Essays on Titration

Titration with HCl and NaOH
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Pages • 3
Aim: Determine the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide solution using a standardised solution of hydrochloric acid. Health and safety: HCl/NaOH -corrosive-avoid spills, mop-up (gloves) -safety glasses -laboratory coat Pippete fillers- take care when using in case they snap when putting on the pipette Indicator -stains/poisonous Method Step 1. Wash out: i.) the pipette, with a little of the sodium hydroxide solution ii.) the burette, with a little of the hydrochloric acid solution iii.) the conical flask, with a…...
Thermometric Titration Investigation
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Pages • 8
We have to plan an experiment which measures the temperature change accompanying neutralisation so that it can be investigated. Neutralisation is when an acid and an alkali mixed together neutralise the other. The hydrogen and the hydroxide ions bond to form water and the rest bonds to form a salt. For example in the case of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, the salt is sodium chloride. Neutralisation is an exothermic reaction, like all reactions where bonds are formed. I plan…...
Redox Titration: Permanganate against Oxalate (Ethanedioate)
Words • 386
Pages • 2
The mixture of oxalic acid and oxalate should be diluted ten times. Using pipette filler pipette 25cm3 of given solution and dilute it to 250cm3 in a volumetric flask. The resulting solution can be used for subsequent titration. (B) Acid-base titration Titrate a 25cm3 portion of the diluted mixture against the given standard Sodium Hydroxide (0.05M). Add 3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. At the end point, the solution will change from colorless to pink. Repeat the titration for 3 more…...
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To determine the molarity of a given sample of Sulphuric acid by using titration
Words • 1252
Pages • 6
A volumetric analysis is a method used to find out the amount of solute in a solution. It involves preparation of a primary standard, which is a solution of known molarity, and titration. When choosing a good primary standard, the requirements are that it should be cheap, stable in atmosphere and should not be hygroscopic to prevent the loss of solution. Also, it should have a high purity and high molar mass to prevent serious weighing error. In this experiment,…...
Determination of the relative atomic mass of magnesium by back titration
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In this following experiment, we are aiming to determine the relative atomic mass of magnesium, using a process known as 'back titration'. The basic outlines of this experiment include a strip of magnesium being allowed to reach with excess hydrochloric acid. The excess acid is then determined by titration with a standard alkali (Sodium Hydroxide) and hence the moles of acid that reacted with the magnesium is found by difference. This can be used to determine the number of mole…...
Chemistry practical 
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Hydrated Iron(II) Sulphate crystals contains water of crystallization. Water of crystallization is the fixed amount of water that an hydrated salt contains. The formula of an hydrated salt is generally written as M.xH2O, where the M is an hydrous salt formula, and x is the number of moles of water per mole of hydrated salt. In this experimental investigation, we are going to determine the formula of hydrated Iron(II) Sulphate, which is given to us in the instruction as FeSO4.xH2O.…...
Analysis of the Nitrogen Content of Lawn Fertiliser
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Research Question: What is the percentage by mass of nitrogen (from the ammonium ion NH4+) in Bunnings Green Up brand of lawn fertilizer compared to the manufacturer's specification of 12.3%? Aim: To determine the percentage by mass of available nitrogen, present as the ammonium ion, in Bunnings Green Up brand of lawn fertiliser, then comparing it with the one specified by the manufacturer. Hypothesis: Since the ammonium ion (NH4+) present in fertilisers is a weak acid, it is hard to…...
Estimating the % purity of marble by back titration method
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The worths for the % purity of marble that I have actually calculated depend on a close variety, nevertheless there is a significant distinction, of 4.74% in the purity estimated in between the 2 specific values. Nevertheless, the deviation is covered by the uncertainty of ï ¿ 1/2 4.84%. However, specific mistakes have taken place that have actually caused this variance in the outcomes. REASONS FOR VARIANCE Random Errors 1. Loss of marble after weighing: After weighing out the marble,…...
