Tourism Principle and Practice
Tourism Principle and Practice
1.1 Defining Tourism
If we consider about tourism, we think mostly of people visiting a place for having a leisure time, learning about different cultures, visiting relatives or friends and participating in some business activities or keeping a further study. For further considering, Tourism is a multidimensional and multifaceted activity which touches many lives and different economic activities for recreational, leisure or business purposes. It is the sum of the phenomena and relationship arising from the interaction among individuals, businesses, organizations and places, in the process of attracting, transporting, hosting and managing these tourists and other visitors (Cooper, et al. 2008).
1.2 Defining tourism destination
Tourists prepare travels with different purposes and expectations which contribute to different destinations. A tourism destination, which involves tourism products such as attractions, tourist resources and support services, is a certain place in which a tourist spends at least one overnight (UNWTO. 2007).
1.3 Ever increasing number of tourists
More and more tourists have enormous consuming power to pursue higher level of living quality. Perhaps getting tired of visiting scenic spots at home, an increasing number of them choose travelling abroad to enjoy a different experience. According to the report of UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (2012), about 116 countries reported the results of international tourist arrivals for more than 6 months in 2012. It has been evaluated that the global destinations recorded 467 million international tourists in the first half of 2012, which is 22 million more (+5%) than 455 million during the same period in 2011.
International Tourist Arrivals, monthly evolution World(million)
Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) ©
1.4 What to do
The purpose of the report, as the introduction of tourism and destination, is to discuss the influence of tourists to the visiting destinations. In this report, according to the different types of tourism and destination, the impact on economy, culture and environment will be primarily talked about. 2. Introduction of types and stakeholder
2.1 Type of tourism
Destinations can be affected by various kinds of external factors such as the replacement of the trend and the changes of economical or political or environmental circumstances. Depending on the dissimilar resources in different circumstances such as Hawaii, which provide recreational and environmental tourism, destinations will attract different kinds of tourists. Tourism can be basically divided into seven types (UNWTO. 2007): Leisure: Tourists visiting a place to relax and entertain themselves. In this sector, tourism can also be separated into several types such as shopping tourism, sight-seeing tourism, heritage tourism, beach tourism and so on Business: People travel for participating an economic activity or event.
Educational/study: People, which have a major proportion of students, participate in a tour for the purpose of studying. Visiting friends or relatives (VFR): Most of the tourists not only visit their friends or relatives but also enjoy a vacation during that time. Sport: A lot of tourists visit a destination for observing a sporting event such as the Olympics to entertain themselves and some of them will join the game. Religion: The reason which makes tourists travel is religion and the places they travel are mainly about religion. Health: Travelling for health reasons like seeking a more advanced and professional treatment.
2.2 Type of destination
Destinations do not have very clear boundaries because of different kinds of resources, but there are three destinations are considered as the most basic types (Cooper, et al. 2008): Coastal destinations: This kind of destination is summarized as the places close to the sea, which attracts tourists with beautiful sunshine, island spas and sun bath for health preservation and protection. Urban destinations: Majority of cities which attract tourists with different characteristic culture and some can keep attracting people even lower its commercial value. Rural destinations: Regions consist of countryside, parks, mountains, rivers, wilderness areas and so on.
Stakeholders can be considered as those who may be deemed to have a stake in the company, for example, employees, communities, investors, government, customers, suppliers, competitors and so on (Argenti J., 1997). Now a deeper level of cooperation among the stakeholders is needed to satisfy the tourists’ requirement of a merged tourism, which represents that tourists can book flight tickets, accommodation and know a lot of information about the destination ahead of time.
3. The impact on different perspectives to destinations
3.1 Double-sided influence on the economy
Tourism, which keeps an increasing trend, is a complicated and large-scale industry at the global level. According to the receipts about international tourism in 2011, it was a total of $1.2 trillion or 30% of exports of services and almost 6% of world’s exports of goods and services (UNWTO, 2012). It brings a slightly increase in the sustaining unstable economy. However, making a concrete analysis of specific conditions, different regions visited by different kinds of tourists presents different impacts.
