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Theories Essay Examples

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Crime and Mental Illness

Crime and Mental Illness Introduction             The increase of crime over the years, has led to various assumptions on the causes of these rapid escalations in crime. Hence, experts including psychiatrists have been engaged in this debate. Experts have been involved in the contention as to whether mental disorders and their symptoms have a direct influence on the tendency to commit crime among the related people. The purpose of this paper is to consider the generic question about whether mental…...

Measurement Theory And The Foundations Of Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism - Introduction             There are several theories which have been put forward by scientists to explain the actions of human beings and why people tend to behave in certain ways. One of the theories which have been put forward is the theory of utilitarianism (Weymark, 527-55). Utilitarianism is an ethical theory put forward by John Stuart Mill whereby he supports the value of utilitarianism in the society. Utilitarianism as describe by Mill is that it is a moral theory…...

Theories of Management in Tesco

Theories of Management in Tesco Introduction             Management is the administrative process which entails strategic planning, devising aims, administering resources, arranging financial aspects and human assets needed to attain goals and evaluating outcomes (Thompson & McHugh, 2009). According to Hitt et al, 2009, management is the process of performing job using financial, human and other resources. Tesco has been practicing some management theories in the running of the organization, some of them are explained in…...

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Social interactionism: an introduction, an interpretation, an integration

A theory is a coherent group of general propositions that are tested, regarded as correct and can be used as principles (Thomas, 2012: p243). Through the study of sociology and other disciplines, different theories have been developed. These theories are developed with an aim of explaining different facts and events experienced by human beings. Some of the proved theories include interactions theory, labeling theory, structural functionalism theory, moral panic theory, conflict theory among others. Interactionism theory refers to the ways…...

Harlow’s Theory: Love

The feeling of love is, deep, soft, satisfying. Because of its affectionate and intimate nature it is viewed by some as an inapplicable topic for experimental research. But, whatever our own perception may be, our assigned mission as psychologists is to analyze all facets of human and animal behavior into their component variables. (scientific American , June 1959) Therefore as far as love or affection is concerned, psychologists have been unsuccessful in this quest. The few things we know about…...

Understand theories, principles and applications of formal and informal assessment

In this project I will briefly discuss the various kinds of assessment available to myself as an instructor in the long-lasting knowing sector, highlighting some techniques of assessment and their qualities and the involvement of IT as an evaluation resource and students in the evaluation procedure. There are primarily 4 different types of evaluation used whilst mentor in the long-lasting knowing sector, all as vital and appropriate as each other; they are Preliminary evaluation, Diagnostic assessment, Formative assessment and Summative…...

Louis Menand's Three Theories

More people than ever before are attending college due to the endless opportunities that it provides. Louis Menand, a college professor and the author of “Live and Learn: Why We Have College,” explains the meaning of college through three theories that have been developed. Theory 1 supports the idea of the sorting-out process that separates the highly intelligent from the less intelligent. Menand’s second theory explains that college provides opportunities for developmental growth, personal growth, and teaches individuals about the…...

?Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of DSM-IV TR

DSM-IV TR, which stands for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), Text Revision was published by the American Psychiatric Association in 2000 and serves as a guide book for many health professionals to diagnose a patient with a mental disorder. It also helps health professionals to determine what types of treatment could be carried out to help the patient. The latest DSM is widely used, especially in the USA and many European countries.1However, it may not be…...

Michael Porter Diamond

Michael Porter put forth a theory in 1990 to explain why some countries are leaders in the production of certain products. His work incorporates certain elements of previous international trade theories but also makes some important new discoveries. He identifies four elements present to varying degrees in every nation that form the basis of national competitiveness. Analyze the current situation of Japan using the four elements of Porter’s national competitive advantage theory. Suggested Answers: Factor conditions Japan possesses relatively weak…...

Leadership Theories

“Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” (Northouse, 2012). The learner had to identify and compare four theories of leadership. The theories selected to analyze by the learner are contingency, behavioral, transformation, and transactional. For a better understanding of how these theories will fit into her desired line of work, these theories must first be defined. According to Northouse (2012), “Contingency Theory is a leader-matched theory that tries to match…...

