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Alcohol may be the world's oldest known drug. Fermented grain, fruit juice and honey have been used to make alcohol (ethyl alcohol or ethanol) for thousands of years. The production of products containing alcohol has become big business in today's society and the consumption and abuse of alcohol has become a major public health problem. The effects of alcohol abuse range from a mild hang over to mass destruction, disease and deaths on a huge scale. Alcohol use in moderation has little or no ill effects either for the user or those around them.
But the misuse of what has become one of the world's most dangerous drugs takes a devastating toll on both the drinker and on society as a whole. Most agree that the occasional alcoholic drink never hurt anyone. The real danger lies in binge drinking and the development of a tolerance to alcohol, which causes the drinker to consume every greater quantities of booze in a bid to regain that original but elusive feeling of well being.
Some of the neuro chemical effects of alcohol are: * | * Increased turnover of norepinephrine and dopamine| * | * Decreased transmission in acetylcholine systems| * | * Increased transmission in GABA systems|
* | * Increased production of beta-endorphin in the hypothalamus| Chronic drinking can lead to dependence and addiction to alcohol and to additional neurological problems. Typical symptoms of withholding alcohol from someone who is addicted to it are shaking (tremors), sleep problems and nausea. More severe withdrawal symptoms include hallucinations and even seizures for young drinkers. Chronic alcohol use can: | * Damage the frontal lobes of the brain| | * Cause an overall reduction in brain size and increase in the size of the ventricles.
| | * Lead to alcoholism (addiction to alcohol) and result in tolerance to the effects of alcohol and variety of health problems. | | * Cause a vitamin deficiency. Because the digestion system of alcoholics is unable to absorb vitamin B-1 (thiamine), a syndrome known as "Wernicke's Encephalopathy" may develop. This syndrome is characterized by impaired memory, confusion and lack of coordination. Further deficiencies of thiamine can lead to "Korsakoff's Syndrome". This disorder is characterized by amnesia, apathy and disorientation. Widespread disease of the brain is a feature of both Wernicke's and Korsakoff's Syndromes. |
If alcoholism is a disease, then it is one of the greatest epidemics of modern times. While no real consensus exists among experts in the field concerning how alcoholism in the youth should be defined, recent statistics indicate that 10 million American students are classified as alcoholics (i. e. , those with chronic, problematic drinking patterns). According to a recent Gallup Poll, one out of three persons reported that alcohol abuse had caused trouble in their families. Heavy drinking is involved in 60% of violent crimes, 30% of suicides, and 80% of fire and drowning accidents. Every 22 minutes a drunk driver kills someone.
Alcoholism is involved in a quarter of all admissions to general hospitals, and its abuse years estimated to cost our society 50 billion dollars per year. In light of these statistics and the personal experience of many people who struggle with this issue as a daily burden, addressing the problem of alcoholism cannot be regarded as optional. The analysis of alcoholism in the youth as an essentially moral problem is not without biblical support. Consider Paul's words in Eph. 5:18, "Do not get drunk on wine which leads to debauchery. Instead, be filled with the Spirit. " This passage is of particular importance for two reasons.
First, it clearly teaches that drunkenness is a sin (cf. , Gal. 5:19). This does not, of course, teach that drinking per se is wrong. Rather, it teaches that being controlled by the substance is immoral. Consider also Paul's words in 1 Cor. 6:12, "Everything is permissible for me, but I will not be mastered by anything. " Peter warns the church to be "sober and alert" (1 Pet. 5:8). Second, the abuse of alcohol is "volitional. " In Eph. 5:18, Paul exhorts the church to make the choice to be filled with the Spirit, rather than wine. This clearly implies the ability to make such a decision.
As Christians, committed to the authority of the Bible, any assessment of alcoholism must conform to scripture, regardless of what theoretical perspective is in vogue in our society. The disease model holds that there is something physiologically different about the alcoholic than other non-addicted drinkers prior to the onset of symptoms. The most important empirical support for the disease model is genetic study. There is some recent research data that draw a correlation between heredity and alcoholism in the youth D. W. Goodwin's study of foster children is significant in this regard.
He found that children with an alcoholic biological parent who were raised by nonalcoholic foster parents had a rate of alcohol abuse four times greater than children without alcoholic parents who were raised by an adoptive family. Cloninger's study in Sweden produced similar results. His study indicated that sons of alcoholic fathers placed at birth in nonalcoholic families were found to have an alcohol problem at the ratio of nearly four to one over male adoptees without alcoholic fathers. Specific mention should be made of a recent and much publicized study that ties alcoholism to genetics.
In "Allelic Association of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene in Alcoholism," the presence of the A1 allele in the dopamine D2 receptor gene correctly classified 77% of alcoholics and was found to be absent in 72% of non-alcoholics in a blind test. This provides an experimental basis for the contention that one's genetic makeup may play a role in some people for becoming symptomatic with alcoholism. It must be pointed out that there were 31% of alcoholics who were tested who did not possess the suspected genetic composition and 18% who did possess the D2 receptor were not diagnosed as alcoholics.