Titration Lab: the Paper
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Method for Control of Variables 1. In order to control the titration of potassium permanganate, we used the pipette to make the titration constant. We also used the same amount of chemical solutions, with the same flasks, to make the titration as constant as possible. 2. To control the amount of redox in the experiment, we have used the pipette to keep on putting the same amount of drop every time. The pipette made the amount of redox constant for…...
To determine the molecular mass of an unknown alkali metal carbonate, X2CO3
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Criteria Assessed: * Data Collection and Processing (DCP) * Conclusion and Evaluation (CE) Candidate Name: Candidate Number: International School, Singapore AIM: To determine the molecular mass of an unknown alkali metal carbonate X2CO3 using titration. INTRODUCTION: Since substance Z is an alkali metal carbonate, it can safely be hypothesized that the compound is most likely to be the carbonate of Lithium, Sodium or Potassium since these are the only three alkali metal carbonates which are stable and safe to use…...
Experiment: Analysing molar mass of Aspirin
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Introduction In 1899 the Bayer Company of Germany introduced the ethanoate ester of salicylic acid naming it, ‘Aspirin’. Aspirin is an acid, it can be titrated with a base such as sodium hydroxide to the equivalence point. The following chemical equation describe the acid-base reaction that will be observed in this experiment. H-Aspirin + NaOH ------> Na-Aspirin + H2O (acid) (base) (salt) The above chemical equation is balanced as written. An indicator will be used to provide a way to…...
AspirinExperimentStanford Prison ExperimentTitration
Determinating the percent acetic acid in vinegar using titration
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Qualitative: As we add sodium hydroxide to vinegar with the phenolphthalein the solution instantly turned pink and then instantly turned colorless.  As we got closer to equating the moles of H+ Ions with OH- the pink would stop turning into colorless leaving a pale pink color. Data processing: Trial 1: In order to determine the mass of the acid, we have to calculate the moles of acetic acid used, and we can get that by multiplying the volume of sodium…...
Determining Ka by the half-titration of a weak acid
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To get the Ka of acetic acid, HC2H3O2 I will react it with sodium hydroxide. The point when our reaction is half-titrated can be used to determine the pKa. As I have added half as many moles of acetic , as NaOH, Thus, OH- will have reacted with only half of the acetic acid leaving a solution with equal moles of HC2H3O2 and C2H3O2-. Then I will use the Henderson-Hasselblach equation to get pKa. CH3COOH + NaOH H2O + NaCH3COO…...
To Determine the Content of Iron in Iron Tablets by Titration
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PROCEDURES: Making a solution of the tablets 1. 5 iron tablets were weighed accurately, and then dissolved in about 100cm3 of 1.0 moldm-3 sulphuric acid in a conical flask. Some heating was required, but not more than the necessary needed to dissolve the tablets. 2. The mixture was filtered into a beaker, making sure that no solution was lost, then the conical flask was washed out with water and the washings were poured through the filter. 3. Finally, distilled water…...
Redox titration
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To determine the x in the formula Fe (NH4)2(SO4)2i?? xH2O by titration against a standard solution of potassium manganate (VII) (permanganate). Theory: The experiment involves a redox reaction between potassium manganate (VII) and ammonium Potassium manganate (VII) is used in the experiment as it reacts completely and it is its own indicator. Potassium manganate (VII) solution is a strong oxidizing agent. In an acidic medium, manganate(VII) ion undergoes reduction as shown below. MnO4- (aq) + 8H+ (aq) + 5e- -->…...
Analysis of two Commercial Brands of Bleaching Solution
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Objective To determine the concentrations of the active ingredients in 2 commercial bleaches. Introduction Sodium hypochlorite is usually found in bleaching solutions. It is the active ingredient of bleaching solutions. It bleaches by oxidation. When it is added to dye, the following reaction occurs: ClO- + dye ----------------> Cl- + (dye + O) If the oxidized form of the dye is colorless, then the color of the dye would fade away. In the presence of acid, the hypochlorite ions from…...
