The Wednesbury doctrine provides a sufficient test and the recognition of more European friendly proportionality test would be an unnecessary expansion of the frontiers of judicial review.The origin of wednesbury unreasonableness.Previously, wherever a body was awarded subjectively worded powers, the courts accustomed adopt hands-off” approach, as they were reluctant in intervening those body actions [Liversidge v Anderson]. However, some management over selections that were among the four corners of the general public body’s power was, however, felt to be guaranteed and legit.
This was the principle for the substantive that means of unreasonableness.
Remembering Provincial Bank homes vs Wednesbury Corporation, was the case that marked the occasion once the fundamental principles of unreasonableness were reaffirmed and elaborate. In his judgment, Lord Graham Greene had to travel on to think about the extent of the court’s power to intervene. In doing therefore, he provided the take a look at for unreasonableness, that declared that whether or not associate authority had acted, or reached a choice, in an exceedingly manner so unreasonable that no affordable authority may ever have come back to it’.
it had been outside the four corners of the ability that parliament had given to the choice maker and it had been so right and correct for the courts to step in. There are a number of cases where the concept of unreasonableness was used as a ground of JR. Roberts v Hopwood , Tameside MBC Bromley LBC v GLC; Wheeler v Leicester CC .However, unreasonableness has invariably been tough to pin down as a result of it’s such a subjective idea and opinions will clearly vary wide on whether or not a selected call is cheap or not.
Another side mentioned in British Airways Board v Laker Airways, was that it might be terribly tough for the courts to intervene on grounds of unreasonableness if the matter involved relations to higher political and constitutional affairs. Conjointly the courts have adopted the read that have a look at unreasonableness doesn’t offer ample protection for convention rights [ex p Smith and Other]. within the build up to the incorporation of the Convention of Human rights (ECHR), the domestic courts began to develop a additional rigorous application of the take a look at for unreasonableness, in those cases touching upon the basic rights of the national[ex p Bugdaycay]. Lord Diplock so, in GCHQ reclassified the fashionable grounds of review and most well-liked to use the term irrationality’ to explain Wednesbury unreasonableness’.The wednesbury case.
Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd. v Wednesbury Corporation  1 KB 223  is an English law case that sets out the standard of unreasonableness of public-body decisions that would make them liable to be quashed on judicial review, known as Wednesbury unreasonableness.In 1947 Associated Provincial image homes was granted a licence by the Wednesbury Corporation in Staffordshire to control a cinema on condition that no youngsters beneath fifteen, whether or not in the middle of Associate in Nursing adult or not, were admitted on Sundays. beneath the Cinematograph Act 1909, cinemas may well be open from Mondays to Saturdays however not on Sundays, and beneath a Regulation, the military officer of military forces during a neighbourhood might apply to the licensing authority to open a cinema on Sunday.The Sunday Entertainments Act 1932 legalized gap cinemas on Sundays by the native licensing authorities “subject to such conditions because the authority might imagine appropriate impose” when a majority vote by the borough. Associated Provincial image homes wanted a declaration that Wednesbury’s condition was unacceptable and outdoors the facility of the Corporation to impose.
The Court commands that it couldn’t intervene to overturn the choice of the litigant just because the court disagreed with it. to own the correct to intervene, the court would have to be compelled to conclude that:in creating the choice, the litigant took under consideration factors that ought to not are taken under consideration, or the litigant didn’t take under consideration factors that have to be compelled to are taken under consideration, orthe decision was thus unreasonable that no affordable authority would ever think about imposing it.The court command that the choice didn’t constitute any of those classes and therefore the claim failing. As Lord Greene man same (at 229),We must discuss relationship between unreasonableness , irrationality and proportionality. Whether there three are separate grounds or whether irrationality and proportionality are developments of the unreasonableness.