Planning Baby Case Study

As the Smith-Garcias are planning for their baby, they have to decide which principles from each of the theories they have researched that they will practice. The first of these theories is Skinner’s Operant Conditioning in which an element of reinforcement and punishment is utilized to shape the child’s social and behavioral skills. It will be the parent’s job to reinforce wanted behavior and punish unwanted behavior. For example, if the child throws a temper tantrum, her parents might put…...

Personality Theories

Individuality is expressed through unique behavior, also known as personality. Personality can be broken down into four perspectives, psychoanalytic, humanistic, social cognitive, and trait. Each perspective describes in detail what helps compare and contrast individuals to one another. Personality theories go into further detail from the perspective. Assessing personality has been around from years, yet it is still questioned whether it is reliable. Psychoanalytic perspective describes the how the unconscious mind helps mold personality. According to Sigmund Freud, this perspective…...

Change and Conflict Theories and Change Agent

What does it require to for an organization to end up being successful? Research study recommends that an effective organization is one that is infused with skilled, determined staff members who have been formed to succeed. Nevertheless, this procedure takes effort from both sound management and determined workers. If either is not totally committed, then failure makes sure to follow. On the other hand, if done effectively, any company will end up being enriched with workers who will constantly aim…...

Theories of Social Phobia

Social Phobia, also know as Social Anxiety Disorder, affects between 7 -13% of individuals in western society (Furmark, 2002). It usually presents during adolescences and is typically chronic and lifelong (Veale, 2003). Two theories have been commonly used to explain the development and maintenance of the phobia: learning theory and cognitive theory. Both theories alone do not provide a comprehensive treatment plan, however when used in conjunction are much more effective. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) identifies both behavioural and cognitive…...

Bowlby’s attachment theory

This essay will describe and evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment and maternal deprivation hypothesis. The essay will describe the two theories, weighing up the strengths and the weaknesses. It will include supporting research by Shaffer and Emerson, Ainsworth and Harlow, along with criticisms by Rutter. John Bowlby (1907-1990) was a child psychiatrist. He was psychoanalytically and medically trained. In 1945, after returning from serving in the armed forces medical service, he secured a position as head of the Children’s Department…...

Analyze Two Main Theories of Motivation Namely: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Herzberg Two-Factor Theory

INTRODUCTION From as early as the beginning of the 20th Century, corporations began to realize that motivated employees are a strategic necessity in the harshly competitive and fast paced market place. This new understanding or paradigm shift brought to an end the era of coercive, machine-like workplaces where employees were considered to be just another input in the production of goods and services. Hence the reason, there has been substantial research that has been done and is still being carried…...

Theories of Communication

Communication is a transactional process and in a health context it is an important part of health and social care. Communication is an essential, instrumental and purposeful process. The communication transaction is one of sharing information using a set of common rules. In health and social care communication is a planned process the effectiveness of this planned process comes to fruition when the audience has achieved, acted on or responded to a message. The basic representative model of communication is…...

International Trade Theory

Abstract In this reading a number of international trade theories are explained to help the reader better understand why it is beneficial for a country to engage in international trade, and explains the patterns of international trade that is observed in the world economy. It is understood how the theories of Smith, Ricardo, and Heckscher-Ohlin all make strong cases for unrestricted free trade. In contrast, the mercantilist doctrine and, to a lesser extent, the new trade theory can be interpreted…...

Social Cognitive Theories

SOCIAL COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORIES Social Cognitive views have been influenced by the humanist idea of uniqueness of human beings, that human beings are decision makers, planners and evaluators of behavior. Key Concepts: Social cognitive learning theorists emphasize the importance of both the influences of other people’s behavior and of a person’s own expectancies on learning, and also that observational learning, modeling can lead to the formation of patterns of personality. Thought and behavior are closely interlined with the situation the…...

Theories Provide Framework

Theoretical Framework The following theories provide framework of this research. This study was anchored on the Theory of Kramer (1995). “The Texture Measurements of Foods: Psychological Fundamental, Sensory, Mechanical, and Chemical Procedures, and their Interrelationships (1995),” that sensory quality of foods, being a psycho-physical phenomenon, should be systemized or classified accordance with the sense by which the various attributes of quality are perceived by the consumer. The following attributes are used to determine and measure the quality of a product:…...