Determination of the Percentage of Oxalate in Iron(II) Oxalate by Redox Titration
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Introduction Acidified potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent. It oxidizes substances and reduces itself. MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- -------------> Mn2+ + 4H2O (Purple) (Colourless) Both iron (II) and oxalate ions can be oxidized. When they come in contact with an oxidizing agent, the following reactions occur: 1. C2O42- ------------------> 2CO2 + 2e- 2. Fe2+ ------------------> Fe3+ + e- (Pale green) (Yellow) So, when potassium permanganate is added to acidified iron (II) oxalate, two redox reactions occur. 1. 5C2O42-…...
Titration aim my aim is to find the volume
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Aim My aim is to find the volume of hydrochloric acid needed to neutralise sodium hydroxide. Theory Titration is a laboratory method used to analyse a chemicals concentration. In this experiment 10cm3 of sodium hydroxide should be neutralised by 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid. Phenolphthalein is used in this experiment as an indictor where the base is a pink colour and acid as a cloudy white colour. When they are use to neutralise each other the mixture goes clear at the…...
Determination of the equilibrium constant for esterification
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Esterification is the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol. This experiment is an esterification response between ethanoic acid and propan-1-ol when warmed: CH3COOH(aq) + CH3CH2CH2OH(aq) < CH3COOCH2CH2CH3(aq) + H2O(l) The development of propyl ethanoate is especially well-suited to the decision of the stability constant. The reaction is sluggish enough at room temperature level so the order of mixing, temperature level variations over the reaction time and even a last titration with a strong base just have little effect…...
Equilibrium constantTitration
Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid solution
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Pages • 1
Experiments: 1. Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid solution 2. Determination of the concentration of commercial colourless vinegar Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid Objective: To determine the molarity of sodium hydroxide. As the molarity of the sodium hydroxide is unknown, in order to standardize it, the concentration of the acid has to be known. Result: Titration Trial 1 2 3 4 Initial burette reading() 18. 33 8. 05 7. 52 8. 21. Final burette reading() 45. 48…...
Acid-Base Titration using Method of Double Indicators
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Objective: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the composition of a mixture of solutions of NaOH and Na2CO3 by double indicator method. Introduction: Consider a mixture of NaOH(aq) and Na2CO3(aq). Reaction between HCl(aq) and Na2CO3(aq) takes place in two stages: HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) � NaHCO3(aq) + H2O(l) -------------------------(1) HCl(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) � NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) -----------------(2) While that between HCl(aq) and NaOH(aq) completes in only one step: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) � NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) -----------------------------(3) The…...
Titration Of Acids And Bases
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Introduction According to Arrhenius definition, acid is substance that produces H3O+ ion while base is substance that produces OH- ions. The reaction between acid and base often yields the products of salt and water. The formation of water in this neutralization reaction is caused by the combination of H3O+ and OH- ions. In order to determine the concentration of an unknown acid and base, a method called acid-base titration is used. The end of the titration has been reached when…...
Calcium carbonateChemicals IndustryTitration
Titration Experiment
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Aim: To find out the mass of Iron (II) sulphate each ‘Iron tablet’ contains Background Knowledge: ‘Iron tablets’ are prescribed to patients suffering from anaemia. They contain 200mg (0.200g) of iron (II) sulphate FeSO4 We are going to analyse iron tablets to find out how much Iron (II) sulphate they contain. The procedure we will use is a REDOX reaction, by oxidising the Fe2+ contained in the Iron (II) sulphate to Fe3+. We will use potassium manganite (VII) as the…...
Determination of CaCO3 in toothpaste
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SYNOPSIS The purpose of this experiment is to use the back titration method to determine the percentage of calcium carbonate in toothpaste. Instead of using standard titration methods where an acid is titrated directly using a standard solution of a base, back titration is used because the sample to be analysed, CaCO3 does not dissolve in water. Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are the reagents used in this experiment. The precise measured amount of HCl is added to the weighted…...
