Their impact on air pollution in aspect of chemistry Essay
Their impact on air pollution in aspect of chemistry
INTRODUCTION The world’s engine and turbine systems have so far been powered by fossil fuels. In recent times however, there has been the rise of green gas or alternative energy use. Even cars that were traditionally powered by diesel and petroleum derived fuels have en modified to use green gas and fuel cell systems. Hybrid vehicles use energy systems that can be recharged and the movement system of the vehicle depends on refuel ling procedures like the use of green gas. The hybrid nature refers to the ability of the vehicle to use a blend of vehicles that are not necessarily limited to the conventional fossil fuels.
In 2001 the American administration embarked on a green vehicle project popularly known a freedom car initiative. Whereas the final goal of the initiative was to reduce pollution through the use of fossil fuels-free-vehicles, hydrogen is derived from the same fossil vehicles and is used t drive vehicles. In spite of this hybrid vehicles have had an impact on the nature and composition of environmental gas. The air pollutants form fuel burning appliances occurs as mixture of gases, solids (suspended particles) and liquids suspended droplets.
A mixture of particulates and droplets is commonly called aerosol; for this particular paper the tem smoke will refer to the entire mixture f pollutants from combustion; aerosol plus gases. “The pollutants in biomass smoke are essentially entirely created during the combustion process used and it does not exists in fuel before hand” as is addressed in Biofuels air pollution and health by Smith K. R pages 28. METHODOLOGY The study focused on the levels of concentration of green gas products. Other emission form hybrid vehicles and chemical effects on the environment.
This calls for undertaking a number of activities including recognizing a particular chemical pollutants emitted from hybrid vehicles as a potential environmental concern. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The research undertook a major step in recognizing the emission form hybrid vehicles in both qualitative and quantities manner. It also monitored the chemical emission in hybrid vehicles particulate their impact on air pollution. In particular the study focused on levels and chemical effects of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydro carbon, nitrogen oxides, dark smoke and particulates. PROCEEDINGS
Results indicate that hybrid vehicles and other auto mobiles are the major source of primary air pollutants. Transpiration is responsible for major air pollutants (over 50%) in the USA. “carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are major pollutions and it is for this reason that transportation is generally considered responsible for about 50% or current air pollution” as documented in studies in environment science 44, highway pollution by Ronald S. Hamilton page 10. The result from individual pollutants obtained from hybrid vehicle emissions are independently detailed as shown below. Carbon monoxide
It was identified as the largest part of hybrid vehicle emission. In complete of fossil fuels in hybrid vehicles is its chief source. “Without pollution controls these engines emits an average of 2. 9lb. Of CO for each gallon of gasoline burnt, or nearly one ton of co for each tow tons of fuels consumed” chemistry man and environmental change by J Calvin Giddings. This clearly indicates internal combustion engine is larger factor in world wide CO emission; it is actually greatest factor in any urban environment. Estimated Yearly World Wide Emission of CO by major sources Source Millions of Ton per year emitted Gasoline 123.
Coal 12 Non Commercial fuels 44 Particulates The concentration of airborne particulate matter emitted at combustion was found to vary with burning parameters. Particulate quality measured depended on temperature of smoke at a site where their collection from a hybrid vehicle occurred. At higher temperature more particulates are in vapor form and pass through trapping filters. Cooler gas has more of their material being condensed from vapor phases hence more is collected. Volatile organic compounds(VOCs) Is a mixture of compounds with lower boiling point fractions of fuels and lubricants as well as partly combusted fuels.
They are emitted into atmosphere at refilling through leaks in crack case and from the tail pipe. VOCs are a complex mixture of aromatic, olefins, aldehydes, ketones and aliphatic. Nitrogen Oxides They include nitrous oxide, N2O nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, dinitrogen trioxide and Dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5. The paper has emphasized on nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide since the rest are in relatively low concentration and low toxicity. Nitrogen oxide was produced in high concentration, has lower toxicity and reduced effects on health. It is converted to NO2.
Subject: Hybrid vehicles,
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 21 April 2017
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