1. This is made up of connective tissue and it helps protect or support the body. Tough minerals and protein make up the bone, allowing it to be able to withstand a certain amount of pressure, weight or trauma. 2. It is composed of proteins and minerals, more specifically calcium and collagen. The matrix is what helps bones become so strong and sturdy. Along with the matrix the bone includes cells such as, osteoblasts which gather the tools and nutrients required to create new layers of the matrix.
While creating it, some cells become trapped within and become osteocytes. Their main job is just to keep the layers and structure in tact. Lastly, in order to prevent extreme dense bones and overproduction of layers, osteoclasts help digest and destroy parts of the matrix that are not needed anymore or that they believe shouldn’t be there anymore. 3. When the cells do not work in unison to create balance, bone structure can be severely affected and these problems cause many people pain or more difficult ways of living.
Osteoclasts are breaking down more matrix than osteoblasts are creating which will make the bone weak, leading to osteoporosis. Individuals with this disease have to be careful because breaking a bone is very common and can sometimes be inevitable. On the other hand, osteopetrosis is when bones become too heavy and dense, affecting how blood can travel through certain parts of the body and making it difficult for individuals to move as freely or lightweight because their bones are weighing them down. This occurs with the overproduction of osteoblasts and no osteoclasts working to break the matrix down. 4. Healthy bodies and strong bones is the goal every individual wants to attain, therefore it is recommended to participate in exercise which will help strengthen bones from the pressure they are experiencing. A proper diet is important to collect nutrients and hormones, especially estrogen, are necessary because they send signals required to either stop or start the production of osteoblasts. It is recommended for women specially to take estrogen supplements or to make sure they are taking care of their health as they age because they are at a greater risk for bone diseases. 5. The outer layer called compact bone and the inner layer which is spongy bone. Spongy bone is made up of trabeculae which are branch like and they support stresses placed on bone tissue. This allows them to be a little more flexible and free because of all the space in between the layers. Compact bone is more densely packed tube structured called osteons and it is necessary for this to be a tougher surface because it is exposed to everything first. 6. All five types follow the structure of having compact bone on the outside and spongy bone on the inside, except for long bone. Flat bone can be found in the skull, long bone can be found in the femur, where we can see that the length is greater than the width. Short bone is when the height is equal to their width such as the carpal and tarsals. Irregular bone doesn’t have a specific shape or size such as the vertebrae. Lastly, sesamoid bone such as the patella’s job is to protect tendons. 7. It can be recognized because of its knob like ends and narrow shaft called diaphysis but each end is called epiphysis. The endosteum is the inner protective membrane, periosteum membrane covers all bones and the bone cavity is known as he medullary cavity.8. It is hyaline cartilage that allows bones to grow until around 18-20 in which estrogen sends signals to the body to seal the epiphyseal plate. Girls tend to be shorter because their levels of estrogen signal plate to be sealed at an earlier age than boys. Once the plate is sealed it will leave a scar called the epiphyseal line and from this point on, bones will not be able to grow in any way. Our bones are surrounded by a protective membrane known as the periosteum. 9. The matrix of cartilage contains fibers of either elastic or collagen. Chondroblasts are the cells that create more of this matrix while chondrocytes are the cells that are trapped within the matrix. 10. Hyaline cartilage contains a minimal amount of collagen fibers in order to keep movement in the joints while still remaining sturdy and keeping its structure. Elastic cartilage contains all elastic fibers giving it flexibility like we can see in the ears. Fibrocartilage is mainly all collagen fibers meaning that the vertebral disks will be almost rock solid and have no movement. It is important for this to be so tough because it holds together our vertebrae and receives tons of activity and force from everyday activities. 11. A protective layer that wraps around all cartilage is called the Perichondrium. 12. The larynx is created from nine cartilages and its structure is important because it controls airflow, the passage of food, and help us communicate. The cartilages in the larynx help give it flexibility yet are also very tough. 13. Articulation is not necessarily movement; it is considered the meeting place or connection between two bones. 14. The first joint type are fibrous joints and they are found in sheets or cords (syndesmosis), connecting bones together (sutures), and as a way to connect your teeth to the gums (gomphosis). Cartilaginous joints are the second type in which are found in costal cartilages or hyaline cartilage (synchondrosis) and are found in our vertebrae or fibrocartilage (symphysis). Lastly, synovial joints include pivot (radiohumeral), hinge (cubital), saddle (carpometacarpal), ellipsoid (atlantooccipital), Ball and socket (os coxa), and plane (intervertebral discs). 15. Synovial joints are made up of connective and epithelial tissues that allow movement to occur because they are not fully touching or connected. It includes a capsule and ligaments that surround it as well as synovial fluid. All synovial joints include a synovial cavity, synovial fluid, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, fibrous layer, tendon sheath and bursa. They include joints that move only one way, two directions or in multiple directions. 16. Flexion means to move the bone closer while extension means to increase the joint angle and move the bone away. Abduction is to move away from the middle while adduction means bringing it in closer. Medial rotation is when you move your arm/hand so that the palm is facing down and lateral rotation is moving the palm so that it is facing upward. Lastly, circumduction movement is being able to draw a circle with a body part or moving it in multiple motions. 17. For the feet, dorsiflexion is when you are standing on the heel with the toes pointing up. Plantar flexion is when you are pointing your toes downward. Eversion is when your foot faces outward and inversion is when your foot faces inward.
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