3.1.1 The benefit impact on economy of medical tourism
Medical tourism is deemed to have flourished rapidly. Most of the objection of this kind of tourists is to seek for the medical cure to improve one’s health or ‘the organized travel outside one’s local environment for the maintenance, enhancement or restoration of an individual’s wellbeing in mind and body’ (Carrera & Bridges, 2006). Thailand is one of the leading medical tourism destination around the world in which people has the advanced technology on dentistry, cardiac surgery, transplants and even gender reassignment. One of the famous private international hospital in Bangkok called Bumrungrad has more than one million patients which are contained of 400000 overseas patients by 2009 (Connell J., 2012).
Considering the differences between medical tourists and ordinary tourists, the former one spend a longer period of time staying in the destination with relatives accompanied, which will increase the expenditure of tourism especially on accommodation. Cosmetic surgery can also be deemed as a kind of medical tourism, which is so advanced and popular in Korea. It is also an important source of income to Korea economy. According to the table of Malaysian medical tourism revenue, it can be seen that medical tourism is increasing drastically in Malaysian. Malaysian medical tourism revenue
The ever increasing number of patients expands the import and export markets of pharmaceuticals, medical installations. The expending requirement of medical-lies contributes to the local economy. What’s more, the demand also results in the growth of some newborn medical enterprises which can promote the economic development. Longer time’s stay will also cause the raise of the taxation revenue which can be a significant part of government revenues such as hotel room taxes and visa fees (R.N. Ghosh, 2003).
3.1.2 The negative impact on economy of sport tourism
The Olympic Game is one of the world’s greatest events and is thought of an approach to improve the economy in host destinations. However, if the economic benefit from the sport tourism can not exceed the expenditure which the government invests to prepare for the event, the economy in host city is in a negative state. Moreover, it will be a financial deficit if the Olympic stadiums can not be well brought into service after the event finishes. For example, one year later after the Athens Olympic Games, the Olympic Park which cost 230 million euro there were just dust and paper left. Before the Athens Olympic Games, the government promised that all of the stadiums would be sold to private after the event to achieve the balance between income and outlay. However, the Olympic stadiums which cost 9 billion euro needed 100 million euro every year to be maintained rather than brought the prosperity of economy to Greece.
The government decided to rent these stadiums but really few investors were interested in because most of the stadiums had deficiencies in the process of construction which contributed to the less market value. For instance, the center of weightlifting was built in Nikaya, but the government didn’t build the highway to the stadium. What’s more, the government built a football field which can hold 22 thousand people in Voros and it was interesting that the total number of local people was 85 thousand who were not interested in football (Smith H., 2012). So a good policy of government is very important before holding an event to avoid the negative impact on economy.
3.1.3 The benefit of tourism on the economy of Wales
Wales is part of Britain and the United Kingdom, compared to the prosperity of England metropolis, it is much rural and full of natural beauty and geographical landscape, which attract a lot of tourists to visit. Wales is benefited a lot from tourism in various ways such as revenue and employment (Stephen F., 1987). In 1984, referred to the presentation of data, £300 million were cost by day visitors travelling in Wales. In 1895, British tourists travelling at least one overnight stay spent £500 million and overseas tourists expended £100 million. According to table below about the tourism receipts from 1981 to 1985, the GDP percentage of tourism receipts as well as per capita in Wales were higher than that in UK. Hence the tourism influence on economy was relatively more significant to Wales.
In terms of employment, more than 90000 full-time jobs related to tourism are supported, which occupied nearly 10% of the whole employment market.
Source: B. Archer and S. Shea, Manpower in Tourism: The Situation in Wales, WTB, Cardiff, 1977. It was indicated that one third of the total employment market were occupied by accommodation sector. Another advantage of tourism to Wales is that it contributes to the development of traditional industries such as farming, wine-making and handicraft. The farming in Wales is well grown by the reward of supplying facilities like catering and accommodation.
3.1.4 Tourism impacts in rural eastern North Carolina
Tourism is not a catholicon to solve the problem of tourism decline. It can result in impacts on both positive and negative sides. Inskeep (1991) warning that, ‘ill-conceived and poorly planned tourism development can erode the very qualities of the natural and human environment that attract visitors in the first place’. From the study of Erick T. et al. (2007), tourism stakeholders in Johnston and Martin Counties were required to finish a questionnaire of nine Likert-style items involving the attitudes and notions about the tourism development. Based on the results of the survey, though the consumption from tourists was indispensable to the local economy, most people thought the increased tourism also led to the traffic problems and the increase of local property taxes, which might increase the house price and reduce the requirements.
