Theory of Education Essay
Theory of Education
1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Osokoya (2003) ,defines Education as a continuous process which the society establishes to assist its members to understand the heritage of the past and to participate productively in the future. It is the leading out of the inborn powers and potentialities of the individuals in the society and the acquisition of skills, aptitudes, and competencies necessary for selfrealisation and for coping with life’s problem.
For Afe (2000), Education is considered as a tool to be used for the integration of the individual into the society to achieve selfrealisation, develop national consciousness, promote unity, and strive for social, economic, political, scientific, cultural and technological progress.
Education in science and mathematics therefore becomes bedrock and indispensable tools for scientific, technological and economic advancement in any nation. It gives the nation the capacity to apply technology for the exploitation of the resources of nature. Such exploitation will depend greatly on mathematics for laying the foundation for political, governmental, military, civil, scientific, technological advancement, economic development, sociocultural and environmental peace.
There are number of questions which need to be answered at this stage. What then is Mathematics? Why should everybody learn Mathematics? What is the importance of this subject in life and in school curriculum? What shall be the advantage of devoting so much effort, time, and money to the teaching of Mathematics?
Shapiro (2000) defines Mathematics as the study of qualitative relations; put simply, it is the science of structure, order, numbers, space and relationships about counting, measuring and describing of shapes and objects. It qualifies in its own right as a science but it is often regarded as a language of and a link between all the sciences.
Soyemi (1999) Mathematics is a body of knowledge that opens up the mind to logical reasoning, analytical thinking and the ability for creative thinking, deep focusing and clarity of thought and precision. It is the hub on which all scientific and technological studies find their bearings. In pure sciences it is the basis and language of study, in applied sciences and technology it is an indispensible tool of analysis, with the social sciences it is a scaffold and for the Arts the light that gives consistently and completeness to its study.
Osafehinti (1990) observes that the learning of mathematics in schools represent first, a basic preparation for adult life and secondly a gateway to a vast array of career choices. And from the societal perspective, competence in mathematics is essential for the preparation of an informed citizenry and for continuous production of highly skilled personnel required for industry, technology and science. The progress of any nation depends upon her scientific and technological advancement which can only be built on a sound mathematical education capable of making the citizens effectively functional in the natural and applied sciences. The study of Mathematics therefore will go a long way to “equip students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology” (NPE 2004).
Fakuade (1977) sums up this assertion; for the purposes of economic survival, the ordinary citizen needs to be able to compare and estimate values of articles, determine prices of foodstuffs, reckon distances and time, weigh evidence and be able to sift substances from chaffs. Thus in the complexity of the modern society everyman requires a certain amount of competence in basic mathematics for purposes of handling money, prosecuting daily businesses, interpreting mathematical graphs and charts and thinking logically.
In concluding this section therefore, Mathematics Education must contribute towards the acquirement of these values: knowledge and skills, intellectual habits and power, desirable attitudes and ideals that are indispensable tools for a successful and balanced human existence.
In the light of the above, Mathematics Education has been given its rightful place in curriculum development in Nigeria Educational History and System.
During the last fifty years there had been unprecedented efforts in curriculum reforms in Mathematics education in Nigeria, from the indigenous innovation of the Africa Mathematic Programme (AMP) (The Entebbe Mathematics (19611969), through the formation of Nigeria Educational Research Council (NERC) in 1969. Inspite of the efforts made by these bodies, recorded students failures were on the rise.
Subsequent councils, workshop and conferences were to salvage the trend eventually and gave a solid foundation to mathematic education curricula developments and implementation. To name but a few of such events are: The Benin Conference (1977), The Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (1976) that took care of secondarylevel mathematics syllabus and The National Critique Workshop at Onitsha (1978).
