What instigated the main changes in the development of tourism from the 1950s until the twenty-first century? “See the world. It’s more fantastic than any dream made or paid for in factories. Ask for no guarantees, ask for no security.” (1953) Tourism, which is the major economic and social significant essential that has been recognized in both developed and developing countries, especially the western people, they are willing to spend time away from home to pursuit relaxation, happiness while making use of the goods and services from the economic, which leads tourism becomes commercialized.
Tourism begins in Western Europe during the 17th century, it contains four key characteristics, intangibility, heterogeneity, inseparability and perishability. As such, there is a rise of purpose visiting, like, “medical tourism,” “business tourism,” and “adventures tourism”, more and more people may exploit places for the tourist attraction. By the early 21st century, global tourism had become the third most essential economic activities and its impact was increasing rapidly and apparently.
In this paper, it aims to identify and describes what instigate the changes and the development of the tourism industry within the 1950s until the twenty-first century. In the early 1950s, the aeroplane was the perfect option for people who want to enjoy faster and more comfortable transport. By comparing with other forms of transportation, aircraft is relatively high prices. At that time, World War II emerged which had seen many new airports built in Europe to serve the military. Within the time of post-war the holiday boom, approximately one million Britons travel abroad.
According to the “Amendments to the Convention on International Civil Aviation” which allows the mass tourism using charter planes. At the beginning of the successful commercial, Boeing 707 was introduced in 1958, the changes in destination trends for mass-market holidays had arrived, reducing the demand for sea travel significantly.
Because of the great development of aviation, it progressed to the package tour. Cheap packages by air were managed by the tour operators and possible by chartering entire aircraft, bulk purchase of hotel rooms turning down the costs and allowing reasonable prices. As more and more visitor may go to different countries, it was the time for those destinations to develop additional accommodation even bespoke package for the growing market. By the 1960s, because of the temperate issue, most of the people who are from the cool and variable climates of North America and northern Europe moved to the sunshine and warmth area. As we could see, the future of the mass market was from the north to south movement, it can reflect those western are relatively wealthy. In order to grab the opportunities of making a profit, those tourism entrepreneurs and the hotel supply chains were rapidly offering the most attractive climates for tourism development. Take Sheraton and Hyatt as an example, both the hotels in the USA quickly expanded into Mexico and the Caribbean, as well as into Florida and Hawaii. Hawaii, which proved that it was a popular and attractive place set as a gorgeous destination particularly, from the statistic it was shown that from 100000 visitors in 1955 increased to 6.5 million by 1990 over the 35 years.
Meanwhile, those operators tried to boost and expand the long term tourism by some resorts and beaches which had become the universal destination for Europeans as the overseas travel.In the 1970s, business tourism dramatically expanded. According to the lifecycle, Japan and the oil-rich nations of the Middle East where the exploration and involvement, while in the 1980s, South Korea and Malaysia broaden suddenly, it led to the export and import travel. Owing to the expansion of the EU, more and more eastern European nations led to the growth in the world. The capital and revenue were mostly coming from business travellers exceed those leisure travellers. Meetings, incentives, conferencing and exhibitions (MICE)stimulate business travel, these kinds of formal meeting had become very important to the tourism industry, both nationally and internationally. For example, in the UK the conferencing and meetings market had been valued around £20 billion (BVEP, 2010). In terms of the revenue and economic benefits, the UK had been wider the destination.
The conferences market and corporate meetings which often last 2–4 days, those businessmen supposed to stay in the hotel, the airport generated extra revenue for the country.Lastly, the development of information technology which leads to great growth in the world. To sort out the availability of seating, tracking the price and booking hotels, airlines, it developed Computer Reservation Systems (CRS). For example, an airline, which flies many destinations and all those routes it serves. The cost of operating and running the system in all countries may cause a high fixed cost. However, it can increase the efficiency and enable to maintain the inventory control, the travel agencies, for instance, Expedia can access online and connect to CRS. The system can handle a large amount of database and became the key business tool for many tourism companies. In the 1990s, those travel agencies saw the rapid growth of the internet, they allowed the business to customer (B2C) systems to be developed. It refers to those travel suppliers developed their own internet data to sell products and services directly between consumers, it led to the fast growth and the convenient of the tourism industry.
To sum up, it may see that how the post-war period has changed the destination a lot. With the emerged of aircraft, the attraction of temperature links to the movement towards seaside resorts, how the business travel develops with Europe and the future field, but also the information technology. These kinds of changes are instigating the main changes within the 1950s until the twenty-first century, all consolidation increase day by day and strengthens the competitive marketplace and advantages. Not only the mass market becomes mature but also the grand changes in the tourism industry.
J. Christopher Holloway, Claire Humphreys, The Business of Tourism 10th edn, available from https://www-dawsonera-com.proxy.library.lincoln.ac.uk/readonline/9781292063263 [accessed on 30 May 2019]Md Anisur Rahman, (Oct 2012), Information Technology in Tourism Industry – What More Needed?. International Journal of Engineering Sciences Paradigms and Researches, Vol. 01, Issue 01 114. Available from https://www.academia.edu/6576030/Information_Technology_in_Tourism_Industry_What_More_Needed?auto=download [accessed on 30 May 2019]Ray Bradbury(1953) Fahrenheit 451, Tourism Quotes, Goodreads, available from https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/241363-see-the-world-it-s-more-fantastic-than-any-dream-made [accessed on 30 May 2019]
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