1,000- to 1,200-word paper comparing the personality theories of Freud, Jung, Rogers, and Maslow. Outline how each theorist contributed to the study of personality. Identify the features of each theory that differentiate them from the other personality theories. Personality Develops Gradually Can be influenced Can be reinforced Personalities develop over time and are complicated. They are influenced by many different things including the external environment, reinforcement and conditioning. Is the ego always caught in the middle? Basically yes, and the pressures on it can be intense.
In addition to meeting the conflicting demands of the id and superego, the overworked ego must deal with external reality. According to Freud, you feel anxiety when your ego is threatened or overwhelmed. Impulses from the id cause neurotic anxiety when the ego can barely keep them under control. Threats of punishment from the superego cause moral anxiety. Each person develops habitual ways of calming these anxieties, and many resort to using ego-defense mechanisms to lessen internal conflicts.
Defense mechanisms are mental processes that deny, distort, or otherwise block out sources of threat and anxiety.
Carl Jung (1875–1961) Like Freud, Jung called the conscious part of the personality the ego. However, he further noted that a persona, or “mask,” exists between the ego and the outside world. The persona is the “public self” presented to others. It is most apparent when we adopt particular roles or hide our deeper feelings. 12. 4. 4 Carl Rogers viewed the self as an entity that emerges from personal experience. We tend to become aware of experiences that match our self-image, and exclude those that are incongruent with it.
12. 4. 5.
The incongruent person has a highly unrealistic selfimageand/or a mismatch between the self- image and the ideal self. The congruent or fully functioning person is flexible and open to experiences and feelings. Jung believed that, from the beginning of time, all humans have had experiences with birth, death, power, god figures, mother and father figures, animals, the earth, energy, evil, rebirth, and so on. According to Jung, such universals create archetypes (ARE-keh-types: original ideas, images, or patterns).
Archetypes, found in the collective unconscious, are unconscious images that cause us to respond emotionally to symbols of birth, death, energy, animals, evil, and the like Jung used the term personal unconscious to refer to what Freud simply called the unconscious: a mental storehouse for a single individual’s experiences, feelings, and memories. collective unconscious, or mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans. Two particularly important archetypes are the anima (female principle) and the animus (male principle).
In men, the anima is an unconscious, idealized image of women. This image is based, in part, on real experiences with women (the man’s mother, sister, friends). However, the experiences men have had with women throughout history form the true core of the anima. The reverse is true of women, who possess an animus, or idealized image of men. Jung regarded the self archetype as the most important of all. The self archetype represents the unity of the center of the self. Its existence causes a gradual movement toward balance, wholeness.