C. Title Page LANGUAGE EXTINCTION IN PROCESS ACROSS CHABACANO COMMUNITIES: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC APPROACH } } } } 10 -12 spaces } } } } } Undergraduate Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Information Technology and Computer Studies Cavite State University Cavite City Campus } } } } 10 spaces } } } } In partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Information Technology } } } } } 8 – 10 spaces } } } ARCIELYN O. ARANDELA JENNYLYN PINEDA PEARLY JANE S. SANTOS March 2013
D. Approval Sheet Republic of the Philippines CAVITE STATE UNIVERSITY Cavite City Campus
Department of Information Technology and Computer Studies } } 4 spaces } } : ARCIELYN O. ARANDELA JENNYLYN PINEDA PEARLY JANE S. SANTOS :
LANGUAGE EXTINCTION IN PROCESS ACROSS CHABACANO COMMUNITIES: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC APPROACH } } 4-7spaces } } A P P R O V E D:} } 4 spaces } } ADOLFO C. MANUEL, JR. ________ MARIA P. CLARA __________ Adviser Date Technical Critic Date } } 4 spaces } } CRISOSTOMO O. IBARRA ________ MARIO P. HARA __________ Research Coordinator Date Department Chairman Date } 4 spaces } } LORNA L. TOLENTINO, PhD Campus Dean
ACKNOWLEDGMENT } } The author wishes to………………………………………….
JUAN E. DELA CRUZ
F. Abstract DELA CRUZ, JUAN E., Language Extinction in Process Across Chabaco Communities: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Undergraduate Thesis. Bachelor of Arts in English, Cavite State University, Cavite City Campus. March 2013. Adviser: Dr. Adolfo C. Manuel, Jr. } } A student was conducted to design and evaluate a low-cost hydroponics system for lettuce production………….double space
Note: 1. Four hundred words or less
G. Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS
PRELIMINARIES Title Page Approval Sheet Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Objectives of the Study Scope and Limitation of the Study Chapter 2 – CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Review of Related Literature and Studies Conceptual Model of the Study Operational Definition of Terms Chapter 3 – METHODOLOGY Project Design Project Development
PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii viii
1 3 3
5 50 51
Operation and Testing Procedure Evaluation Procedure Chapter 4 – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Project Description and Structure Project Capabilities and Limitations Project Evaluation Chapter 5 – SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of Findings Conclusions Recommendations
63 67 67
70 71 71
H. List of Tables LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 2 3 4 5
Title Ten Leading Causes of Child Mortality Ages 1-4 Ten Leading Causes of Child Mortality Ages 5-9 Likert Scale Descriptive Evaluation of the Mean Bacteriological Examination Result of Water Sample before Ozonation Bacteriological Examination Result of Water Sample after Ozonation Summary of Evaluation Result
Page 25 26 61 62 65
I. List of Figures LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Water Composition Ultraviolet Germicidal Lamp Aquarium Air Pump
Page 6 35 39 44 50 54 55 56 57 58 63 66
Microchip PIC16F873AT-I/SO Conceptual Model of Portable Water Sterilizer Process Flow of Ozone Isometric View of Portable Water Sterilizer Schematic Diagram of Switch Module Schematic Diagram of Corona Discharge Portable Water Sterilizer Development Process The Portable Water Sterilizer Actual Ozonation Process and Testing at Regional Water Laboratory in Carmona, Cavite
J. Body of the Research The text should contain five major sections specifically (1) Introduction; (2) Review of Related Literature; (3) Methodology; (4) Results and Discussion; and (5) Summary, Conclusions, Recommendations. Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION The introduction contains some introductory statements relative to the study. • 1st paragraph – opening statement about the main topic leading to your specific topic • 2nd paragraph – discussion on the specific topic leading to your main problem • 3rd paragraph – presentation of the main problem The introduction includes the following subsections: • Statement of the Problem. This section describes the problems to be investigated. It contains a general problem written in the form of a statement followed by the specific questions or sub-problems. Importance of the Study. o 1st paragraph – evidences that the problem really exists o 2nd paragraph – present the causes and effects of the main problem o 3rd paragraph – presentation of a perceived solution to the problem and its strategy Objectives of the Study General Objectives The general objective captures the title of the study. It is broad enough to include all aspects of the subject matter, yet brief and concise as possible.
Specific Objectives The specific objectives must be explicit, precise, and expected results are verifiable. Design the prototype Fabricate or develop the prototype using ….. ( a software, mechanism etc. or according to a set of parameter or standard) Determine the performance or acceptability of the project • Time and Place of the Study. This section includes the period when the study was conducted starting from the preparation of outline to the writing of the manuscript. The place of study includes the actual place where the research was conducted. Scope and Limitation of the Study o The scope of the study includes what the study is all about, the reason why the study is conducted and how it will be made.
o The major methodologies of developing the prototype together with the important components are presented. o Also included is who are the beneficiaries and how will they benefit from the project. o The limitations are the factors which set the boundaries covered in the study. • Operational Definition of Terms o Includes only the terms, words, or phrases, which have special or unique meanings in the study and the definitions of how they are used in the study. o They are identified and listed as they appear in the research document starting with the title. o The definitions should be brief and clear as possible.