The wednesbuary principle has both the advantages and disadvantages. When we consider about the advantages of this wednesbury principle we come across several facts. They are simplicity, flexible than concepted, based on a constitutional foundation and when there is such a ground it can be used to offend the wrongdoings of the public authority. As well as when we consider about disadvantages of this concept we come across through these facts. They are the judges decisions can be biased to a one party. The idea of reasonableness may vary from one judge to another. Is unreasonableness applicable to Sri Lanka?The wednesbury principle is recognized in Europe at the period of 1947. It is a general principle of community law. There after this concept came in to Sri Lanka.
Thereafter this concept prevailed and we used it to solve Sri lankan matters. In Ceylon body action is subject to preponderating judicial management by the exercise of the elemental rights jurisdiction of the Supreme Court’04 and therefore the exclusive right instrument jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal1 05 and therefore the Provincial High Courts.10 The Supreme Court has, over the years, borrowed heavily from the jurisprudence of the Indian Supreme Court and has currently developed somebody’s rights jurisprudence of its own. one zero seven The Wednesbury common place was a well established ground of review and contributed towards being a key element of discretional action partaking an equality claim in Ceylon.’ zero eight for example in Gooneratne v Commissioner of Elections,’°9 the Commissioner of Elections (the 1st respondent) created AN order whereby the Eksath Lanka Janatha Pakshaya (ELJP) was refused the standing of a recognized organization. The applier alleged that his right to equality, protected below article twelve of the constitution, was engaged inasmuch because the Commissioner of Elections had created AN order that was obviously unreasonable.
The Commissioner of Elections, on the opposite hand, wanted to ascertain that the ELJP failed to meet the standards necessary for recognition in sight of the amount of your time concerned, the necessity for demonstrating growth and therefore the crystallizing of. For this standing of human rights in Ceylon see eg Law & Society Trust Sri Lanka: State of Human Rights 2004 (2004). 10′ American state Waas Gunawardena v National Savings Bank,  two SriLR 29; Nasir v official, SC (FR) 251/96, SCM 3. 5. 98; Perera vJayaratne, SC (FR) 8/96, SCM 5.3.98; Ratnadasa v agent, SC (FR) (Spl) 66/96, SCM 16.12.97. 109  two SriLR one hundred sixty five.114 examination body political consciousness. Sharvananda CJ was of the read that the Commissioner of Elections had misdirected himself in law and had immoderately refused recognition of the ELJP.110
Sharvananda CJ found out that though, in terms of the relevant statutory provision,”1 the Commissioner of Elections was needed to make AN opinion whether or not registration was secure, this failed to confer upon him AN unbound discretion in respect of the matter. within the instant case the bottom of challenge was patent unreasonableness that vitiated the choice created by the Commissioner of Elections.The latest case for unreasonableness.In Thiranagama v Commissioner of Labour 2013 SLR 238 four the applicant, bereft of a meeting as a Labour Officer, challenged the premise on that a number of the opposite candidates for the position had been selected . The applicant was able to establish that he was higher qualified for appointment.
The Supreme Court command that the claimant’s right to equality had been infringed which the factors adopted for creating appointments was neither rational nor lawful. The Supreme Court has additionally had recourse to the principle of quotient for the aim of reviewing the quality of governmental action. In Premawathie v Fowzie” fivea telephonist, laid-off on the premise of charges that might not be established and afterwards reinstated in a very lower position (without back pay), created a claim that her basic right to equality had been infringed. The Supreme Court upheld the claim on the premise that the proper to equal protection of the law had been infringed by reason of AN impulsive, unreasonable and grossly disproportionate penalization being obligatory on the applicant by the general public Service Commission.
In Abeysekera v Competent Authority1 six the applier challenged the lawfulness of bound laws that wanted to impose censorship on the transmission of sensitive military data. The applier declared that her freedom of expression, protected by article 14(1) (a) of the Constitution, was infringed by this regulation. The Supreme Court command that the impugned lawsweren’t overbroad or disproportionate within the lightweight of the permissible derogations embarked on in article 15(7) of the Constitution. The court went on to carry that laws that vest capricious powers of censorship on body officers could also besmitten down if they’re overbroad, implicitly underscoring the principle that such Associate in Nursing investigation wouldessentially involve a quotient inquiry.