In summarizing their study, the author’s state, without a cure, the disease can only be controlled through total abstinence. As Teacher’s mention "once a drunk always a drunk. " While it is true that for the chronic alcoholic who has been involved in seriously dysfunctional drinking for a number of years that normal drinking patterns will never likely occur, it is clearly not true for many who are labeled as alcoholics. For many, especially young abusers, total abstinence as a goal of treatment is neither necessary nor perhaps helpful.
It is not necessary, because studies indicate that alcohol abuse can be moderated. We noted earlier Valliant's findings that many abusive drinkers moderate their patterns of consumption through independent choice or changes in peer group. The notion of total abstinence may prove unhelpful, because for those in the early stages of alcohol dependency, they simply will not identify with the goal of abstinence. Thus, they are polarized by the disease view: either drink abusively (because that is the nature of the disease) or never drink again.
Such a dichotomy is false in many cases. We must recognize that the term "alcoholic" is a powerful euphemism in our culture. Being labeled an alcoholic often unnecessarily stigmatizes a person and can make them feel alienated from normal social contexts. The fact is we live in a drinking culture! The use of controlled drinking as a treatment ideal will be discussed later. The issue here is whether or not the disease model is correct in positing that alcohol dependence is a chronic disease requiring total abstinence.
Where abstinence is unnecessarily stressed, it creates a crisis of conscience for the person who has even a single drink, because of the pre-understanding given him/her by the disease model that they are just one drink away from being a drunk. Violating ones' conscience is one of the most common causes of relapse. Marlatt calls this the "abstinence violation effect. In Romans 14:23, Paul cautions the church not to engage in amoral practices that violate ones' conscience. This biblical principle is critical to helping alcohol abusive and dependent people, as we will later see.
It is also something which secular research clearly verifies, as Lewis comments, "[A drink] can be devastating if defined as a disaster and as a failure. " Identifying everyone employing new patterns of alcohol consumption from a previously abusive one as being in "denial" can be destructive and unnecessary. Having made that point, it must also be stressed that the phenomenon of denial is very real and must be taken seriously. Many though not all, formerly chemically dependent people are in a state of denial when they appear to be moderating alcohol use.
SOURCES: (http://www. google. com. ph/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=thesis%20introduction%20for%20alcoholism&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CCkQFjAA&url=http) (http://www. google. com. ph/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=thesis%20introduction%20for%20alcoholism&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&ved=0CFcQFjAF&url=http) BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Drinking alcoholic beverages is commonly experienced by college students. They have been known as one of the stress relievers. According to the research, (Reasons for Drinking in the College Student context: The differential role and risk of the social motivator, Joseph w.
Labrie, PH. D, Justin F. Hummer and Eric R. Pedersen. ) The relationships among reasons for drinking, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences are personal motivators such as mood enhancement and coping (tension reduction) have consistently been shown to predict problematic alcohol use, but because of the silent nature of social drinking in college, we hypothesized that social reasons for drinking would be most frequently endorsed and, in turn, predict negative consequences. Drinking has been a very controversial issue for a very long time.
Ever since the 1980's the drinking age was raised from 18 to 21. Many people think that 21 is a good age because it prevents alcohol abuse in young teens, drunk driving, and other drug abuse. Many think that this keeps teens safe and out of trouble. They think that younger teens under 21 are irresponsible and do not know how much to drink or when to stop and they get out of control and drink too much to the point where they get sick. People find that this is a good way to teach kids responsibility and shows them that they have to wait to drink.
Many elders believe that when the drinking age was at 18 there were many more accidents, alcoholics, and other diseases and drug abuses that went along with drinking. Drinking has a huge impact on people making them do stupid things and impairing their ability to think and make the right decisions. It leaves them helpless and not in control of themselves. Yet, others think that the drinking age should be lowered back to 18 because they believe that it is unfair to let 18 year olds go to war and fight for their country, be able to get married, be able to own a house, and are able to start a family, yet they aren't allowed to drink?
Also, many people believe that if the drinking age was lowered back to 18 teens would not drink in secret or binge drink which leads to more trouble. They believe that if it was lowered it would lessen some of the drinking issues the law is experiencing with teens and college students today. Many students throw parties and get alcohol from older students illegally because they are not capable of purchasing it themselves. People believe that if we lowered the age we would be able to monitor everyone and watch how much they drink and have them drink in the open instead of in secret.
SOURCES:(http://www. mendeley. com/catalog/reasons-drinking-college-student-context-differential-role-risk-social-motivator/#page-1) STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study aims to determine the Percentage of Freshmen Architecture Student in TIP who regularly drinks Alcoholic Beverages. It sought to answer these questions: 1. Do you drink alcoholic beverages? 2. What/Who influences the students in drinking Alcohol? a. Peer pressure b. Problems with (Family, Friends & Relationships) c. Occasions 3. At what age they started drinking alcoholic beverages ______.
