Tourism Impacts and Sustainability
Tourism Impacts and Sustainability
Tourism considered as global phenomenon which is carried out by persons itself. This naturally results in meeting of different culture, economy, progress, status, etc. round the globe. Human being considered as social animal cause’s significant social culture impact by tourism. According to Teo (1994) impacts are defined as “change in value system, moral, conduct, individual behaviour, relationship, lifestyle, expression, tradition”. Social culture impact of tourism discussed below is categorised broadly as positive and negative impact of tourism, factors responsible and impact management utilising various supportive journals articles. Interaction between host and tourist at particular destination leads to social culture impacts. This could have immediate social impact like change in quality of life, adjustment to tourist industry and long term culture impact like change in standards, social relationship defined as “conducting elements of behaviour and product of that behaviour” (Weidenfeld, 2012).
Broadly literatures revels positive impacts like urban relocation by creating jobs, infrastructure, security, foster pride in culture, etc. certain negative impacts like increase in crime, environmental detonation, increase traffic, alcoholism, drugs, prostitution etc. However, the impacts are considered ambiguous broadly varies country to country and hosts perceptions. Various pre studied articles are taken into consideration to have detailed inside story on various location with different aims and method. Social culture impacts of tourism causes different phenomenon like different adjustments by host community for adaptation, different level of impact on developed and third country nations, influence due to religious views, conflicts, perception during giant global game events are discussed in detailed.
Sociocultural impact leads to change in traditional values and believes on tourist destination. Dogan (1989) studied adjustment done by host community due to tourism. Study is focused on third world countries where tourism effects persons habit, belief, value, daily routine which puts mental pressure and leads to changes in form of adjustment. Four major segments where study concentrates are sociocultural consequences, strategies adopted to get adjusted , factors affecting the adjustment strategies and factors associated with strategies which develop homogenous society into heterogeneous. Above mentioned sociocultural consequences remain similar in study, furthermore adding loss of tradition, authenticity, materialism, commercialisation to it. Dependency on third world country on capitalist country was discussed due to tourism. It has been also referred another form of colonisation where wealth goes back to capitalist country as major tourism endeavours owned by western developed nations.
Different adjustments by host community discussed as follows: Resistance- negative feeling towards tourist resulting conflicts, aggression and enmities as a result of saturation in tourism development. Retreatism- changes not approved by substantial portion of host population and they started avoiding contact with tourist, start preaching tradition strongly. Boundary maintenance- Due to economic growth because of tourism, resistance is not considered healthy for local growth specific boundary is created between host culture and tourist environment. Revitalization- Tourist becomes reason for saving traditional culture. Festivals, tradition, local goods attract tourists. Adaptation- Host community accept foreign tradition and gets moulded into their culture accepting it entirely. Minor Difference between host and tourist helps tourism development in pace. Factors leading to various adaptations were studied. Heterogeneity of local population, religious views, culture, and age difference within the host population leads to variety of strategies.
Host community directly in contact with tourist industry seems to take positive approach in comparison to who are less benefited directly. Government policies those benefit tourist destination and isolating public growth leads to negative feeling. Policies help to save traditional values and equal profit for every class of society help to generate positive feeling and result in variable adaptation. Five adaptations mentioned above were analysed according to Butler’s frame work. Generally it is consider all exists simultaneously. Dominate adaptation depends on above mentioned factors and changes face of tourism accordingly. However, many developed tourist destination suffers sociocultural impact, still community seems welcoming every tourist expansion policies. To study reasons behind this example of Singapore and Florida are considered. According to Teo (1994), Singapore had developed with a great pace in past. Tourism plays vital role in its growth. It could be considered to good example to study sociocultural impact on it due to rapid expansion of tourist industry.
In spite huge economic benefit of Singapore because of tourism author observes various positive and negative sociocultural impacts. Article utilizes Doxey’s irridex and Butler’s model for examination. Emerging of Singapore as modern tourist destination rather than third world country destination may suggest the acceptance of host community towards it, resulting in world class transportation facilities, infrastructure and shopping hub. Various socio-cultural impacts are studied and local adaptation to them helped Singapore to still continuing welcoming tourist. Demonstration effect is observed within locals who suggest following tourist trends just by observing them. Branded goods shopping from location developed for tourist whose annual income is far more than locals. Migration of low skilled foreign workers needed to fulfil market demand of serving huge arriving tourists which brings anti-social behaviour to society.