The conference consequently formulated and adopted, unanimously, the following objectives for teaching mathematics in Nigeria secondary schools: i.To generate interest in mathematics and provide a solid foundation for everyday living ii.To develop computational skills
iii.To foster the desire and ability to be accurate to a degree relevant to the problem at hand iv.To develop and practice logical and abstract thinking
v.To develop capacity to recognise problems and to solve them with related mathematics knowledge vi.To provide necessary mathematical background for further education vii.To stimulate and encourage creativity
Despite the laudable efforts at developing an acceptable General Mathematics curriculum, students’ performance in the subject appears to be declining over the years.
To alleviate the situation in 1989, the National Mathematics Centre was established. Chief amongst its functions include: i.To encourage and support activities leading to the improvement of the teaching and learning of mathematical sciences at all levels. ii.To tackle national set goals in the development of mathematical sciences. iii.To inject mathematical education to the rarefied area of theoretical mathematics with a view to increasing the number of mathematicians.
Given all these efforts, yet, as Adeniyi (1988) rightly observes, that one’s involvement in the marking of mathematics for the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) is enough to get anyone sorrowful at the state of Mathematics in Nigeria secondary schools. Some candidates submit their answer scripts without writing anything in them. Some candidates merely recopy the questions, while a high percentage of those who try to write anything at all score below 40%.
The question that readily comes to mind is: What are the factors responsible for students’ poor performance in mathematics in secondary school examination?
This project will therefore take a survey of the factors responsible for these failures, the effects on the students and future of our society, the attendant problems and proffer means of changing the trend of students’ poor performance in mathematics. In this effort, students’ performances in senior secondary school mathematics in Idah Local Government Area of Kogi State will be used as tool for analysis and investigation.
Fundamental to this quest are these questions that one seeks to address: 1.Are the teachers of mathematics adequately qualified and properly trained in their subject? 2.Is the excessive workload and lack of teacher training facilities at the root of poor performances of student? 3.Is the WAEC syllabus inadequate, irrelevant and ambiguous? 4.Are parents as committed to the progress and success of their ward? 5.How is the Mathematics taught in schools taught?
6.Has the taste for learning being diluted by the answercenteredness of most school teaching? 7.Is WAEC only servicing failures yearly with profit? Is that ethical?
These are some of the pertinent questions this research seeks to address.
1.2PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The researcher is aware without any iota of doubt that mathematics remains the most serviceable science subject to all disciplines and fields of human work and study. Also, acknowledge the efforts, commitment and painstaking dedication of policy makers, educationists and the government of Nigeria in ensuring and positioning mathematics teachers, schools and students towards selfrealization and national development.
Yet in the face of all these efforts the rate and degree of students’ poor performance in senior secondary school examination in Mathematics must now be a problem of national concern. Schools in Idah Local Government Area of Kogi State would be used as case study.
1.3STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study examines the factors responsible for students’ poor performance in mathematics in selected secondary schools in Idah Local Government Area of Kogi State. It looks at this dilemma from the perspective of Teacher/Principal factor, government factor, pupils factors, parents factor, economic factor, environmental factor, policy makers factor, WAEC factor and poor or nonavailability of learning facilities factor.
This topic is of immense concern to teachers because their status is being threatened with the poor performance of the students, while the parents also felt much worried because of the nonrealisation of their hopes on their children. The school administrators’ administrative skill is also brought to question with the poor performances of the students while the government is equally disillusioned because the students’ performance did not justify the huge expense on education.
Schools are established to accomplish specific goals and objectives and incidentally one of the most common criteria of evaluating the effectiveness of any school system is the extent to which the students perform in their examinations.
1.4RESEARCH QUESTION
In Nigeria educational circle, no question has been more topical in recent times than the poor students’ performance in public examinations and also the public awareness and concern about this has grown to such a dimension that it has become a subject of constant comment in the mass media. The choice of the topic of survey is therefore timely and most appropriate.