In Thiranagama v Commissioner of Labour 2013 SLR 238 four the applicant, bereft of a meeting as a Labour Officer, challenged the premise on that a number of the opposite candidates for the position had been selected . The applicant was able to establish that he was higher qualified for appointment. The Supreme Court command that the claimant’s right to equality had been infringed which the factors adopted for creating appointments was neither rational nor lawful. The Supreme Court has additionally had recourse to the principle of quotient for the aim of reviewing the quality of governmental action. In Premawathie v Fowzie” fivea telephonist, laid-off on the premise of charges that might not be established and afterwards reinstated in a very lower position (without back pay), created a claim that her basic right to equality had been infringed. The Supreme Court upheld the claim on the premise that the proper to equal protection of the law had been infringed by reason of AN impulsive, unreasonable and grossly disproportionate penalization being obligatory on the applicant by the general public Service Commission.
Lord Diplock in shaping irrationality’ expressed that it applies to a choice that is therefore outrageous in its defiance of logic or of accepted ethical standards that no wise one who had applied his mind to the question be determined might have came across it’. The vital purpose is that he instructed that it might stand on its own as AN accepted ground of review, then become a real extension of the ultra virus principle. However, it absolutely was criticized by Walkers’ wonderful Critic 1995, as in his definition his Lordship emphasized not solely illogicalness however conjointly immorality.
However, there’s some doubt on whether or not Wednesbury unreasonableness and unreason so square measure identical issue. As an example, Ex p Hands comb, wherever it absolutely was thought of whether or not a choice may well be contestable on grounds of each unreason and Wednesbury unreasonableness. However, despite some doubts regarding the prevalence of the term irrationality’ as a ground of review over Wednesbury unreasonableness, it’s needless to say that the afterward falls so much below the quality that public bodies square measure expected to show.How the proportionality has replaced unreasonableness irrationality.
Meanwhile, there was another different to the Wednesbury approach developed in English law by means that of ism of proportion, that could be a firmly established principle of Community law and additionally of ECHR. For instances, in cases ruled solely by domestic law, country courts are reluctant to recognize proportion as a definite ground of review except within the cases wherever Community law rights or obligations are raised [Stoke-on-Trent council v B&Q plc]. The live question was, therefore, whether or not they can proceed to use proportion as associate freelance head of review in cases that don’t have a Community law component. Paul Craig in his “Impact of Community Law on Domestic Public Law” cited variety of reasons on why this development is probably going to occur.The first reason why this is often therefore could be a consequence of the dynamic judicial attitudes to elementary rights , particularly once the incorporation of European Convention of human rights. The second reason why proportion is probably going to emerge as associate freelance head of review is in cases wherever the allegations is that’s the penalization or penalty that is disproportionate to the offence committed. The third reasons why proportion is so possible to emerge as a definite principle among domestic law is that it will contain a additional structured methodology through that to make your mind up whether or not associate exercise of discretion ought to be smitten down, as compared with the blunt tool (dull) of Wednesbury unreasonableness.
The concept of proportionality has its origin of Europe. It based on the premise that public authority may not impose obligations on a citizen except to the extent to which they are society necessary in the purpose of the measure.Proportionality could be a general principle in legal code that used to convey the thought that the severity of an offender’s punishment should fit the crime’s seriousness. The conception of quotient is employed as a criterion of fairness and justice in statutory interpretation processes, particularly in constitutional law, as a logical technique to help in discerning the proper balance between the sanction or social control obligatory and therefore the severity of the prohibited act. Beneath international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in associate degree armed conflict, quotient and distinction are vital factors in assessing military necessity.Because in Sri Lanka a limited rights have been recognized by the constitution. Therefore Sri Lankan needs this judicial review grounds.