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thesis Essay

Paper type: Thesis Pages: 8 (1759 words)

Views: 479

Sagar institute of research and technology 1

CHAPTER – 4

METHODOLOG Y

Sagar institute of research and technology 2

In this Process original component is Modelling using CAD package and analyzed using ANSYS. On

that basis new component drawing is made and comparison of old and new design are done using

ANSYS.

Introduction of Tyre Tread

Literature review On Tyre

Tread

Problem Identification Of

Tyre Tread

Assembly

Mesh module

Requesting data

input

Selection Of Ty re and

tread

Various type of tire trade Material

selection

Determination

Deformation and stress

Get Conclusion

results .

Sagar institute of research and technology 3

Introduction

This project aims to realize the life cycle and best Tyre tread design. An important aspect is the

development of robust Tyre friction model to include Tyre and road interaction. Gripping characteristic

of Tyre tread plays avital role in friction between Tyre and road when loading and unloading is done

quickly. Tread should be such that it provides the most grip and have operating constancy on road.

This

component is for the safety concern of the vehicles. The tyre model will be modeled using Creo software.

4. 1 Literature Review:

Structural static finite element analysis (FEA) may be used in tyre design, in order to predict and

improve mechanical behaviour and durability of tyres. This paper describes the possible goals of static

tyre FEA and gives special attention to various aspects of finite element (FE) model building. A short

review of relevant papers is given first, which is given by N. Korunovi ?,M.Trajanovi ?,followed by the

description of axisymmetric and 3D models built by the authors and the results of analyses conducted

using those. The accompanying comments describe how those results may be used by tyre designers.

The deflection of tyre model under vertical load was studied. Distributions of contact stresses in static

and rolling conditions were obtained. Magnitudes and orientation of contact stress distributions in

braking and traction conditions were analyzed.

4.2 Problem Identification

Heavy trucks are made for goods transportation. They are meant to travel from very bad road conditions.

Truck gripping is the most important factor for smooth travelling. Actually, there are several factors that

affect the road grip. Some of which are critical.

1. Cracking and Bulging

2. Cupping(Also called Scalloping)

3. Heel Toe

4. Feathering

Sagar institute of research and technology 4

4.3 Selection Of Tyre Tread

4.4 Model Details:

The Model to be considered for our project is TATA LPT 3118. TATA LPT 3118 -India's most

capable 4Axle unbending that spearheaded the lift pivot innovation in India is the market

4.6 Model Specifications

The weights for which Tata Truck is designed is as follows:

Table 4.1 Weights on TATA LPT 3118

WEIGHT

Table 4.1 Describe the vehicle weight on Tyre including its own weight and raw materials is approx

31000kg.and and the weight of vehicle is 19tons.

Gross vehicle weight 31000kg

Max. permissible FAW 6000 kg+6000 kg

Max. Permissible RAW 19000 kg

Sagar institute of research and technology 5

Figure 4.1Tyre Dimensions

4.8 Trea d dimensions

Table 4.4 Tread Dimension .

Base width in mm 336

Tread depth in mm 15.0

Base thickness in mm 3.5

Total thickness in mm 18.5

Length In mm 3750.0

Weight in kg 200 gms 13.9

Table 4.4 describe the dimension of tyre treads ,where 336 define the base width of tyre,15 is the depth

of tread .the whole dimension are taken in mm.

4.9 Various type of tire tr ead

Tyre generally fall into one of the following categories:

•Directional

•Non-directional

•Symmetric and Asymmetric.

Sagar institute of research and technology 6

Directional track designs are intended to give ascope of capacities amid specific driving conditions. The

tyre must be mounted to the wheel with the goal that itrotates in aspecific course

to relate with the track design. A bolt on the tyre sidewall shows the structured bearing of forward

movement. On-directional track designs are structured so that the tyre can be mounted out and about

wheel for any course of turn.

4.10 Tyre Tread Material selection

According to table 4.5 tyre components use abroad variety of materials like different rubber compounds,

different types of carbon black, fillers like clay and silica, chemicals or minerals added to

accelerate/decelerate vulcanisation.

The more you subject a tyre to flexing and deformation the more heat will build up within the tyre.

Excessive heat is the enemy of atyre, so this builds up has to be kept under control. Therefore Rubber is

selected as the tyre tread material.

4.11 Assembling & Meshing of tyre tread

Creo is a family or suite of Computer-helped structure (CAD) applications supporting item plan for

discrete producers and is created by PTC. The suite comprises of applications, each conveying an

unmistakable arrangement of capacities for aclient job inside item improvement.

Creo keeps running on Microsoft Windows and gives applications to 3D CAD parametric element

strong demonstrating, 3D coordinate displaying, 2D orthographic perspectives, Finite Element

Analysis and reproduction, schematic plan, specialized representations, and review and perception.

Creo Elements/Pro and Creo Parametric contend specifically with CATIA, Siemens NX/Solidedge, and

SolidWorks. The Creo suite of applications supplant and override PTC's

items in the past known as Pro/ENGINEER, CoCreate, and Product View. Creo has awide range of

programming bundle arrangements and highlights .

Ansys Inc. is an American open organization situated in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. It creates and

showcases building reenactment programming. Ansys programming is utilized to structure

items and semiconductors, and additionally to make recreations that test an item's sturdiness,

temperature appropriation, smooth motions, and electromagnetic properties.