These research questions therefore become the necessary prompt for a deeper survey of factors responsible for students’ poor performance in mathematics in senior secondary school examination: 1.Do teacher factors constitute a significant problem in students’ performance in SSCE in Mathematics? Who teaches what is taught in school? 2.What is the nature of school environment in which teaching is done? 3.Does the students’ attitude and commitment towards mathematics constitute a significant problem in performance in SSCE mathematics? 4.Does teaching method constitute significant problem in students’ performance in mathematics examination. How is what is taught in schools, taught? 5.Does the lack of instructional materials, educational facilities and inadequate supervision constitute a significant problem in students’ performance in SSCE examination? 6.Do the parents’ inadequate provision of school material, indifference and broken homes constitute a significant problem in students’ performance in SSCE mathematics?
1.5HYPOTHESES
In finding solution to the problems stated earlier the following hypotheses were formulated: i.There is no significant relationship between teacher factors and students’ poor performance in SSCE in mathematics. ii.There is no observable relationship between the school environment and location and the students poor performance. iii.There is no proof of relationship between the students’ attitude and commitment and their poor performance in SSCE in mathematics. iv.There is no evidence of relationship between the teaching methods and students’ performance in SSCE in mathematics. v.There is no significant relationship between the lack of instructional materials, educational facilities and inadequate supervision and the poor performance of students in Mathematics at the SSCE level. vi.There is no reason to hold that parental indifference is evidence for the students’ poor performance in SSCE in mathematics.
1.6OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
Inspite of the alarming rate and degree of failure of mathematics no analysis of the problem is exhaustive. Hence, the researcher lends his voice to the increasing number of those who seek to identify the factors at the heart of the failure in mathematics and proffer remedies.
The objectives of this study therefore are;
1.To identify the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics. 2.To highlight for the public, policy makers and concerned persons the causes of student poor performance in mathematics examination in some selected secondary schools in Kogi State. 3.To propose ways by which the factors identified could be ameliorated.
1.7SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
It is the sincere hope of the researcher that by carrying out this detailed examinations of the causes of students’ poor performance in mathematics and proffering solutions, the findings and recommendations would be of a great help to every known group and individuals who have anything to do with the success or failure of the child in school: school administrator, classroom teachers’ students themselves, psychologists, teacher trainers, theorists, examination bodies, curriculum designers and professional associations will find here a systematic and appropriate remedies.
These will equally guide and guard the government at all levels and Ministries of Education, school guidance and counsellors and parents. It is hoped that this survey will help in improving the whole system in such a way as to induce better performance in mathematics examination at the secondary school level.
1.8SCOPE OF STUDY
The present study used five secondary schools in Idah Local Government Area of Kogi State. These schools the researcher has used to make a case in the survey of factors responsible for students’ poor performance in mathematics in senior secondary school certificate examination.
These five schools are listed below:
1.St. Kizito Seminary, Iyegu – Idah
2.St. Peter Secondary School, Idah
3.Holy Rosary Secondary School, Idah
4.Idah Secondary Commercial College, Idah
5.Idah Polytechnic Secondary School, Idah
1.9LIMITATION OF STUDY
The research work covered some selected schools only. Some other constraints such as; time, finance and mobility had its effects on the effort at making an exhaustive study.
2.0DEFINITION OF TERMS
To set the stage for our survey of factors responsible for the poor performance of students in mathematics. We present working definitions of the some terms. 1.Performance: Accomplishing or achievement of specific goals, objectives or set mark in any academic endeavour. It is one of the most common criteria of evaluating effectiveness of schools. 2.Curriculum: A sequence of potential experiences, set up in the school to discipline children and youth in ways of thinking and acting whether it is carried out in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. 3.Syllabus: A brief summary or outlined statement of the principal points of a course of lecturers or studies. 4.Innovation: is a way of changing and adapting for the purpose of attaining certain goals and aspirations. 5.Qualified Teacher:A teacher who has undergone a specialised training and possess a basic qualification in the subject, techniques of teaching and has become familiar with policies and professional activities.