Higher positioned handled by trained foreign workers allowing less economic benefits to locals. However, government offers training to locals to be capable of holding higher posts. Traditional timber infrastructure replaced by urban development authorities to solve housing problem. In parallel conservation programmes are also promoted. Religious values and traditions are conserved using parades and songs. In spite of social cultural effect hosts found to welcome tourist, however using Doxey’s irridex model survey on locals found irritation level has gone up from minimum i.e. euphoria level to apathy. This is result due to increase in noise, higher prices. This result also depends on host- tourist relationship. Author identified various tourist types like explorers, elite tourist, offbeat tourist, mass tourist and their differ behaviour affecting relationship. Factors responsible for relationship are considered like length of stay, host: guest ratio, concentration of tourist facilities in particular areas.
Butler’s model applies suggest all factors play role in Singapore tourism. Rapid huge investment may leads to tourism saturation level sooner or later but its real effect depends on tourist- host behaviour. Further government policies will prove how Singapore handle vast sector of tourism causing less harm to sociocultural impact. Furthermore, Milman and Pizam (1988) studies discovered that it possess positive attitude of host community in spite of urban negative impacts like drug use and increase in crime rate attitude and perception found to favour tourism and its expansion as it has highly contributed to their personal growth and involvement.
Florida is found to be great destination for domestic and international tourist due amusement it provides. Study was a part of international research observing socio-cultural impact widely known as Vienna centre. Study was done in questionnaire pattern and outcome is modelled using probability method to conclude. Educated residents were considered to take part takers in study and found put to accept tourism widely and strongly who support its further growth as well. Dominated positive factors were, increase Florida’s image, employment opportunity, income, increased standard of living, towns tax revenue. Few minor negative impacts were highlighted like increased traffic, crime and alcoholism. Majority of hosts welcomes the opportunity to be a part of tourism industry. Relationships seem to be established with tourists.
A similar study in Fiji presented by King, Milman and Pizam (1993) is evaluated due to its multinational population which may help to understand the perception due to variation in population. Fiji welcomes huge proportion of tourist every year which significantly contribute to their economic progress. Study suggested residents welcome tourism in spite of having knowledge on negative impacts of tourism as economic development dominates on the impact. Similar to Florida’s study the study was performed using questionnaire.
Study was performed on mostly learned individuals having Indian and Fijian nationality to considered culture value effect on conclusion. Study was performed on residents of Nadi, benefited area due to tourism; this may bias the result on positive side. Residents strongly favour tourism and mostly they are personally involved into the business. Improvement in county image is also believed in hosts. In spite of all similar positive notes from Florida’s study drug addiction, openness to sex, organised crime are few negative impacts been observed.
Recent work (Zamani-Farahani and Musa, 2008) have recorded the perception, attitude and involvement in tourism planning of residents. Town has old heritage sites, traditional, culture which attracts tourist. Study deals with findings regarding demographic composition, resident’s perception and attitude and future management strategies. Iran is developed as tourism destination where tourist generally visits from neighbouring Islamic countries or domestic tourists. However, it’s been less known to outside world. It’s in a phase where government have started to build policies to encourage expansion of tourism industry including in Masooleh.
Planning includes developing of tourism and other economic sector like handicraft, agriculture and livestock. Study of policies applied by local government in tourism expansion and participation of local residents are considered. Research includes a set of questionnaire performed mainly on males (dominated society), young, married residents of Masooleh. Outcome suggests they strongly favour tourism and its further expansion and tourism help them to develop economically. They disagree with performance of local authorities and their involvement in decision making process. Study provides suggestion that more open communication between local authorities and residents may promote and marketing town more positively. Involvement of residents may avoid the situation of conflict.
Zamani-Farahani and Musa (2012) have presented the further extension of above study to find influence of religious Islamic believe on residents perception towards tourism in Masooleh and Sare’in. Islamic believes which are bound to strict rules of clothing, non-alcoholism, sex etc. can evoke the negative perception towards tourism. Perception of Islam in connection to terrorism already lowered the tourism in Islamic countries. Study basically concentrates on level of Islamic religiosity and its relation to perception of sociocultural impact. Iran being the typical example of Islamic country with historic importance and possessing various cultural heritage sites is considered good place to understand the effect. Similar questionnaire pattern were utilize for study and results were tabulated using statistic theory.
