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RENE DESCARTES PROOF OF GOD'S EXISTENCE: ACRITICAL EXPOSITION

The question of God is a perennial subject of debate in the history of philosophical scholarship and can be located in nearly all the epochs of philosophy. The subject however occupies a central space in the medieval epoch that was characterized by religious thinkers. The debate is largely between two schools of thought. There are those who opine that there is no such entity as God. To such thinkers, the question of God does not amount to anything but is…...

Comparison Paper 1: Effective Biblical Counseling

The debate over proper models to use in counseling is one that Dr. Larry Crabb focuses on in his book, Effective Biblical Counseling. He explores the relationship that people have with each other as well as with God. Crabb provides the readers with a variety of approaches that can be used with intergrating the word and counseling. Primary Goal Author Lawrence J. Crabb opens by highlighting his prior book, Basic Principles of Biblical Counseling. In his introduction he points out…...

Theology Reflection Paper: Fall of Man and Temptation

For my Theology assignment, I will be reflecting on two topics that have given me a better understanding of what it means to be a Christian. Since I was young I have always been taught a basic knowledge of what it means to be a Christ follower but understanding the significance of being a Christian has deepened my knowledge even more. The two topics I will be reflecting on are the Fall of Man and Temptation. Both of these topics…...

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To err is Human, to forgive is Devine

Everyone makes mistakes, commit sins at some point in their life. It’s human nature to make mistakes. But to forgive someone from those mistakes is indeed very hard. It doesn’t happen naturally like making a mistake. People are acting in a godlike (divine) way when they forgive. One almost have to be in a real holy place in their mind and heart to forgive someone. So the proverbs are trying to say “To err is human” is human to make…...

Theology Reflection Paper: Nature of God and Sin

Introduction For my two topics I choose The Nature of God and Sin Nature (the nature of man). The two topics are obviously complete opposites but as a child most of what I knew about God came from the sinful nature of family that I looked up to and later how I learned to recognize and pray for my current sinful nature was from learning the actual Nature of God. In this paper I will explain how the two topics…...

Reflection Paper for Philosophy of Religion

Religion has been as part of society as far as its beginnings. All ancient human civilization had some sort of belief in a God or the transcendent. Beliefs have always been an issue within any human society. The belief of the transcendent gives humans a chance or hope for eternal happiness for people who abide their beliefs. But through out history, different religions and beliefs emerged which gives rise to the inconsistency. There are numerous differences between religions: one versus…...

Thomas Aquinas' Five Ways for the Proof of God's Existence

Thomas Aquinas' weakest argument is, without a doubt, the argument from gradation. In Aquinas' fourth way, God is defined as the Absolute Being which, in a sense, is used as a yardstick for the measurement of all qualities. There is a belief that some things are better than others, which can be applied to all things, but can it really be applied to everything? Is one rose better than another if equal in age and care? Who determines which one…...

God in Augustinian and Irenaean Theodicy

The problem of evil is a considerable and long-lasting philosophical and doctrinal dispute. A question is often raised and gone over: if God is both all-loving and all-powerful, then how can evils-including natural evil and moral evil-- exist in our world? In action to the charge that the evils of the world are incompatible with God's omnipotence and ideal goodness, the word"theodicy" is coined to handle the problem of evil. Normally it is an effort to reveal that it is…...

Theology and Christian Views in Dialogue with Trypho

In his work "Dialogue with Trypho" Justin Martyr in a form of a dialogue presents the views quite contrary to what it is usually taught. A well-known idea of Jews being the chosen nation favored by God is rejected. Justin Martyr is trying to find logic underneath God's wrath, and his line of argumentation, based on analysis of the Old Testament, does emphasize the idea that Jews were punished by Mosaic rules for improper behavior. Jews are the chosen nation…...

Liberation Theology and Matthew's Gospel

It is said that the ideas of Liberation Theology espoused by the more liberal elements of the Catholic Church is found the gospel according to (Saint) Matthew. one of the four major gospels in the New Testament. From the word itself, the words written here imply the truth and is considered sacronsanct and leaves no room for doubt. The gospel essentially states that Jesus is the messiah sent by God to the world. The question is how is Liberation Theology…...

