in planning the event to best meet your objectives. We will also arrange a consultant to support you if necessary, supply a range of exercises to liven up your event and provide administrative support to help your event run smoothly.

8. What essential corporate development activity is planned for


For all New Starters:

* we hold induction events every 6-8 weeks, training on our Planning and Feedback process and our one day Culture Workshop.

For all Ufi managers of people or projects:

* we provide the pace Culture and Management module. The roll-out of this module will be complete in June for all current managers. We also provide a pace Getting Results module and the current roll-out continues until July. Subsequent places on both these modules are for new starters. We are currently developing a pace Negotiation Skills module. Initially this will be available to DLO and Commercial teams. A further pace Business Unit Reporting module is also being considered.

For everyone at Ufi:

* We will provide a range of development options to meet individual/team needs, arising from the ICT system upgrade

* We continue to promote equality and diversity and are considering what further development is necessary to promote a wider understanding across the company.

9. How do I find out about what goes on in other teams?

Our Company Wide Development Opportunity gives everyone the chance to spend up to 5 days with another team to find out more about their work. This is simple to arrange. Obtain the agreement of your own line manager. Obtain the agreement of the manager whose team you would like to spend time with. Agree the objectives and how to meet these, then complete the form at Appendix 5. Send a copy of this to both managers and one to HR and enjoy the opportunity.

10. If I need to talk to someone about development needs, who can I speak to?

The L&D team provide a full advisory service to help people identify how they can meet their development needs, we help teams think through and plan team activity and we arrange consultancy support where this is required.

We provide advice in putting together development plans for new people to help them carry out the full job role. This is recorded on the form at Appendix 6.

11. What Learning and Development was provided last year?

During 2001-02 we spent �418k excluding learndirect products on learning and development for individuals, teams and corporate activity. Appendix 7 provides information on some of the activities supported during 2002-02.

For information, advice or clarification contact:

* Lindsay Atkinson on x 5444 or Rose-Ann Innes x 5433

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