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1INTRODUCTION
In this chapter the researcher presents the literature review of the study. The major focus is on the factors that are responsible for the alarming rate of students’ poor performance in Mathematics in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination this would be analysed on the following factors:
1.The Teacher/Principal Factors
2.Students’ Attitude and Commitment
3.The Method of Teaching Mathematics
4.The Lack of Instructional Material, Education facilities and inadequate Supervisors 5.The SocioEconomic Factor
6.Parents/Guardian Factor
7.The School Environment Factor
2.2THE TEACHER/PRINCIPAL FACTOR
The school is regarded by many as an extension of the Principal’s personality. The failure of the school is the principal’s and the success of the school is the principal’s success. A survey of factors responsible for the performance in Mathematics at the senior secondary school level puts the school administrator on the defensive. The buckingpassing exercise with regards to students’ poor performance most often stops at the Principal’s table. 1.Teacher’s Qualification/Experience
A survey of this nature must focus some attention on the quality and experience of teacher. Our educational programmes started crashing from the days of crash programmes. Teachers also were rushed through crash programmes to obtain N.C.E. Certificates. But without a broadbased education, these teachers have very little to offer. N.C.E. teachers who are supposed to teach only up to Junior Secondary School now teach even the seniors, in some cases have been appointed Assistant Principals and become WASCCE examiners in many subjects including mathematics. A poor teacher can only produce poor results.
The National Policy on Education (Revised Edition, 1998) spelt out the purpose of Teacher Education to be: (a)To produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our Education system (b)To provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any changing situation, not only in the life of their country, but in the wider world (c)To enhance teachers’ commitment to teaching profession
The National Mathematical Centre (NMC) (1988) set among its objectives, to train and develop high level personnel in the mathematical sciences including Mathematics, Mathematics Education, Computer Science, Theoretical Physics and Statistics for Nigeria and African institutions through Research, Lectures Series, Workshops, Conferences, Seminars and Linkages.
The National Teachers Institute (NTI) equally charged with the responsibility of providing courses of instruction leading to the development, upgrading and certification of teachers using the distance education techniques.
Others, like Mathematical Association of Nigeria (MAN) and Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) have as cardinal objectives, to promote effective mathematical teaching and research and to keep in touch with developments in science and its application to industry and commerce and above all to popularize science.
Despite all these efforts, the mumbling of discontent at the incompetence of teachers has been getting louder and louder without any coordinated plan of attack. Ali (1989) has the view that teachers’ incompetence in the new curriculum which made them operate almost at the same level as their students is another contributing factor to the students’ poor performance in Mathematics.
Ezewu (1986) highlighted the nine categories of teachers found all over the country in the nation’s secondary schools. These are the Grade II, the Pivotal, the WASC/GCE Ordinary Level, the GCE Advanced Level, the ACE, the NCE, the OND/HND, and the Graduates without teaching qualification. Of the nine categories, only four are qualified in terms of mastery of content at the secondary school level. In terms of professional competence, only two categories are qualified to teach the secondary school levels. These are the NCE and the Graduates with teaching qualification.
Studies have attempted to assess the mathematical competence of Mathematics teachers. HaborPeters and Ogoamaka (1991). The results have consistently shown that Mathematics teachers do not have knowledge of mathematics expected as a prerequisite to effective teaching.
Sidhu (2006) mastery of the subject is an absolute necessity for effective teaching. The teacher must possess a basic qualification in the subject, professional training, engagement in professional activities and personal enthusiasm for mathematics.
Scientific fact has established that motivation is necessary for effective work in any area of human endeavour. Sadly however, Akinwumiju and Orimoloye (1985) found out that secondary school teachers in the federation are least encouraged through conditions of service, remuneration and promotion prospects. Teachers have no substantial special allowances, very often unpaid for years; never own cars or houses of their own. For these reasons, teachers are disillusioned and forced to settle with a low selfconcept. Consequently, they are in no position to motivate their students who themselves see nothing to respect about the teachers. This too, has been contributing to the near total failure of candidates in senior secondary school mathematics examinations.