Integration of psychology & theology

The worldview of Christian counseling is that activity which delves into helping people grow constructively in all aspects of their lives through a caring relationship and it is done by counselor with Christian assumptions and values. Alister E. McGrath, in his book Christian Spirituality (1999) states that spirituality comes from Hebrew “ruach” which has a set of meanings from spirit, breath to wind. In counseling however it refers to the pursuit for an authentic and fulfilled life, that comprises; taking…...

Descartes’ Discourse on the Method

None of the proposed philosophical theories is exact, not even a combination of two or more theories (Sayre, 2011). However, Descartes has unique way of metaphysical argument concerning existence of God. Descartes’ Discourse on the Method (Part IV) ends surprisingly with a claim of God’s existence, which can be deduced from the interrelationship between mind, soul and our existence. Descartes began the fourth section by discussing about himself. The reading up to the point where he gives credit to a…...

Thomas Aquinas on Perfection of God

Thomas Aquinas' weakest argument is, without a doubt, the argument from gradation. In Aquinas' 4th method, God is specified as the Outright Being which, in a sense, is utilized as a yardstick for the measurement of all qualities. There is a belief that some things are much better than others, which can be used to all things, however can it truly be applied to everything? Is one increased better than another if equal in age and care? Who identifies which…...

A Brief Reflection on St. Augustine’s Confessions

St. Augustine uses his focus on the fact that God may exists in the same extent which wisdom and truth exists, which is as concepts or ideas in the mind but not reality. He shows that there is evidence of God but not a powerful creator. To Augustine, God exists but requires him to exist for the basis of his argument. St. Augustine focuses on memory as an unconscious knowledge, which eventually leads him to his knowledge of God. Augustine…...

Thomas Aquinas

Introduction As I was a Christian, my parents use to ask me to read different types of books about God and religion. One of my favorite books that I had read during my high school years was a book by Thomas Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas believed in a unique combination of faith and reason in his believes of God, and had brought up five different arguments on his believes in political and ethical in the existence of God. 1st: The First…...

The Probability Of God

H. J. McCloskey, a renowned philosopher in the mid 20th century, wrote a provocative article in 1968 titled, “On Being an Atheist”. McCloskey argues for atheism as the preferred and better belief system based upon his refutation of the theistic arguments. He argues against the existence of God by attempting to refute the cosmological and teleological arguments; as well he endeavours to discredit a God based upon the presence of evil. In doing this, he extends the boundaries for arguing…...

Worldview Assignment

Every day is a gift and one we should never take for granted. The way we perceive the world around us takes critical thinking and a strong and faithful framework to help guide us through life. The world we live in gets harder and harder and moral responsibility is constantly being challenged. Having a worldview based on structure and faith is crucial to one’s everyday life. In their book, Consider, Dr. Lew Weider and Dr. Ben Gutierrez explain that a…...

The implications of unmoved mover within Aristotle’s Metaphysics

The first book of Aristotle’s works on logic is known as the Categories. This book tends to list the grouping into which objects naturally fall. According to Aristotle, by grouping objects, people can know them fully. These categories include the substance, quantity, quality, place, time, relation, state, position, action and affection. The substances are things such as man and horse, quantity are terms that relate to the cubits and feet. The term quality is for attributes such as white. According…...

Enlightenment, Transcendentalism, and Puritan Theology

Knowledge, transcendentalism, and puritan theology: 3 philosophies that formed 3 centuries in America. Given that the time periods of each philosophy overlapped with the others, all 3 had resemblances as well as differences. From these approaches came different writers with different views, shaping American prose. A significant Enlightenment author was Thomas Paine. Thomas Paine composed a piece called "The Age of Reason." In this piece he totally incorporated the ideologies of the Enlightenment. These included the belief in the perfectibility…...

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Rhetorical Analysis

In the sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” Jonathan Edwards, with a contemptuous attitude, attempts to provoke a religious revival in the Puritan communities of colonial America using the very powerful motivator of fear. He instills, very literally, the fear of God within the hearts of unconverted people within the church. Edwards renders his audience emotionally unstable with the terrifying body of his sermon, it allows his conclusion of salvation to be the solution of the entire…...

The Shack Book Analysis

According to “The Shack”, William Paul Young had to confront the issue of theodicy; how a loving god could allow such overwhelming pain, suffering and evil in the world he created. The overall thesis of the book seems to states that forgiveness is desirable. Matthew 6:15 states clearly the requirements of forgiveness, “But if you refuse to forgive others, your Father will not forgive your sins”. Young takes the time to address forgiveness which will require growth beyond the pain…...

