Background of the Study
The Philippine National Railways (Filipino: Pambansang Daangbakal ng Pilipinas), or PNR, is a state-owned railway company in the Philippines, operating a single line of track on Luzon. As of 2010, it operates one commuter rail service in Metro Manila and a second in the Bicol Region. PNR restored its intercity service to the Bicol region in 2011. The Bicol Express runs on a daily basis between Manila and Naga.
PNR began operations on June 26, 1875 as the Ferrocarril de Manila-Dagupan, during the Spanish colonial period, and later becoming the Manila Railroad Company (MRR) during the American colonial period. It became the Philippine National Railways on June 20, 1946 by virtue of Republic Act No. 4156. The PNR is an agency of the Department of Transportation and Communications.
PNR used to operate over 479 km (298 mi) of route from La Union up to Bicol. However, continued neglect in past decades reduced PNR’s efficiency and railroad coverage. Persistent problems with informal settlers in the 1990s contributed further to PNR’s december In 2006, Typhoons Milenyo and Reming caused severe damage to the network, resulting in the suspension of the Manila-Bicol services.
In 2007 the Philippine government initiated a rehabilitation project aiming to remove informal settlers from the PNR right-of-way, revitalize commuter services in Metro Manila, and restore the Manila-Bicol route as well as lost services in Northern Luzon. In July 2009, PNR unveiled a new corporate identity and inaugurated new rolling stock.
On June 25, 1875, under a royal decree issued by King Alfonso XII of Spain, the required Inspector of Public Works of the Philippine Islands was requested to submit a railway system plan for Luzon. The plan, which was submitted five months later by Don Eduardo Lopez Navarro, was entitled Memoria Sobre el Plan General de Ferrocarriles en la Isla de Luzón, and was promptly approved. A concession for the construction of a railway line from Manila to Dagupan was granted to Don Edmundo Sykes of the Ferrocarril de Manila-Dagupan on June 1, 1887.
The Ferrocarril de Manila-Dagupan which constitutes much of the North Main Line today, began construction in July 1887 with the laying of the cornerstone for Tutuban station. The railway was 195 kilometers long at the time of its opening on November 24, 1892, running from Manila to Dagupan City in Pangasinan.
The maiden voyage of the Bicol Express was on September 13, 1931. The track from Dagupan to Legaspi was completely connected on May 8, 1938.
Later the Ferrocarril de Manila-Dagupan became the Manila Railway Company. It was nationalized and its assets were acquired by the Philippine government, which expanded the rail network, only to have most of those improvements lost during World War II.
Of the 1,140 route-kilometers before the war, only 452 route-kilometers were operational after it. The extensive damage to the system took several years to repair. During the 1950s the Manila Rail Company fleet of trains was converted from steam to diesel engines. The Manila Rail Company was given a new charter under Republic Act No. 4156, and the company changed its name to Philippine National Railways.
Natural calamities such as the 1973 and 1975 floods disrupted services and forced the closure of several parts of the main lines. On July 23, 1979, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Executive Order No. 546, which designated the Philippine National Railways as an attached agency of the Department of Transportation and Communications. In 1988, during the administration of Corazon Aquino, the North Main Line was closed, with trains unable to reach various provinces in the country. Even the South Rail was also closed due to typhoons and floods, and the eruption of Mayon Volcano in 1993, in which ash flows and lava destroyed the rail line and its facilities.
However, jeeps, buses and taxis were popular, and many people are swayed from the present service until 2009. The previous administration of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was actively pursuing the rehabilitation of the Philippine National Railways through various investments and projects designed to revive Philippine rail transport, despite the numerous problems involved. Total reconstruction of rail bridges and tracks, including replacement of the current 35-kilogram track with newer 50-kilogram tracks and the refurbishing of stations, were part of the rehabilitation and expansion process. The first phase, converting all the lines of the Manila metropolitan area, were completed in 2009.
On July 14, 2009, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo presided over the launch of the new diesel multiple-units of the Philippine National Railways. As part of its new image, a new brand name,PNR Filtrack was added.
The San Cristobal bridge in Calamba, Laguna was rebuilt in May, 2011. The Bicol Express train service was inaugurated on June 29, with a maiden voyage between Manila and Naga City plus a return trip back to the terminus on July 1. This inaugural trip was marred by the collapse of the embankment at Malaguico, Sipocot. It was discovered before the train passed through and was repaired. The restored Bicol Express intercity service is offered nowadays on a daily basis, running mostly during night time.