Calcium carbonateChemistryTitration
The Quantitative And Qualitative Analytical Techniques
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Titration: positive aspects of experiment in terms of accuracy -Checking to see if any air bubbles were present and if the burette was leaking before doing the titration. If I did not do this, it would alter the end point and hence the titre results. Recording the volume reading before doing the titration. Making sure I was using the burette correctly, to deliver a stream of titrant to within a few millilitres each point till reaching the endpoint. Observing the…...
Chemical ReactionQualitiesTitration
Thermodynamics Of Borax
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Introduction The purpose of the lab was to determine how the solubility of Borax (Na2B4(OH)4) and other thermodynamic quantities such as enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy depend on temperature. When Sodium borate octahydrate (Borax) dissociates in water it forms two sodium ions, one borate ion and eight water molecules. The chemical reaction is shown as: (reaction 1) A simple acid-base titration can be used to determine the concentration of the borate ion base. By dissolving Borax into distilled (DI)…...
Titration Lab Discussion
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Like any titration, neutralization titrations depend on a chemical reaction between the unknown solution and a standard reagent. The point of chemical equivalence is indicated by a chemical indicator or an instrumental measurement. When the color changes to the specified color, the titration has reached endpoint. The mole ratio and volume relates the concentration of the solutions. The more the number of moles of the base is used the more number of moles are needed to neutralize. To increase the…...
Handling a Sulphuric Acid Spill
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There has been a spill of concentrated sulphuric acid at the chemical plant where I work at as the Safety Engineer. In this report, I will explain what Sulfuric Acid is, the health risks and hazards associated with it, the safety precautions that should be taken and how the spill should be handled. Sulfuric Acid, H2SO4, also commonly known as battery acid or vitriol, is one of the top products in the chemical industry, with 40 million tons produced annually…...
Chemicals IndustrySulphuric AcidTitrationWater
Acid- Base Titration Lab
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When the end point is reached in an acid-base titration, the relationship between the concentrations of OH- and H3O+ are that they are equal. This doesn’t mean that the pH will be neutral, but the concentrations of both will be the same in a titration. The pH of the end point is determined by what kind of indicator is used to indicate when the end point I reached. In this experiment, phenolphthalein was used. It shows a color change in…...
Neutralization Titrations: The Determination of Soda Ash
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I.Purpose: The goal of this experiment is to determine the weight % of Na2CO3 through the preparation of NaOH and HCl standards. The molarity of the requirements will be discovered through titration of KHP for NaOH, HCl vs the known NaOH, and the unknown Soda Ash sample vs the known HCl. II.Equations and Sample Estimations: Titration of HCl with NaOH: Total Formula: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) H2O (l) + NaCl (aq). Net Ionic Formula:. H+ + OH- H2O( l).…...
Lab Report on Acid-Base Titration
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Aim: To determine the weight-to-volume percent of acetic acid present in commercial vinegar and the weight-to-volume percent of ammonia present in window cleaners. Acid-base titrations can be conducted using the above samples against standardized aqueous NaOH and standardized aqueous HCl solutions respectively. Introduction: Acetic acid, commonly known as ethanoic acid CH3COOH, is found in commercial vinegar. It is a weak organic acid that gives vinegar its characteristic pungent smell, sour taste and slight acidity. Being an acid, vinegar is used…...
Identification of an Unknown Organic Acid
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Abstract Identifying this organic acid was an extensive task that involved several different experiments. Firstly, the melting point had to be determined. Since melting point can be determined to an almost exact degree, finding a close melting point of the specific unknown can accurately point to the identification of the acid. In this case the best melting point range was 207-209 degrees Celsius. Melting point, while very helpful in identifying an unknown organic acid, is simply not enough. Next, a…...