Edward Taylor: Love Towards God

Living during the late 1600’s, Edward Taylor lived through a time of many hardships. With the constant battles between colonists and natives going on, he lived in fear of his home and life being in jeopardy. Yet, through this terrifying time, he wrote poetry that earned him the name of the best colonial poet. Some aspects that can be looked at of his writing are his style, subject matter, and tone. The first area of his writing is his style.…...

The Wesleyan Quadrilateral

This paper seeks to discuss the origins and four areas of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral, namely Scripture, Tradition, Reason and Experience. The paper also explains the relationship among the four areas as well as the reason why none of the other three can be more superior and significant than Scripture. Introduction The Methodist Church started in the mid-18th century out of the ideas of the English evangelists John and Charles Wesley. John Wesley, the older of the two brothers, particularly criticized…...

Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling

Introduction Traditionally, psychology and theology have stood in opposition to each other. Christian counselors felt that the relationship between the two disciplines is essentially adversarial. Those who tried to integrate psychology and theology were criticized for doing so. As time goes by, important insights about human behavior and the importance of spirituality have been highlighted. As such, the principles of psychotherapy and psychology could do well to heed the lessons offered by theology, specifically the principles of prayer, worship, the…...

Elizabeth Johnson-Revisonist Method of Theology

Elizabeth Johnson is perhaps one of the most preeminent Catholic theologians of the new millennium. The fact that she is a woman religious who writes from a feminist perspective adds to her unique and distinguished career. This paper will examine the revisionist method espoused by Elizabeth Johnson, in an effort to understand her approach to Christian feminism. An overview of revisionist methodology will be presented so as to understand the framework in which Johnson works. References to some of Johnson!…...

Understanding Faith And Reason Philosophy

We all have our reasons for everything, and we all have our some type of faith in us. Reason can be generally as understood as the principles for a practical inquiry, whether intellectual, moral, aesthetic, or religious. Faith, on the other hand, involves a position that some claim that is not, or at least presently, comprehensible by reason. Both faith and reason are sources of authority upon which beliefs can rest upon. As believers we are to put our faith…...

God Is The Wonderful Creator Theology Religion

God is the wonderful creator of the universe. He is all-knowing and all-seeing. Nothing escapes His notice. God is a special and intimate god who cares for and loves every single speck of creation He has created. God is the ruler of everything. He has complete and total authority over the universe. He has always existed and always will, and is so wonderful that He is best described by the word “indescribable.” God is good and God is just. He…...

Anselm's Ontological Argument for God's Existence

A look at theologist Anselm's ontological argument for God's existence which has been debated for almost a thousand years Anselm's Ontological Argument Saint Anselm of Aosta, Bec, and Canterbury, perhaps during a moment of enlightenment or starvation-induced hallucination, succeeded in formulating an argument for God's existence which has been debated for almost a thousand years. It shows no sign of going away soon. It is an argument based solely on reason, distinguishing it from other arguments for the existence of…...

Denial of Jesus Christ's Divinity by Arianism

A paper which studies a heresy which arose in the fourth century, and denied the Divinity of Jesus Christ Arianism A heresy which arose in the fourth century, and denied the Divinity of Jesus Christ. DOCTRINE First among the doctrinal disputes which troubled Christians after Constantine had recognized the Church in A.D. 313, and the parent of many more during some three centuries, Arianism occupies a large place in ecclesiastical history. It is not a modern form of unbelief, and…...

Atonement as a Concept of Theology

Atonement and Sin Atonement in the larger sense deals with a common factor which is sin. The definition is a making at on which points to a process of bringing those who are enstranged into a unity(Douglas, 107). It is a theological term which derives from the Anglo-Saxon. The word atonement appears eighty seven times in the Old Testament in the RSV Bible(Nelson, 55). According to Strongs Exhaustive Concordance, which is using the King James Version, appears seventy seven times…...

Thomas Cranmer's Theology of the Eucharist

Thomas Cranmer was born into a modest Nottinghamshire family in the year 1489. Although his influence and authority was all too apparent after his appointment as Archbishop of Canterbury, his family were little known and relatively poor. Cranmer's loyalty to his King and country ultimately led to his growth in stature, and his insatiable appetite for learning naturally drew him into contact with other contemporary continental reformers. Although he was not in essence to be seen as radical, for his…...

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