Chapter 2 – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES • The purposes of this section are to tell what research has or has not been done on the problem and to explain and clarify the theoretical rationale of the problem. • Only studies, which are related in purpose, method, or findings of the study, should be included. • The discussion of such studies should be in the form of a brief critical analysis of the purposes, method of study, principal findings and conclusions.
Chapter 3 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design (Description of Major Parts with Functions, which may include isometric or circuit diagram) Conceptual Model of the Study • This is represented in a diagram using the Input-Process-Output (IPO) model in developmental research. • The INPUT block consists of the Knowledge Requirements, Software Requirements and/or Hardware Requirements. • The PROCESS block presents the activities involved in the Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation stages.
• With the input and process requirements laid out, the expected OUTPUT becomes achievable. Project Development (Procedural Steps Undergone from conceptualization to construction; include revisions done to the project/product/output, also include detailed parts and dimensions or flowchart) Operation and Testing Procedure (steps to be followed in operating the project and tests to be done to ensure that the project is working)
Evaluation Procedure (the qualifications or criteria by which the project or product will be evaluated and how it will be rated; also include respondents who will evaluate the project and the criteria for interpreting the
evaluation or the descriptive rating) Likert Scale Descriptive Rating Numerical Scale 4.51 – 5.00 3.51 – 4.50 2.51 – 3.50 1.51 – 2.50 1.00 – 1.50 Descriptive Rating Excellent/Highly Acceptable Very Good/Very Acceptable Good/Acceptable Fair/Fairly Acceptable Poor/Not Acceptable
This likert scale will be used to interpret the computed mean obtained from the evaluation instrument. For example, an overall mean of 4.32 means that the project is very good or very acceptable.
Chapter 4 -RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Project Description (show the fabricated project with description) Project Structure (detailed illustration of project sections/parts with description) Project Test Results, Capabilities and Limitations (overall performance of the project with observed limitations; actual illustration of project while operating etc.; if product, may include laboratory test, etc) Project Evaluation (statistical result with corresponding interpretation)
Chapter 5 -SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of Findings (may include overall mean rating on the criteria set by the researcher, e.g. Workability, Functionality, etc.) Also include in the summary the ff: Project Structure Project Capabilities and Limitations Summary of Project Evaluation Results
Conclusions (to indicate whether the specific objectives were attained e.g. design, construct and evaluate the project) Recommendations (suggestions of evaluations and those mentioned by the panel for project improvement during the final defense)
REFERENCES (arrange the references as they appear in the paper) Include books, periodicals, electronic sources used to enrich the conceptual framework of the study. The format should be as follows:
Books Angelo, T. and Cross, P. (1988). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers Book Description. Jossey Bass Adult and Higher Education Series
Unpublished Theses and Dissertations Felipe, L. (1985). “A Survey of the Audio Visual Resources at the Mariano Marcos State University, and Their Utilization by the Faculty with Implications to a Proposed AudioVisual Center”. Unpublished Thesis. University of the Philippines, Diliman . Journals and Publications Earle, R. (2002).”The Integration of Instructional Technology in to Public Education: Promises and Challenges”. Educational Technology Magazine .Vol. 42, 5-13
Online and Multimedia Resources Wikepedia, The Free Encyclopedia. “Mechatronics”. August 2008 retrieved last November 2009 from http://www.Wikibooks.org/Mechatronics
APPENDIXES Appendixes may include the ff: Sample Evaluation Instrument Gantt Chart Total Budgetary Requirements Tools and Equipment Used Pictures Taken During Fabrication Summary of Mean Scores from the Evaluation User’s Manual
GENERAL THESIS FORMAT GUIDELINES Retrieved from http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/detail.aspx?doc_id=796 I. General Document Guidelines A. Margins: 1.50 inch left margin , One inch on the remaining sides (top, bottom, right) B. Font Size and Type: 12-pt. Times New Roman C. Line Spacing: Double-space throughout the paper, including the title page, body of the document, references, appendixes, footnotes, tables, and figures. D. Spacing after Punctuation: Space once after commas, colons, and semicolons within sentences. Insert two spaces after punctuation marks that end sentences. E. Alignment: Justified F. Pagination: The page number appears one inch from the right edge of the paper on the first line of every page. Body A. Pagination: The body of the paper begins on a new page. Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on new pages. B. Title: The title of the paper (in uppercase and lowercase letters) is centered on the first line below the running head. C. Introduction: The introduction (which is not labeled) begins on the line following the paper title. Text citations: Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources.