Calcium carbonateChemistryChromatographyEducation System TodayEquilibrium constantExperiment
Determination of the amount of dissolved oxygen
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Topic : Determination of the amount of dissolved oxygen in a water sample by iodometry-the winkler’s method. Objective: To determine the amount of dissolved oxygen in a water sample by iodometry- the winkler’s method. Apparatus: volumetric pipette, 3 conical flask, burette, burette clamp, Pasteur pipette, reagent bottle, conical flask stopper, retord stand, white tile Materials: 2 ml manganese sulphate solution, 2 ml alkaline-iodine solution, 0.025M sodium thiosulphate solution, 2ml concentration sulphuric acid, starch solution Procedure 1. When sampling water, care…...
Practical Application of Back Titration
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Synopsis The objective of this experiment is to determine the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 in toothpaste using back titration technique. A known weight portion of toothpaste is obtained to react with known volume and concentration of standard acid solution. After completing the reaction, the resulting solution containing excess acid is back titrated with known volume and concentration of standard base solution. Determination of excess acid after reaction allow us to calculate the amount of acid react with…...
Calcium carbonateTitration
Conductimetric Titration and Gravimetric Determination of a Precipitate
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Abstract: This experiment demonstrated that by titrating barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2 solution with a sulfuric acid, .1 M H2SO4 solution the point of equivalence can be obtained. Since they were ionic compounds, then the lowest conductivity reading was the point of equivalence because at that reading they were both at a non-ionic state since all their ions have been completely reacted. A first when the H2SO4 was added the conductivity was high, 17.8 umho, then as more H2SO4 was added it…...
Biology Concept. Vitamin C Content in Various Fruit Juice
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This experiment examined the effect of vitamin C content in fruit juice on DCPIP’s colour changes using acid-based titration method. A titration is a method of analysis that will allow us to determine the precise endpoint of a reaction and therefore the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask. The objective of the experiment was to determine vitamin C content in various fruit juice which it is include freshly squeezed juice( orange and lemon), commercial juice(orange and lemon) and…...
BiologyFoodFruitLemonTitrationVitamin C
Determination of Iron by Reaction with Permanganate-A Redox Titration
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The purpose of this experiment was to find the percentage of iron in an unknown iron oxide sample which could be determined through titration with a standard solution of potassium permanganate. Success in this analysis requires careful preparation and attention to detail. Performing this experiment also provides practice at titrations. The overall reaction is: 8H+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) + 5e-  Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O Theory: In acid solutions the permanganate ion undergoes reduction to manganese (2+) ion. Since the permanganate ion is…...
Determination of Asa Content of Aspirin
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Aim: To determine the Molar Concentration of NaOH and HCl acid used in their Standardization processes and to determine the acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) content in Aspirin. Materials/Apparatus: materials used are the same as that outlined in the laboratory procedure prepared by the laboratory instructor. Procedure: The procedure used is the same as that outlined in the laboratory procedure prepared by the laboratory instructor. Abstract: Aspirin is said to be the oldest and generally most useful drug due to its analgesic…...
Complexometric Determination of Water Hardness
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Abstract The water hardness for unknown water sample number 40 was determined. From the results of the two complexometric titrations, the water hardness of the unknown sample was calculated to be 250.9 ppm CaCO3, which agrees with the ranges of acceptable water hardness in the city of Phoenix and Tempe Arizona. Introduction When rainfall picks up impurities from the soil, ions of sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, and other metals are dissolved into the water. These impurities are what cause residues…...
Calcium carbonateTitrationWater
?Quantitative Determination of Total Hardness In Drinking Water
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Introduction This experiment is about the determination of water hardness through the use of complexometric EDTA titration. Determination of water hardness is important to find out the most suitable water hardness under particular circumstances. This was conducted for the purpose of applying the concept of complexometric titration using an efficient chelating agent, EDTA. Sample mineral water was analyzed using standard EDTA with EBT as indicator, and calcium ions present in the solution were calculated to determine the hardness of the…...
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