3.2 The socio-cultural impact of tourism
According to Spradley’s (1979) definition: culture is ‘the acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behavior’. Further thinking about the definition, culture can be delivered to residents through the behaviors, communications and dresses, or marketed to tourists through artifacts of markets, churches, crafts and local buildings (Robinson M. et al, 1996). Sometimes the impact of tourists will change the notions of residents in all directions or even inspirit the characters of an ethnicity.
But in some situations, the beliefs or religions of residents will be transformed during getting along with the tourists and in reverse the tourists will be influenced by residents during the travel. Another word about the effect of culture is culture shock which can be considered as a confusing and anxious situation when people travel to a country or in a circumstance with different cultures. The culture shock is more about cross-cultural social intercourse and sometimes brings people confidence and self-motivation.
3.2.1 The impact of the FIFA World Cup in South Africa
Sports event can not only improve the economy of host city but also influence the socio-culture of the destination. Socio-culture can include national self-respect, attitudes of residents of the host destination, ethnic harmony, educational background, religions belief and awareness of protecting the environment. The FIFA is the international governing body of association football and one of its commands is to organize a world cup of football (Garrod B. & Fyall A., 2011). In 2010, South Africa was granted to hold the FIFA World Cup which was the first time organized in Africa. Football was a very widely popular sport around the world and so was it in most black African people. Although racial divisions and tensions were happening to South Africa, the 2010 World Cup created opportunities for the merging of race because all the fans would congregate in the stadiums, fan clubs, bars and square to support their favorite team.
The slogan of the event was ‘Ke Nako (meaning ‘it’s Africa’s time’)-Celebrate Africa’s humanity’ which presented that the aim of the event was to fight “Afro-pessimism” (Domingues, 2011). The unique style and dress like ‘vuvuzela’ and ‘makarapa’ attracted the visitors and in another aspect, the residents were affected by the passion of international tourists and became a “lively people ready to welcome the world” (Garrod B. & Fyall A., 2011). 3.2.2 The impact of Business Tourism on the culture of India We increasingly work in a global environment where people are internationally changeable or working locally but in global teams (Adler & Gundersen, 2008; Conlin, 1999). So people are directly influenced by different religious beliefs and norms of others and have to develop awareness to adjust to the work environment.
This is what business tourism brings to the destination culture. India developed its religions through the foreign traders from Mongols, Greeks, Persians, Arabs and the Europeans who came with their faiths. Consequently, multifarious religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity occurred in India. According to the Asha Rao’s figure adapted from Schein’s (1985) model of organizational culture, culture is a pit with many layers. The bottom of the pit is about the core values, beliefs and cultural assumptions, which are relatively stable. And the middle section, the contents of which are built on core beliefs, is also hard to assess because it’s below the surface. Finally, the top of the pit, which is at the surface, points out the layers below and is variable. Operators are aware of the cultural manifestations and try hard to manage or adapt to the cultural diversity (Rao A. 2012).
Something like symbols, festivals and artifacts are affected by the manifestations of surface. For example, women need to wear loose-fitting clothing to work to show the virtue of modesty in Islamic and Hindu cultures and in Muslim women often wear the veil which represents the purity, chastity and integrity. This kind of cultures is really inharmonic to the traditional American norms though through a long time’s assimilation, the cultures in wearing differences are gradually accepted by Indian. Another problem is that the operators are hard to decide the workweek because the most common workweek in many countries and admitted by Christian is five days.
But in Islam the weekend starts on Thursday and in most Hindu the workweek is five days and a half. What’s more, unlike the Christian solar calendar, religious days are determined by the lunar calendar in Hindu and Islam. This becomes a difficult problem for the companies. So the business tourism sometime promotes the cross-cultural communication, but in some respects it contributes to the clash between the tourists and the residents.
3.2.3 The impact of tourism to cultural heritages
Tourism can help to preserve the cultural heritages of destinations such as religious buildings, historical gardens and archaeological monuments. A lot of Cultural relics are avoided being destroyed to attract the visitors and tourists encourage the destinations to protect the civilization and their cultural heritage. The Forbidden City in China is so famous that it attracts visitors all over the world. To present the greatest degree of cultural essence, the Forbidden City requires constant maintenance. Since 2002, the government planned an overhaul of the Forbidden City, lasting to the 2008 Beijing Olympics and then there is a long-term plan from 2009 to 2020. Before 2008, the workers tried their best to repair the architecture, even including the supporting facilities such as communication equipments, circuits and pipelines (Leask A & Fyall A, 2006).