The underlying principle is that ideas and words of others must be formally acknowledged. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper. A. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. Consider the following example: Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the control condition, the difference was not statistically significant. [Note: and is used when multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Compare this to the example in the following section.] B. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and year of publication appear in parentheses. Consider the following example:
Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin & Vanderpool, 1991; Maton & Pargament, 1987; Paloma & Pendleton, 1991; Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). [Note: & is used when multiple authors are identified in parenthetical material. Note also that when several sources are cited parenthetically, they are ordered alphabetically by first authors’ surnames and separated by semicolons.] C. D. When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are included every time the source is cited. When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first author’s surname and “et al.” are used.
Consider the following example: Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). Payne et al. (1991) showed that … E. When a source that has six or more authors is cited, the first author’s surname and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read (“Grayson” in the following example) that is cited in a source that you have read (“Murzynski & Degelman” in the following example), use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the References list: Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability. G. To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible. Because a personal communication is not “recoverable” information, it is not included in the References section. For the text citation, use the following format: B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 1978) claimed …
To cite a Web document, use the author-date format. If no author is identified, use the first few words of the title in place of the author. If no date is provided, use “n.d.” in place of the date. Consider the following examples: Degelman (2009) summarizes guidelines for the use of APA writing style. Changes in Americans’ views of gender status differences have been documented (Gender and Society, n.d.).
To cite the Bible, provide the book, chapter, and verse. The first time the Bible is cited in the text, identify the version used. Consider the following example: “You are forgiving and good, O Lord, abounding in love to all who call to you” (Psalm 86:5, New International Version). needed for the Bible.] [Note: No entry in the References list is
Quotations: When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. A. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. Consider the following example: Patients receiving prayer had “less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer cardiac arrests, and were less frequently intubated and ventilated” (Byrd, 1988, p. 829). B. A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in block format, with each line indented five spaces from the left margin.
References: All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section). Pagination: The References section begins on a new page. A. B. Heading: “References” (centered on the first line below the running head) Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following C. the References heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. Most reference entries have the following components:
Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are eight or more authors, list the first six authors followed by three ellipses (…) and then the final author. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference. Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.” in parentheses following the authors. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book).
Italicize titles of books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers. Electronic Retrieval Information: Electronic retrieval information may include digital object identifiers (DOIs) or uniform resource locators (URLs). DOIs are unique alphanumeric identifiers that lead users to digital source material. To learn whether an article has been assigned a DOI, go to http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/.
Example of APA-formatted References: Go to http://www.vanguard.edu/uploadedFiles/Psychology/references.pdf
Examples of sources 1. Journal article with DOI Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-1626. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1996.tb00088.x 2. Journal article without DOI, print version Koenig, H. G. (1990). Research on religion and mental health in later life: A review and commentary. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 23-53. 3. Journal article without DOI, retrieved online [Note: For articles retrieved from databases, include the URL of the journal home page. Database information is not needed. Do not include the date of retrieval.]
Aldridge, D. (1991). Spirituality, healing and medicine. British Journal of General Practice, 41, 425-427. Retrieved from http://www.rcgp.org.uk/publications/bjgp.aspx
Book Paloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd
ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Informally published Web document Degelman, D. (2009). APA style essentials. Retrieved from http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/detail.aspx?do c_id=796
Informally published Web document (no date) Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved from http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm
Informally published Web document (no author, no date) Gender and society. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/gender.html
Abstract from secondary database Garrity, K., & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 168-172. Abstract retrieved from PsycINFO database.
Article or chapter in an edited book Shea, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed.), Religion and mental health (pp. 70-84). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Tables: A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses (such as ANOVA). See the Publication Manual (2010, pp. 128150) for detailed examples. Tables must be mentioned in the text. A. Pagination: Each Table begins on a separate page. B. Heading: “Table 1” (or 2 or 3, etc.) is typed flush left on the first line below the running head. Double-space and type the table title flush left, Italics ( in uppercase and lowercase letters). Example:
Figures: A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). See the Publication Manual (2010, pp. 150-167) for detailed examples. A. Pagination: Figures begin on a separate page. B. Figure Caption: “Figure 1.” (or 2 or 3, etc.) is typed center aligned on the first line below the figure, immediately followed on the same line by the caption (which should be a brief descriptive phrase).
Appendixes: A common use of appendixes is to present unpublished tests or to describe complex equipment or stimulus materials. A. Pagination: Each Appendix begins on a separate page. B. Heading:If there is only one appendix, “Appendix” is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. If there is more than one appendix, use Appendix A (or B or C, etc.). Double-space and type the appendix title (centered in uppercase and lowercase letters).