In many cases, teachers are largely responsible for loss of interest by students in some courses or subjects, especially Mathematics. 2.Teaching Experience Sidhu (2006) proposed for effective and efficient teaching for teachers, selective academic training, supervised Teaching Practice, inservice training and professional activities. The student teacher should get an opportunity of observing a few demonstration lessons by experienced teachers, and then should be required to teach classes on those lines. These lessons should be minutely observed and thoroughly discussed by a group consisting of his classfellows and a few experts. Such evaluation should take into account aspects such as class preparation, teaching techniques, management and control, personal and professional qualities and achievements.
This practice teaching should truly mark the beginning of mature, reflective and analytic thought in examining and solving teaching difficulties. In the recent time, a new trend seems to have emerged in the deployment of graduates of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) who are not professionally trained, inexperienced and undermotivated are used to fill in the gap of the scarcity of teachers. This has its toll on the students’ performance as well. 3.Teachers/Students Ratio
Ogunbiyi (1983) there is a plethora of literatures to show that our primitive secondary schools are hampered by scores of problem: shortage of welltrained teachers, inadequacy of teaching facilities, lack of funds to purchase necessary equipment, poor quality textbooks, large classes, poorly motivated teachers, lack of laboratories and libraries, poorly coordinated supervisory activities, interference of the school system by the civil service, incessant transfers of teachers and principals, overcrowded classrooms or laboratories, automatic promotion of pupils, the negative role of public examination on the teachinglearning process, inequality in educational opportunities.
For education to be effective, especially at the secondary school level, teaching staff strength has to be adequate. A studentteacher ratio of 40:1 may be considered adequate but the situation is far from this in many secondary schools in Nigeria. An actual ratio of 100:1 is known to exist in many secondary schools across the country. Under this situation, the teacher cannot perform effectively and efficiently.
For Odili (2006) wonders how a single teacher can take care of 50 students at a time. In most cases, the rooms are too small and poorly ventilated. It becomes difficult for the teachers to establish any close individual contact with the students.
Ajayi (1985) asserts that owning to the bloated classsize, the work becomes unwieldy and tedious; personal attention to individual pupils becomes impracticable, marking of assignments becomes tedious and burdensome, while compilation of results became a frustrating exercise. The resultant effect is the pathetic situation of poor performances in Mathematics examination.
4.Students’ Attitude and Commitment
Ezewu (1985) confirmed that a child who has a positive attitude towards what he learns will be highly motivated to engage in activities that promote learning thereby developing a positive selfconcept in relation to the total teaching environment.
One of the most important factors for improving performance is students’ involvement. By involvement it means how much time, energy and efforts students devote to the learning process. There is now a good deal of research evidence to suggest that the more time and efforts students invest in the learning process and the more intensely they engage in their own education, the greater will be their growth and achievement, their satisfaction with their educational experiences and their persistence in school, and the more likely they are to continue their learning.
But students, as much as research into the learning process has shown, are unlikely to learn unless they are somehow involved in the process of learning; they seldom learn much when they are treated simply as passive receptors.
For Balogun (1986), the students bring to the instructional setting his abilities, motivational propensities, personal background; home background, community values and these can mar, make or supersede teacher’s intervention of whatever quality.
Johnson and Rising (1972) see attitude as a mental state of readiness organized through experiences, exerting a direction or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related.
Attitude therefore is fundamental to the dynamics of behaviours and determines how far a student learns. Osafehinti (1986) posits that if a student has a positive attitude towards mathematics, he will not only enjoy studying it but will also derive satisfaction from the knowledge of mathematical ideas he gains.
Obodo (2002) explains further, if a student has a positive attitude to mathematics, he will definitely be interested in its teaching and learning.