Demographic outcome again suggested society is dominated by males and they are responsible for making decision. Two dimension religiosity effects were considered Islamic belief and practice. Residents found out to be strong believer of Islam and moderate practiser. Social cultural impact seems to be positive as mostly tourists are domestic and western tourist normally visits in organised tours where they are minimal in contact with locals. Author doesn’t consider this as typical study considering entire Islamic population as other Islamic countries has different culture, tourist base and tradition, history. Need for such research in those areas is evaluated for further detailed of Islamic perception on tourism sociocultural impact.
Above study confirms in spite of much negative impact society tends to welcome tourism but there is not similar situation always. Various government policies make the differences wider and set out conflict amongst the hosts and development of tourism. Al Haija (2011) shows similar picture in Jordan. Lack of planning, benefit of local community due to expansion of tourism industry leaves negative feeling amongst the residents. Jordan has been considered great tourist attraction as it is historical destination, worlds wonder and climate. Tourism plays wide role in its economy and contributes widely in private sector employers.
Recent tourist development concentrating only on tourist needs and leaving local demands on side leads to conflict status. Government focuses to attract tourist leaving underdeveloped other domestic sectors. Inappropriate planning system of government leads to deep economical differences in tourist destination and remaining places. Conservation policies of tourist destination have led to negative feeling among citizen’s leads to conflict situation. Author suggests a educated approach is the solution to such situation. Awareness of conservation and developing feeling of pride may settle down negative feeling. Other approaches of conservation which helps local economy on parallel needs to be adopted.
According to Jumura (2011), designation of world heritage sites (WHS) considered having huge socio-cultural impact as very old tradition and culture are highlighted in the eye of world. Rapid tourist intervention on such site may leads to unplanned changes for which community is not prepared. Such study on WHS Ogimachi is considered to study the effect. Broad three factors found to be responsible for changes are rapid tourism development, higher appeal among domestic tourist, local’s attitude towards conservation of site. WHS designation has causes shift of local traditional agriculture, construction and forest industry to tourist industry.
This enhances pride among locals and which leads to split between relations among neighbouring areas residents. This comes with the price of tourist interaction in their personal life. Questionnaire and interview approach of study leads to some conclusions. Fast and rapid growth of tourist industry benefited society quickly. Tourism considered as less fragile competitive to previous traditional industries. No season effect is found on tourism as snowy winter also conducts festivals. After WHS designation destination receives prestigious status favoured by Japanese culture improve the number of tourist visiting. People’s awareness for conservation needs to be increase to protect the influence of huge tourism. Detailed tourism management plan needs to undertake for its sustainable growth in future.
Community based natural resource management (CBNRM) is designed as conservational and rural development programme. This study of Mbaiwa (2011) analyses changes in livelihood activities and lifestyle due to CBNRM on the residents of Okavango delta, Botswana. New employment opportunities were provided which leads to decline of traditional industries like livestock farming, hunting and crop gathering. However, employment in their own projects, craft article sales to tourist increased tremendously. Income flow due to above activities increases leads to consumption of modern goods and decline in traditional stuff is observed. Tourism has significantly developed Botswana’s infrastructure. Study was performed in interview style which provides detailed influence of introduction of conservative programme.
Changes conclude tourism brings modernisation, traditional employments shifted towards lodges, maintain camp sites, safari hunting bringing modern way of life with western values. Shifting form leaving in huts to modern built-up houses to eating modern foods suggests the change toward the development. Government policies like creating barrier between community and wild life conservation; helps positively towards the development. However, concern been raised about its sustainability as CBNRM exists due to international tourism which are porn to be affected due to economical down turn, terrorism, natural calamities. Reliability on single factor may endanger the livelihood in future. Importance to encourage domestic tourism is suggested to avoid decline in tourism revenue and employment opportunities.
