Paper type: Thesis Pages: 8 (1759 words)
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CHAPTER – 4
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In this Process original component is Modelling using CAD package and analyzed using ANSYS. On
that basis new component drawing is made and comparison of old and new design are done using
Introduction of Tyre Tread
Literature review On Tyre
Problem Identification Of
Selection Of Ty re and
Various type of tire trade Material
Deformation and stress
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This project aims to realize the life cycle and best Tyre tread design. An important aspect is the
development of robust Tyre friction model to include Tyre and road interaction. Gripping characteristic
of Tyre tread plays avital role in friction between Tyre and road when loading and unloading is done
quickly. Tread should be such that it provides the most grip and have operating constancy on road.
component is for the safety concern of the vehicles. The tyre model will be modeled using Creo software.
4. 1 Literature Review:
Structural static finite element analysis (FEA) may be used in tyre design, in order to predict and
improve mechanical behaviour and durability of tyres. This paper describes the possible goals of static
tyre FEA and gives special attention to various aspects of finite element (FE) model building. A short
review of relevant papers is given first, which is given by N. Korunovi ?,M.Trajanovi ?,followed by the
description of axisymmetric and 3D models built by the authors and the results of analyses conducted
using those. The accompanying comments describe how those results may be used by tyre designers.
The deflection of tyre model under vertical load was studied. Distributions of contact stresses in static
and rolling conditions were obtained. Magnitudes and orientation of contact stress distributions in
braking and traction conditions were analyzed.
4.2 Problem Identification
Heavy trucks are made for goods transportation. They are meant to travel from very bad road conditions.
Truck gripping is the most important factor for smooth travelling. Actually, there are several factors that
affect the road grip. Some of which are critical.
1. Cracking and Bulging
2. Cupping(Also called Scalloping)
3. Heel Toe
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4.3 Selection Of Tyre Tread
4.4 Model Details:
The Model to be considered for our project is TATA LPT 3118. TATA LPT 3118 -India's most
capable 4Axle unbending that spearheaded the lift pivot innovation in India is the market
4.6 Model Specifications
The weights for which Tata Truck is designed is as follows:
Table 4.1 Weights on TATA LPT 3118
Table 4.1 Describe the vehicle weight on Tyre including its own weight and raw materials is approx
31000kg.and and the weight of vehicle is 19tons.
Gross vehicle weight 31000kg
Max. permissible FAW 6000 kg+6000 kg
Max. Permissible RAW 19000 kg
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Figure 4.1Tyre Dimensions
4.8 Trea d dimensions
Table 4.4 Tread Dimension .
Base width in mm 336
Tread depth in mm 15.0
Base thickness in mm 3.5
Total thickness in mm 18.5
Length In mm 3750.0
Weight in kg 200 gms 13.9
Table 4.4 describe the dimension of tyre treads ,where 336 define the base width of tyre,15 is the depth
of tread .the whole dimension are taken in mm.
4.9 Various type of tire tr ead
Tyre generally fall into one of the following categories:
Symmetric and Asymmetric.
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Directional track designs are intended to give ascope of capacities amid specific driving conditions. The
tyre must be mounted to the wheel with the goal that itrotates in aspecific course
to relate with the track design. A bolt on the tyre sidewall shows the structured bearing of forward
movement. On-directional track designs are structured so that the tyre can be mounted out and about
wheel for any course of turn.
4.10 Tyre Tread Material selection
According to table 4.5 tyre components use abroad variety of materials like different rubber compounds,
different types of carbon black, fillers like clay and silica, chemicals or minerals added to
The more you subject a tyre to flexing and deformation the more heat will build up within the tyre.
Excessive heat is the enemy of atyre, so this builds up has to be kept under control. Therefore Rubber is
selected as the tyre tread material.
4.11 Assembling & Meshing of tyre tread
Creo is a family or suite of Computer-helped structure (CAD) applications supporting item plan for
discrete producers and is created by PTC. The suite comprises of applications, each conveying an
unmistakable arrangement of capacities for aclient job inside item improvement.
Creo keeps running on Microsoft Windows and gives applications to 3D CAD parametric element
strong demonstrating, 3D coordinate displaying, 2D orthographic perspectives, Finite Element
Analysis and reproduction, schematic plan, specialized representations, and review and perception.
Creo Elements/Pro and Creo Parametric contend specifically with CATIA, Siemens NX/Solidedge, and
SolidWorks. The Creo suite of applications supplant and override PTC's
items in the past known as Pro/ENGINEER, CoCreate, and Product View. Creo has awide range of
programming bundle arrangements and highlights .
Ansys Inc. is an American open organization situated in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. It creates and
showcases building reenactment programming. Ansys programming is utilized to structure
items and semiconductors, and additionally to make recreations that test an item's sturdiness,
temperature appropriation, smooth motions, and electromagnetic properties.