4. Is there a significant relationship between age and what influences them in drinking alcohol? 5. What are the results of drinking alcohol to them? THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Being a college student deeply affects one’s feelings and even thinking. This stage gives new experiences and new social life. It puts up a great excitement, enjoyment and often times brings too much pressure in our young minds. This may be reason why a freshman BS Architecture student in TIP QC regularly drinks alcoholic beverages.
“The study found that more than 40% of the respondents who began drinking before age 15 developed alcoholism later in life. About 25% of respondents who began drinking at age of 17 and about 10% who began drinking at 21 developed alcoholism. ” Alcoholism Risk Higher For Young Drinker (1998). The information given are based on interviews conducted by US Census Bureau in 1992 with more than 42,000 young adults where in the respondents were asked when they began drinking regularly, excluding their first experimental sips of alcohol.
This only conclude the high risks of a young drinker in getting an addiction to alcoholic beverages. To have a clearer view on the flow of this research, the researchers constructed a theoretical framework for this study that involves 3 categories of variables: Input, Process and Output. The IPO model will provide the general structure and guide for the direction of the study. Substituting the variables of this study on the IPO model, the researchers came up with the following: * Survey * Interview
* Counselling* * Social Activities * Personal Problems * Too Muc Pressure Caused by Studies * Addiction of the BS Architecture in TIP QC to alcoholic beverages will be lessen * The students will be able to focus more on their studies INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Figure 1 In the input diagram shown above (Fig. 1), we put the social activities, personal problems and too much pressure cause by studies as an examples of the factors that cause a Freshmen Architecture student in TIP QC to regularly drink alcoholic beverages.
As we all observed, these 3 gives so much impact on the emotional and mental behavior of a student. And as a way to solve these factors, we will conducting a survey and interview to 50% of Freshmen Architecture student in TIP QC to determine the percentage of students who regularly drink alcoholic beverages and the reasons why they used to it. The informations that we will gather will bring to guidance office of TIP QC for solutions, recommendations and proper actions. We include the counselling (to be performed by the guidance office of TIP QC) to our Process.
As a result, we can now predict that the addiction of Freshmen Architecture student to alcoholic beverages will be lessen and the said students will be able to focus more on their studies. ASSUMPTION The thesis assumes that there are several factors which encourages and pushes the students to drink these addictive alcoholic beverages. Family and friends are the primary sources why students learn to drink. Liquors are really enticing especially in the eyes of the students. The tendency for them is to try until they get used to it. Emotional stress can also be one of the factors; people drink whenever there is a problem or an occasion.
The students or the young ones assume that it is ok to drink these beverages since the old ones or their parents are doing so. Others use alcoholic beverages to release tension. Students try alcohol when they are in a social setting or whenever they are with their friends where everyone else is drinking in order to feel accepted and part of the group. No one ever wants to be left behind that’s why students assume that drinking alcoholic beverages could be a way to socialize. HYPOTHESIS * It is hypothesized that drinking alcoholic beverages influenced the students to take it regularly.
* Drinking alcoholic beverages regularly affects the health of the students. * It is hypothesized that drinking alcoholic beverages is the caused why they are freshmen students want to take it regularly * There are a lot of freshmen architecture students drink alcoholic beverages regularly compare to those who drink mild only. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study could be an eye-opener not only for the students or drinkers but also for the parents, the faculty or the school administration for them to be aware about the epidemic of alcoholism among the students especially the freshmen.
The students should be properly guided in terms of taking liquors which could harm their health if they continually patronize alcoholic beverages. On the other hand students should also realize the bad effects of these beverages not only to their health but also in their behavior and academic performance. They must understand the risk that once they start drinking alcoholic beverages, they may get used to it until it is hard for them to stop. Since alcoholism or drinking alcoholic beverages for students or the young ones is still one of the unsolved of the society.
This study can help in finding solutions or to lessen the population of freshmen students who are fond of drinking. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The Scopes of this Research are the selected first year students of Architecture Department in different sections in Technological Institute of the Philippines, Quezon City that are drinking alcoholic beverages. The Limitations of this Research are for students who are first year and currently enrolled in Technological Institute of the Philippines, Quezon City in Program of Architecture and having the prescribed study load for the given semester.
Only selected First year Architecture students are allowed in the Research. DEFINITION OF TERMS Alcoholic beverages – it is fermented from the sugars in fruits, berries, grains and such other ingredients as plant saps, tubers, honey, milk and may be distilled to reduce the original watery liquid to a liquid of much greater alcoholic strength. Beer is the best-known member of the malt family of alcoholic beverages, which also includes ale, stout, porter, and malt liquor. It is also any fermented liquor, such as wine, beer, or distilled spirit that contains ethyl alcohol, or ethanol as an intoxicating agent.
Addiction – it is a condition that results when a person ingests a substance or engages in an activity that can be pleasurable but the continued use of which becomes compulsive and interferes with ordinary life responsibilities, such as work or relationships, even health. Users may not be aware that their behavior is out of control and causing problems for themselves and others. Social activities – it is an activity that involves associating with other people. Personal problems – it is a situation in an own experiences that have a private aspects of a person's life. Behavior – it is the manner of conducting oneself.
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