For Salman (2004), most mathematics teachers do not make the teaching of mathematics practical and exciting and this leads to negative attitude to mathematics by students.
Sidhu (2006), the elements of novelty, usefulness and sheer intellectual curiosity are the primary stimuli for the awakening, maintaining the students’ interest in Mathematics.
With genuine attitudinal change, sustained interest and continual challenge, mathematics would no longer seem to the students a boring, useless to real life issues and increasingly incomprehensible but a subject that will be longed for.
2.6METHOD OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS
This calls for the examination of the qualities that anyone called a teacher should demonstrate to facilitate the successful discharge of the tasks expected of him. As Sober et al (1988) puts it: Teachers must know the stuff
Teachers must know the pupils whom they are “stuffing” And above all, they must know how to “stuff” them artistically.
Knowledge of subject matter alone is not sufficient; the Mathematics teacher should be effective and efficient in teaching methodology.
Cockcroft Report (1982) recommends among other means for effective and efficient mathematic teaching at all levels: Exposition by the teacher
Discussion between teacher and pupils and among pupils themselves
Appropriate practical works
Consolidation and practice of fundamental skills and routines
Problem solving, including the application of mathematics to everyday situation
Investigative work
For Sage (1977), this general teaching method is a set of teacher behaviours that are recurrent; occur in united and systematic manner. This creates the template for a sympathetic, wellinformed, competent, mathematical language
fluency and inspiring teaching and learning.
2.7INADEQUATE EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES
Educational facilities in terms of qualified teachers, well equipped laboratories, standard classrooms, standard libraries, recreational materials, instructional materials were inadequate in most of these schools. These constraints limit the chances of student success.
Egbugara (1995) suggests that science equipment centres should be set up in each state for the local production and servicing of laboratory equipment. Learning mathematics by rote can be discouraged if materials are available.
Ezewu (1985) observed that educational institutions from nursery to university require buildings for their effective operations. Classrooms, offices, assembly halls, laboratories and staff quarters are needed. Within the building there should be fixtures and fittings to make them useable, the infrastructural facilities. These are important items like furniture for staff and students, books, science equipment, games and sport equipment. The inadequacies of these were partly responsible for their massive failure rate. Failure to maintain public property after an initial zeal in installing them might be responsible for the poor performance of students in some wellestablished schools.
For Odili (2006) the establishment of a mathematical laboratory will reduce this defect.
Supervision of schools has not been conducted with the seriousness it deserves in the postinterdependence Nigeria. Ogunniyi (1984) reporting his research findings maintained that in states with well over 500 secondary schools, there were 10 or less supervisors.
Aiyepeku (1983) believes that modern school supervision in an effective means of instructional improvement in the schools, then other possible reasons for the mass failure could be attributed to lack of effective supervision.
2.8SOCIOECONOMIC /FAILURE SYNDROME
The poor performance in mathematics is only a symptom and consequence of the pervasive national failure and socioeconomic impasse.
Our aeroplanes fail to take off on schedule, our roads take many years to complete, our telephones do not work well, our electric power is constantly failing, there is constant traffic jam, students cheat massively during examination, civil servants, teachers, professors, farmers fail to do the work for which they are paid, examination leakages; has failure not being stamped on every endeavour? A state of affairs in which everything goes wrong and the normal machinery is powerless to correct things, societal goals are undefined, rich illiterates are venerated, academics are disenchanted and disillusioned. The natural consequence on education is poor performances.
There is no doubt as well that economic recession has affected every facet of the country’s national life, education not exampled. With this the government has being failing in most states to pay teachers their salaries, and allowances regularly, to provide adequate instructional materials. The same economic recession leads to poverty of parents who find it difficult to pay fees and purchase basic textbook for their wards.
For Obilade (1985) the growing wave of antiintellectualism in the country has also affected the young people today. One hears of schools being closed indefinitely so children could help their parents on farm, or for reason of voters’ registration. One witnesses uneducated people being actively promoted in society, while intellectuals are blamed for misadvising the government.