The aim of the overhaul was to attract the visitors during the Olympics. From another aspect, more and more tourists contribute to the burden of the cultural heritages. The Suzhou Gardens are world-renowned and attract a lot of tourists around the world. However, the carrying capacity of the gardens can not afford the amount of tourists which accelerate the destruction speed of the scenery and environment. Consequently, neither of the sides is satisfied because the tourists didn’t appreciate the beautiful scenery and the gardens lost the beauty in the past.
3.2.4 The culture shock to international students
In some circumstances, there’s a word used to describe the impact of culture called culture shock. It is the disorientation when people move to a new country with different social environments or experience an unfamiliar lifestyle. The culture shock is consisted of four stages (Furnham A. 1984): Honeymoon phase, Negotiation phase, Adjustment phase and Mastery phase. When people move to a new place, they will be very curious about the local food, lifestyle, habit and scenery. Especially the first few weeks, people are easily attracted by the new culture, the same as the honeymoon periods. After several months, which are determined by individuals, the excitement will be instead of anxiety, anger or some other uncomfortable feelings. Until a long time of six or twelve months, people are gradually accustomed to the new culture or new environment and every thing becomes normal.
In addition, the progress of language skills and the reinforcement of interpersonal relationship also help people to blend into the new country. In the last stage, people are able to integrate into the new environment comfortably but still retain the primary culture such as original languages and accents. The striking example is the group of international students. The international students bring a lot of benefits to the host countries and receive higher knowledge. They will be very excited about the new people and new environment but they may meet an amount of challenges involving the acculturative stressors such as language barriers, learning difficulties, aloneness, discrimination, and comfortlessness coming from the changing environment after a certain period.
For example, a study of exploring the relation between the level of participating in extracurricular activities of Japanese students studying in America and the student’s involvement in study, support from friends and the use of leisure time indicated that students who were more engaged in extracurricular activities reached higher level of satisfaction with life than those who were not engaged in and the students engaging in more activities were also more involved in study. More knowledge and culture can be learned if the students are more willing to contact with others or spend more time communicate with others. 3.3 Destination lifecycle and environmental impact of tourism When talking about the tourism impact to the destinations, the destination environment should be prior considered.
The tourism destination will experience a process from development, prosperity to decline which determined by the resources in destinations. More and more tourists may run out of the sources and destroy the scenery of destinations. What’s more, a destination may be destroyed if the amount of tourists exceeds the carrying capacity of the destination. However, not all of the impacts are detrimental to the destination environment. Sometimes tourists may push the government to improve the environment.
3.3.1 The destination lifecycle
A product life cycle (PLC) can be deemed as a evolution process passing through ‘introduction’ to ‘maturity’ and then ‘decline’ (Shaw G. and Williams A. 1997). With the in-depth development of the tourism destination, the number of tourists develops from a slow increase in the beginning to increase substantially subsequently and then to a stage of increasing slowly or even stagnate, finally, some destinations will extinct.
3.3.2 The negative impact of tourism on the environment in China The environmental impact of tourism can be roughly divided into two classifications. First considering the negative side, the impacts impinge on the lifestyle of residents including the pollution, crowding, noise, depletion of wildlife and change in ecological environment. In China, water environment is deemed as an important problem in a tourism destination because the water setting is in a great extent influenced by tourism activities. Wastes left by tourists on the surface of water and the sewage discharged from restaurants and hotels can seriously pollute the water in tourism areas (Li, et al, 2000). For instance, the discharge of sewage from Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve has polluted the watershed of the Erdaobai River, in which the organic pollution has increased by 10%-30% over a decade period (Yu, et al, 1999). Another element which is negatively impacted is the atmospheric environment.
The air quality has been decreased by the increasing use of vehicles and industrial facilities which increase the exhaust of smoke, nitrogen oxides and some other harmful gases. The research of Jiang (1996) showed that because of the use of coal-powered automobiles, the average SO2 concentrations every day exceeded the national standard in Jinding Emei Mountain region of Sichuan Province. What’s more, the flora and fauna are important parts of tourism destinations. However, the increasing amount of tourists do really negative impacts such as the reduction of species diversity, extinction of species and the destruction of biological chain. For example, tourists’ trampling, picking, grazing horses and invading of alien species contributed to the disappearance of a mass of plants in the Bitahai Wetland Scenic Area. The examples above indicate the adverse impact due to tourists’ behaviors contributed to the loss of resources in tourism destinations and drove the destinations into the stage of decline (Zhong, et al, 2011).