‘Social learning theorist’ - Tina Bruce

Tina Bruce is known as a ‘Social learning theorist’ whose work has been greatly influenced by theorist Fredich Froebel. Bruce originally trained and worked as a teacher at the Froebel Institute and then went on to become Head of the Froebel nursery school. Throughout her time Bruce has become an acclaimed figure within childhood education writing many well known articles and was subsequently awarded a CBE for her services to early childhood education in 2009. (4) Tina Bruce bases her…...

Kohlbergs Theory

PSYCHOLOGY Introduction Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. The theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor. Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice, and that it continued throughout the individual's lifetime, a notion that spawned dialogue on the philosophical implications…...

Attachment Theory

In this essay I have selected 3 different theories, which will focus on human growth development theories, I will demonstrate my understanding of each theory and explain the psychological disturbances which are linked to each one and demonstrate how these theory can be off use to the counsellor in therapy. John Bowbly (1969) and Mary Ainsworths (1974) known, as the mother and father of attachment theory both became key figures in contributing to child development, with their ideas of personality…...

Theories of Intelligence

Intelligence testing article analysis Human intelligence is the mental value composed of the abilities to learn from experiences throughout one’s life and adapts to new circumstances, comprehends, and accepts intellectual theories, and utilizes that knowledge to manipulate one’s own environment. Societal expectations have emotional influence on a person’s perception of human intelligence. For example, when someone can think quickly, it is connected to fluid intelligence, which is similar to critical thinking, a person has the capacity to form concepts, think…...

Abnormal Psychology of Lindsay Lohan

For one to be classified as psychologically abnormal, he or she must display the four mannerisms of abnormality, known as "the four D's: dysfunction, distress, deviance, and dangerousness. I am certain that the Hollywood star, Lindsay Lohan, meets the qualifications of abnormality. Lindsay's behavior prevents her functioning normally in life. Lindsay Lohan's addiction to alcohol and her drug abuse has landed her in and out of jail and as well as rehabilitation centers numerous times. According to CNN, "Lindsay Lohan…...

Compare and Contrast of a Two Grand Theories

Virginia Henderson (1897-1996) is a Nursing Grand Theorist who was often referred to as the “first lady of nursing.” In the article by Nicely (2011) it depicts how she developed a nursing model which is based on activities of daily living. She believed that nursing as a profession stood separately from medicine. In this article, I was able to decipher how Henderson’s theory is applied to the specialized area of organ donation for transplantation. It is reflected that although organ…...

Human Relations and Communications: Theories Present in Education Today

Human relations, interactions and communication are the foundation of educational leadership. As with most businesses, the need for strong leadership and communication is more important than ever, especially because of the growing accountability of schools and school systems. In order to work well within the organizational environment of a school, superintendents, coaches, teachers, parents, community members and students must be able to communicate in a variety of effective modalities (Razik & Swanson, 2010). Behind these modalities are human relationship concepts…...

Theories Help Explain Drunk Driving

Driving while intoxicated persists to be a major problem amongst teenage drivers. Although there are many precautions taken in order to prevent this type of activity, whether by the school, media or parents’, teens proceed to place themselves into these very high risk situations. These persistent behaviors drive us to look further into why teens partake in this type of activity or better yet what and who is influencing this age group. As asked by the principal I will attempt…...

Maslows Hierarchy of needs

I am basing my Theory and Application on both Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Locke’s Goal Setting Theory. Theory and Application Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs was first published by psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1943 article, "A Theory of Human Motivation “. Abraham Maslow believed that that as humans strive to meet our most basic needs, we also seek to satisfy a higher set of needs. Maslow presented these needs in a hierarchy that consisted…...

Compare and contrast Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children

This essay will compare Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children. Also, show the differences between the two psychologist’s theories. Thus, by showing their similarities like in language and adaptation theories. Further, differences like Piaget’s theory on cognitive developmental stages and the schemas which are build to learn or accommodate new words or things. Vygostky’s theory differs to Piaget’s theory by his socio-cultural and language theories. Finally, bring all this points together by drawing a conclusion. Cognitive development…...