The young people of today are asking why they should struggle to pass any public examination when people who did not have much education are enjoying so much wealth.
2.9PARENTS/GUARDIAN FACTOR
Most times parents do not provide adequately their children school materials. Some parents are indifferent and disinterested in their children’s schools, broken homes and emphasis on materialism has grave negative effects on students’ performance in school.
There are plethora of literature to show that our primitive secondary school method of educating are hampered by scores of problems : shortage of well trained teachers, inadequacy of teaching facilities, lack of funds to purchase equipment, poor quality textbooks, large classes, poorly motivated teachers, lack of laboratories and libraries, poorly coordinated supervisory activities, inference of the school system by civil service, incessant transfers of teachers and principals, overcrowded classrooms or laboratories, automatic promotion of pupils, the negative role of public examinations on teaching and learning process, inequality in educational opportunities.
These problems enumerated above as well as others are bound to cause poor performance in mathematics examinations in our secondary schools. This affirms what a lot of researchers have given as factors responsible for students’ poor performance in mathematics. 2.10 The School Environment
Physical environment of the school affects academic performance of the students. For example, Bloom (1978) affirmed that environmental influences help the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Agreeing with the above, Ezewu (1983) noted that it is because of the effects of environment on the child that educators are interested in the child’s environment, as this, rather than heredity is the phenomenon they can easily control in order to enhance teaching, learning and achievement. Onwuchekwa (1985) explained that a conducive environment which includes the physical environment, the physical settings of the classroom, teaching aids to mention a few, enhance teaching, learning and achievement. It is a fact that surrounding environment of a student influences their performance. For example, the quality of the school building has a direct impact on student performance.
Students perform better academically in better buildings. Researchers have found that students in old buildings scored 57 percentage points lower than students in new buildings. Note that high performance school use various construction and design methods to improve the acoustical environment. This reduces internal noise and external noise factor like traffic. Another interesting factor to note is that daylight is a central component of high performance design. Providing natural daylight provides biological stimulation for hormones that regulate body systems and moods, provide opportunities for natural ventilation, and reduces the need for artificial light, thereby reducing energy costs. Adidipe (2007) concludes that the inadequacy of such physical resources like lecture halls, halls of residence, laboratories, libraries and other academic resources translate to poor results because it breeds over crowdedness. TEACHER’S QUESTIONNAIRE
The purpose of this questionnaire is to survey the factors responsible for students’ poor performance in mathematics in S.S.C.E. The survey is purely for research purpose and any information supplied will be treated as strictly confidential.
I always find it difficult preparing for mathematics class. Mathematics is dull and boring because it leaves no room for personal opinion. I hate teaching mathematics because there is nothing creative in it; it’s just memorising formulas and answers. I teach mathematics today because there is no alternative job and as a waiting job. I prefer teaching in urban schools than rural schools. I am always late to school everyday because the road to my school is inaccessible. My students are not challenging because the school location is not conducive for them. I go to school twice in a week because my school is located in a village. In my own opinion location of school has nothing to do with students’ achievement in mathematics. My students hate mathematics because it makes them feel uneasy and confused. 12My students enjoy mathematics and it is stimulating to them.
My students enjoy going beyond the assignment work and trying to solve new problems in mathematics. My students are interested and willing to acquire further knowledge in mathematics. My students show interest in mathematics and this will help to develop their skills and study the subject the more. I always use varieties of teaching methods when teaching a lesson in mathematics. I always like using lecturing method whenever I am teaching a topic in mathematics. I always find it difficult adopting a particular teaching method in any mathematics lesson. I love demonstration method and I always use it when teaching mathematics. Whenever I am teaching mathematics, I don’t even consider the method I am using because I feel it is not important.
A

Subject: High school, Learning,

University/College: University of California

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

Date: 25 March 2016

Words:

Pages:
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