Study done to verify socio-cultural values suggest that they affect little by little to create great change (UNESCO, 1976). With economic expansion it threatens civilisation. It emphasises on sociocultural aspects lie employment, social benefits which comes with negative impacts along with it. Interaction between host and tourist brings certain changes. This includes problem with space, inequality in relations, developing mutual understanding, changing foreign views. Cultural aspects were learned like cultural reawakening, demonstration effect and acculturation, marketing of culture. Tourism and environment, monuments were effected and its study is reviewed.
Ap (1992) article reviews four earlier findings on the perception regarding socio culture impact of tourism. Previous findings shares many similar points covered in common however variation is found depend on personal study. All four reports are found to be dicers red in terms of method and elements they carry makes difficult to reach certain concrete conclusion. (review)
A current general issue tourism causing socio-cultural impact due to global sports events are considered by Prayag, Hosany, Nunkoo and Alders (2013). Sports tourism becoming global phenomenon affects locals extensively. Study analyse resident support for global sports events to welcome tourist and their attitude: London 2012 Olympic taken into account. Residents’ attitude and support are studied using social exchange theory and theory of reasoned action to construct the model. Relation between sociocultural, environmental, economic impacts influencing overall attitude is studied. Giant global sports events like football world cup, Olympic Games attracts tourist round the globe in major quantity for specific time period. This study is apart from traditional study on perception not designed for giant events which involves higher economic involvement and benefits and higher media coverage.
This study involves triple bottom line approach to join attitude and support Set- residents participate in exchange if they are benefited in elements economy, environment, s/c. – explains relationship between overall attitude and support. Positive and negative hypothesis of three elements are considered to evaluate overall support which further could be related to support. Positive impacts show opportunity to meet new people, nations pride, promotion of city as tourist destination, understanding different culture. However, few negative impacts includes Traffic, unavailability of services during event to residents, crime, prostitution are common. Environmental effect- recycling policies, pollution control, conservation of natural resource and historical sculpture improves and causes noise pollution, physical and natural environmental changes. However set propose negligible effect of environmental issue in changing attitude.
Economy effect- infrastructure, pace growth, fast track growth of city is primary outcome of giant events which comes with price inflation, increased tax, mismanagement of public fund. Study also suggested huge amount of investment not always beneficiate equally. To investigate the effect the questionnaire study was performed among every group of people mostly from learned background. Partial least square modelling was used to analyse the data. Result found relationship between the economic and sociocultural factors with attitude however the environmental factor seems to be exception. Hypothesis of relation between positive attitude and support was found out to be positive.
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designation on local communities- A case study of Ogimachi, Shirakawa-mura, Japan’’, Journal of Tourism Management, Vol.32, pp.288-296. King, B. Milman, A. And Pizam, A. (1993), ‘‘Social impacts of Tourism. Host perceptions.’’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.20, pp.650-665 Mbaiwa, J.E. (2011), ‘‘Changes on traditional livelihood activities and lifestyle caused by tourism development in the Okavango Delta, Botswana’’, Journal of Tourism Management, Vol.32, pp.1050-1060. Milman, A. And Pizam, A. (1988), ‘‘Social impacts of tourism on central Florida’’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.15, pp.191-204 Prayag, G., Hosany, S., Nunkoo, R. and Alders, T. (2013), ‘‘London residents’ support for the 2012 Olympic Games: The mediating effect of overall attitude’’, Journal of Tourism Management, Vol.36, pp.629-640. Teo, P.(1994), ‘‘Assessing socio-cultural impacts: the case of Singapore’’, Journal of Tourism Management, Vol.15, No. 2, pp.126-136. UNESCO (1976), ‘‘The effects of Tourism on Socio-Cultural values’’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.4, No.2, pp.74-105. Zamani-Farahani, H, and Musa, G. (2008), ‘‘The residents’ attitudes and perception towards tourism development: a case study of Masooleh, Iran’’, Journal of Tourism Management, Vol.29, pp.1233-1236. Zamani-Farahani, H. And Musa, G. (2011), ‘‘The relationship between Islamic religiosity and residents’ perception of socio-cultural impacts of tourism in Iran: Case studies of Sare’in and Masooleh’’, Journal of Tourism Management, Vol.33, pp.802-814.
Weidenfeld, A. (2012), ‘‘Social and Cultural Impact of Tourism’’, TOU2002 Tourism Impact and Sustainability, Middlesex University, London.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 22 September 2016
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