Besides the damage to the destination resources, the optimal carrying capacity of tourism areas is also considered by researchers to maximize the experience of tourists with the lowest impacts to the environment. The carrying capacity is a maximum number of tourists in a tourism destination including the quality of environment and the tourist satisfaction. In general, both the quality of tourist experience and the environmental quality will be brought down if the amount of tourists exceeds the carrying capacity of tourism areas. For example, in Huangshan Mountain of Anhui Province, the overcrowded tourists during the peak season led to the discontent of tourists, seriously pollution to the environment and the destruction of ecology (Lu, 1994).
3.3.3 The positive impact of tourism on environment in London Though tourists bring a lot of disadvantages to the destinations, there are still some positive impacts that make the residents’ life better such as more useful and modern facilities, public health benefits, better awareness of protecting and reserving the historical heritages and improvement of living environment. For example, some dilapidated areas became full of vitality after the construction of Olympic stadiums and attracted large amount of tourists. Moreover, after the Olympic Games the Aquatics Centre would render services to the local communities, clubs and schools and athletes could also use the stadium for training. In addition, some stadiums would be tore down after the Olympic Games and the left materials would be put into use again in other regions in UK which achieved the objective of the Green Olympics.
4. The tourism planning and sustainable tourism
4.1 The tourism planning
Facing to so many impacts to the tourism destinations, no matter positive or negative impacts, the tourism planning is used to maximize the quality of tourist experience and resident lifestyle and minimize the damage to the local environment. To implement the plans effectively, the tourism planning models are necessary. For example, Theoretical Models consisted of descriptive models, explanatory models and predictive models are purposing to explain some respect of the functioning of the tourism system. Another model is the Classification of tourism models
Process Models including subjective types, most traditional models and the integrative model. However, the models need to be improved and a new model should be developed to merge the development planning and more basic tourism researches.
4.2 Sustainable tourism
The success of tourism depends on the quality of the natural and social environment. Consequently, maintaining the cultural, natural and historical attractiveness means keeping a long-term viability of tourism. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that such kind of develop brings the positive impact to residents, tourists, destinations and tourism companies. And the sustainable tourism is generally supported by residents because such development can satisfy the tourists, give opportunities to increase economic growth, protect local environment and improve the life quality of residents (Lee T. 2013). Sustainable tourism can reduce a lot of impacts to the destinations in many ways: making aware of the culture, economy and politics of the destination areas; contributing to intercultural communication and study; supporting the local economy by purchase and commercial exchange; saving resources by using the non-renewable resources as little as possible.
Moreover, a responsible tourism is endorsed by the tourism operations, tourists and destinations. The responsible tourism has the same objective as the sustainable tourism and therefore the pillars are the same as sustainable tourism which include environmental integrity, social justice and economic development. And the main difference between the two tourisms is that individuals, businesses and organizations are required to take responsible for their own behaviors which mean they are all responsible for the goal of the responsible tourism (Frey N. & George R., 2010).
This report described the relationship between the tourism and destinations. Mainly talking about the impacts of tourism to the destinations and figuring out if the increasing number of tourists will always ruin the destinations for everyone. It’s really a complicated argument because the tourists can be divided into several types such as leisure tourists, medical tourists, business tourists, cultural tourists and so on and there are also several kinds of destinations. Different type of tourists will contribute to dissimilar impacts in different destinations. Though there are many aspects of impacts to the destinations, they are mainly divided into three fields: economy, culture and environment. From the respect of economy, according to the positive side and negative side, two examples are given respectively.
Tourism can bring the growth in economy, expand the import and export markets and improve the life quality of residents, but in another side, it also cause the increase of some taxes and the extra payment for some facilities to the residents. The impact of culture is of both parties. The tourists bring the passion to the residents, changing the characters of residents. But different cultural norms bring the cultural conflict and the cultural heritages can not afford the increasing number of tourists. From another perspective, tourists are also affected by the different culture and environment. The tourism destinations are generally polluted by more and more tourists but the awareness of protecting the environment is also promoted to the residents. Apparently, a simple word ‘ruin’ can not explain the impacts of tourism. The positive and negative sides should both be considered.
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University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 4 October 2016
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