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ANSYS 18.0 enables organizations to meet these requests by taking care of their most troublesome item
issues quicker and with more prominent precision. ANSYS' Pervasive Engineering Simulation
arrangements incorporate new, proficient, single-window work processes and patent-pending propelled
coinciding innovation for computational liquid elements (CFD), new procedures for creating implanted
programming for well Being basic applications, and emotional computational speed and client encounter
upgrades for unraveling car radar situations, advanced twins, 3D plan investigation and auxiliary
4.12 Deformation and stress of tyre tread
On comparing for total Deformation, Loading & unloading condition For Tread 1st and tread 2nd get
deformation value. also getting stress on tyre. .
4. 12 Validity and analysis
With reference to literature survey 2.1 ,to validate the simulation results from the model, an optical
tire sensor system was used to measure the deformation of the carcass under different in-plane tire forces.
The tire sensor system was developed in the vehicle engineering group at Aalto University for studying
tire road interactions.
Finite element analysis is used for investigating the stresses in the tyre tread. The 3D tyre model is
modeled allowing simulation of tyre. The vertical load step provided the deflection of 3D tyre model
under the applied force, as well as the distributions of contact stresses in static conditions. Distributions
of contact stresses in braking and traction conditions were obtained from the steady state analyses .
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MATHEMATICAL WORK & CALCULATION
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The pneumatic tire is often taken for granted as asimple and reliable component of the vehicle. A closer
look, however, shows that the tire in service is subjected to severe stresses and deformations whose
quantities must be determined in order to accurately predict tire performance. Modern tire structures
have evolved through a series of modifications of the original pneumatic rubber tire. These
modifications were based on field experiences and on mostly experimental studies of tire behavior. The
use of analytical techniques to calculate tire stresses and deformations remained limited in scope for a
long time because the complexity of the tire structure placed it beyond the domain of available methods
of analysis. The recent emphasis on analytical techniques is due, at least partly, to their potential for
becoming less time consuming and less expensive than experimental methods, the need for predicting a
tire's behavior before its manufacture, and the notable advances in computational and structural analysis
methods. In this paper, these methods are described and applied to the calculation of tire stresses and
deformations. Structural analysis is the analytical determination of structural responses to aprescribed
set of applied loads. The responses may be displacements or distortions if force loads are known, or
forces if displacement or distortions are known. Given the geometry of astructure (shape, dimensions),
the relevant properties of its component materials, the magnitude and distribution of applied loads, and
any constraints from boundary conditions, then structural analysis is used to calculate displacements,
strains, or stresses at any chosen location in or on the structure. These calculated values may be
compared to those required for functionality of the structure. Although structural analysis is not directly
applicable to determining the most efficient configuration of the structural components, the analysis of
successive well chosen modifications can often optimize compositions or geometries. The application of
structural analysis to atire requires (a) knowledge of the relevant physical properties of the component
materials, and their configuration in the tire, (b) complete characterization of the applied loads, and (c)
an analytical technique (i.e. theory) for calculating the required responses. These requirements are
explained in the following sections.
Verification of Simulation results
With reference to literature survey 2.1 ,to validate the simulation results from the flexible ring model, an
optical tire sensor system was used to measure the deformation of the carcass under different in-plane
tire forces. The tire sensor system was developed in the vehicle engineering group at Aalto University
for studying tire road interactions.
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Figure 5.1 Deformed and UN deformed Tyre
Simulations are conducted with various wheel loads Fz(from 3000 N to 5000 N) and inflation pressures
P (60psi and more) to analyze their influences on the in-plane tire deformation. The radial and tangential
deformations at different circumferential positions are illustrated. It is observed that both types of
deformations are symmetric regarding the center position of the contact patch. The largest radial
deformation, occurs in the contact between the tire and road under the highest load and with the lowest
inflation pressure. Meanwhile, the radius of the non-contact zone becomes larger with an increasing load.
The tangential deformation for the circumferential position from ?180 to 0° points in the negative
direction and alters its direction after the middle of the contact. This provides aphysical explanation for
the typical tire road shear stress distribution observed in previous simulations and measurements
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Figure 5.2: Prototype of the laser-based tire sensor system
The symmetric of the radial deformation of the tire changes with the longitudinal force that is applied as
a result of the pretension force and inextensibility of the ring structure. As a simple indicator, such
asymmetric can be measured by the difference between the mean measured deformation values before
and after the contact
The calculated mean value differences with negative values imply that the tire has a smaller radius
before the tire road contact. The mean value difference has alinear relationship with the longitudinal
forces and shows adependence on the wheel load. The difference is larger at ahigher load condition.
The proposed indicator allows the estimation of the longitudinal force to be based solely on the radial
deformation measurement. the measured radial deformations of the tire demonstrate asimilar trend to
the simulation results when the wheel load and inflation pressure change. Measured verticle
deformations with static condition 44mm and shows a dependence on the wheel load were first
interpolated to N (N = 3000) equidistant circumferential positions between -180 to 180 ° The mean
radial deformation value Wlaser_mean, as an indicator, is calculated as follows.
W laser_mean = ? W laser (?,-180 o
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