Theories of Child Development

"The term 'advancement' refers to the procedure by which an organism (human or animal) grows and changes through its life span" (Smith, Cowie & & Blades, 2003). Cognitive Advancement for that reason worries itself with how we process information; how we learn. There has actually been much research into cognitive development, and as an outcome the theory behind it has actually altered and established very rapidly over a reasonably short duration of time. This paper will take a look at…...

Compare the use of motivation theories at Center Parcs

I will be researching different job types in Center Parks so I can see the different management styles of each sector and I shall be looking at the motivational factors within the organisation. Three different job roles at Center Parcs and what theorist is involved. The first job I will be looking at is a Water sports Instructor, they’re looking for somebody who can windsurf, use a dinghy, a powerboat, a kayak and is confident in abseiling, rock climbing and…...

Ethical Theories Within the Film “Crimes and Misdemeanors”

In the last scene of the movie Criminal activities and Misdemeanors, I believe the imaginary philosopher Louse Levy's message was extremely similar to philosophy Jean-Paul Sartre and his theory on existentialism. Among Sartre's quotes, "Man is absolutely nothing else but that which he makes from himself." Levy is attempting to convey that we are in control of our options and we select our own happiness. In the final scene of the film Levy states, "We're all dealt with throughout our…...

Mental Disorder Research Paper

Mental stability or mental health is the way humans react to, think about, and feel about what goes on in their everyday lives. It is a psychosomatic and emotional state of being. Throughout history, people with odd or dangerous behaviors were seen as witches or ones possessed by evil spirits. These people were thrown in prisons or institutions to isolate them from others. Not too long ago, in the 1950’s with a great deal of research and much more highly…...

Psychological learnings of movie "Reign Over me"

Abstracted The types of psychological illnesses that the characters have in the movie “ Reign O’er Me”. Summary of the movie. Over view of Charlie Fineman and his symptoms that he displays. The symptoms that Alan Johnson shows, and the symptoms and characteristics that Donna Remar shows during this movie. What is PTSD, depression, bipolar, co-dependency, narcissistic disorders? What are the symptoms and treatments for these disorders? How does the actual song “Love, Reign O’er Me” link into this movie?…...

Modernization and Classical Dependency Sociological Theories

Modernization theory is the process of transforming from a traditional or underdeveloped society to a modern Western societies way of life. Basically, Modernization theory became the foundation stone of this evolutionary prescription for development. The theory is not homogeneous—numerous proponents disagreed on several key features. But in broad outline, the theory focused on deficiencies in the poorer countries and speculated about ways to overcome these deficiencies. It viewed traditional society as a series of negatives: stagnant and unchanging, not innovative,…...

Analysis of Abnormal Psychology in The Rain Man

"Of course I don't have my underwear. I'm definitely not wearing my underwear.... These are not boxer shorts. Mine are boxer shorts. These are Hanes 32... My boxer shorts have my name and it says Raymond...I get my boxer shorts at K-Mart in Cincinnati". (Rain Man, 1988) This quote from the popular movie Rain Man perfectly captures the disorder that plagues Raymond Bobbitt, one of the main characters. He is a very particular man who must always do everything on…...

Tripartite Theory of Knowledge

It’s arguably one of the greatest philosophical debates of all time; what does it mean to know? The Tripartite Theory is a model that tries to define individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions to know a proposition. Edmund Gettier wrote a three page paper that philosophers to this day are still trying to debunk. This essay investigates how Gettier shows that the Tripartite Theory of Knowledge fails, which then leads to a discussion whether the theory can ever be fixed.…...

The social process theory

The social process theory draws the conclusion that criminals were raised in an environment that forms them to make unlawful decisions. People are influenced by what they are taught and their surroundings such as where they were raised, their guardians, and people they associated with. Individual’s actions and thought process will be based on what their first instinct is and their first instinct will be what they know best. For example, if a boy is raised in a home where…...

PSY 250. The biological and humanistic theories

Week 3 ~ DQ #3 When do you think you can see someone’s biological influences? As an infant? As a toddler? As an adult? Provide a justification for your answer. Biological influences are hard to measure because as a human you can change depending on your personal surroundings and the influential people in your life. I personally feel that you can be able to see ones biological influences as an infant because children at this age have been said to…...

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