Sagar institute of research and technology 7

ANSYS 18.0 enables organizations to meet these requests by taking care of their most troublesome item

issues quicker and with more prominent precision. ANSYS' Pervasive Engineering Simulation

arrangements incorporate new, proficient, single-window work processes and patent-pending propelled

coinciding innovation for computational liquid elements (CFD), new procedures for creating implanted

programming for well Being basic applications, and emotional computational speed and client encounter

upgrades for unraveling car radar situations, advanced twins, 3D plan investigation and auxiliary

demonstrating.

4.12 Deformation and stress of tyre tread

On comparing for total Deformation, Loading & unloading condition For Tread 1st and tread 2nd get

deformation value. also getting stress on tyre. .

4. 12 Validity and analysis

With reference to literature survey 2.1 ,to validate the simulation results from the model, an optical

tire sensor system was used to measure the deformation of the carcass under different in-plane tire forces.

The tire sensor system was developed in the vehicle engineering group at Aalto University for studying

tire –road interactions.

4.13 Conclusion

Finite element analysis is used for investigating the stresses in the tyre tread. The 3D tyre model is

modeled allowing simulation of tyre. The vertical load step provided the deflection of 3D tyre model

under the applied force, as well as the distributions of contact stresses in static conditions. Distributions

of contact stresses in braking and traction conditions were obtained from the steady state analyses .

Sagar institute of research and technology 8

CHAPTER – 5

MATHEMATICAL WORK & CALCULATION

Sagar institute of research and technology 9

The pneumatic tire is often taken for granted as asimple and reliable component of the vehicle. A closer

look, however, shows that the tire in service is subjected to severe stresses and deformations whose

quantities must be determined in order to accurately predict tire performance. Modern tire structures

have evolved through a series of modifications of the original pneumatic rubber tire. These

modifications were based on field experiences and on mostly experimental studies of tire behavior. The

use of analytical techniques to calculate tire stresses and deformations remained limited in scope for a

long time because the complexity of the tire structure placed it beyond the domain of available methods

of analysis. The recent emphasis on analytical techniques is due, at least partly, to their potential for

becoming less time consuming and less expensive than experimental methods, the need for predicting a

tire's behavior before its manufacture, and the notable advances in computational and structural analysis

methods. In this paper, these methods are described and applied to the calculation of tire stresses and

deformations. Structural analysis is the analytical determination of structural responses to aprescribed

set of applied loads. The responses may be displacements or distortions if force loads are known, or

forces if displacement or distortions are known. Given the geometry of astructure (shape, dimensions),

the relevant properties of its component materials, the magnitude and distribution of applied loads, and

any constraints from boundary conditions, then structural analysis is used to calculate displacements,

strains, or stresses at any chosen location in or on the structure. These calculated values may be

compared to those required for functionality of the structure. Although structural analysis is not directly

applicable to determining the most efficient configuration of the structural components, the analysis of

successive well chosen modifications can often optimize compositions or geometries. The application of

structural analysis to atire requires (a) knowledge of the relevant physical properties of the component

materials, and their configuration in the tire, (b) complete characterization of the applied loads, and (c)

an analytical technique (i.e. theory) for calculating the required responses. These requirements are

explained in the following sections.

Verification of Simulation results

With reference to literature survey 2.1 ,to validate the simulation results from the flexible ring model, an

optical tire sensor system was used to measure the deformation of the carcass under different in-plane

tire forces. The tire sensor system was developed in the vehicle engineering group at Aalto University

for studying tire –road interactions.

Sagar institute of research and technology 10

Figure 5.1 Deformed and UN deformed Tyre

Simulations are conducted with various wheel loads Fz(from 3000 N to 5000 N) and inflation pressures

P (60psi and more) to analyze their influences on the in-plane tire deformation. The radial and tangential

deformations at different circumferential positions are illustrated. It is observed that both types of

deformations are symmetric regarding the center position of the contact patch. The largest radial

deformation, occurs in the contact between the tire and road under the highest load and with the lowest

inflation pressure. Meanwhile, the radius of the non-contact zone becomes larger with an increasing load.

The tangential deformation for the circumferential position from ?180 to 0° points in the negative

direction and alters its direction after the middle of the contact. This provides aphysical explanation for

the typical tire –road shear stress distribution observed in previous simulations and measurements

Sagar institute of research and technology 11

Figure 5.2: Prototype of the laser-based tire sensor system

The symmetric of the radial deformation of the tire changes with the longitudinal force that is applied as

a result of the pretension force and inextensibility of the ring structure. As a simple indicator, such

asymmetric can be measured by the difference between the mean measured deformation values before

and after the contact

The calculated mean value differences with negative values imply that the tire has a smaller radius

before the tire –road contact. The mean value difference has alinear relationship with the longitudinal

forces and shows adependence on the wheel load. The difference is larger at ahigher load condition.

The proposed indicator allows the estimation of the longitudinal force to be based solely on the radial

deformation measurement. the measured radial deformations of the tire demonstrate asimilar trend to

the simulation results when the wheel load and inflation pressure change. Measured verticle

deformations with static condition 44mm and shows a dependence on the wheel load were first

interpolated to N (N = 3000) equidistant circumferential positions between -180 to 180 ° The mean

radial deformation value Wlaser_mean, as an indicator, is calculated as follows.

W laser_mean = ? W laser (?,-180 o

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thesis. (2019, Dec 04). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/thesis-223-best-essay

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