PNR Stations’ Main line
▪ Caloocan railway station – Sangandaan, Caloocan City
▪ Asistio Avenue – Grace Park, Caloocan City
▪ C-3 – Grace Park, Caloocan City
▪ Solis – Tondo, Manila
▪ Tutuban (Manila) – Tondo, Manila
▪ Blumentritt – Sampaloc, Manila
▪ Laong Laan (Dapitan) – Sampaloc, Manila
▪ España – Sampaloc, Manila
▪ Santa Mesa – Santa Mesa, Manila
▪ Pandacan (Beata) – Pandacan, Manila
▪ Paco – Paco, Manila
▪ San Andres – San Andres, Manila
▪ Vito Cruz – San Andres, Manila
▪ Buendia – Brgy. Pio del Pilar, Makati City
▪ Pasay Road – Brgy. Pio del Pilar, Makati City
▪ EDSA – Magallanes Village, Makati City
▪ Nichols (Bonifacio-Villamor) – Brgy. Western Bicutan, Taguig City
▪ FTI – Brgy. Western Bicutan, Taguig City
▪ Bicutan – Brgy. San Martin de Porres, Parañaque City
▪ Sucat – Sucat, Muntinlupa City
▪ Alabang – Alabang, Muntinlupa City
▪ Muntinlupa – Poblacion, Muntinlupa City [flag stop]
▪ Tunasan – Tunasan, Muntinlupa City [flag stop, no longer stops there]
Statement of the Problem
The study aims to determine the use of the utility as a tool for tourism promotion.
Specifically, we researchers seek answers to the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents?
b. Civil Status
2. How can PNR be a tool to help the tourism promotion in the Philippines?
3. What is the profile of the respondents and their perception with the utility of PNR and its contributions to the tourism promotion?
Objectives of the Study
To be know if the PNR trains can help promote the tourism industry in the country.
Significance of the Study
The researcher believed that the study could help the PNR administration to determine how they can be helpful to the Filipino people not just by being a transportation medium but also be a tool for tourism promotion.
TO THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RAILWAY ADMINISTRATION. The findings of this research could help the Philippine National Railway to make them an effective transportation but at the same time be a tourism delegate to promote tourism in the Phil.
TO THE TOURISM STUDENTS. The findings of this research could make them aware and knowledgeable regarding the PNR as a mode of transportation, and a tool for tourism promotion as related to their courses.
TO THE FUTURE RESEARCHERS. The findings of this research could help the future researchers who have a related topic on their research to have a reference and an idea about the Philippine National Railway.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study will focus on the use of the utility of the PNR as a tool for tourism promotion. That will be conducted within the Philippine National Railway station. The study will be conducted only for 3 months, from December to March 2011-2012. The researchers chose PNR Passengers as the respondent for this study.
Definition of Terms
The following definition of terms listed below is based on how we use it in our research and we choose these terms to be defined for all readers to know its meaning.
• PNR – in this study, it is the acronym for the Philippine National Railway.
• Philippine National Railway – in this study, it is the name of the railway where in the researchers will conduct the study.
• Utility – in this study, it is how we describe the facilities inside the train.
Review of Related Literature
Philippine National Railways, also known by its acronym, PNR, is a state-owned railway system in the Philippines, organized under theDepartment of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) as an attached agency. Established during the Spanish colonial period, the modern PNR was developed only in 1984. It currently operates around 1,060 kilometres of track on the island of Luzon, where most Philippine rail infrastructure is located. Because of this, PNR has become synonymous with the Philippine rail system.
A portion of the PNR network, specifically the Metro Manila portion of the network, is part of the Strong Republic Transit System (SRTS),) and overall public transport system in the metropolis. It forms the backbone of all of Metro Manila’s regional rail services, which extend to its suburbs and to provinces such as Laguna. However, other than reducing growing traffic congestion due to the rising number of motor vehicles in Metro Manila, PNR also aims to link key cities within in the Philippines efficiently and to serve as an instrument in national socio-economic development.
However, the meeting of that goal has been beset with problems regarding degraded infrastructure and a lack of government funding, problems that are being rectified with current rehabilitation efforts. The rehabilitation of PNR, which has been touted by various administrations, seeks to not only tackle those problems, but also to spur Philippine economic growth through an efficient railway system.
Plans to rehabilitate and expand the Philippine railway network has been made a top priority of various administrations, since such actions would not only reduce the burden on the Philippine road network, but also cut down on traffic congestion, reduce travel times and spur economic growth. The rehabilitation and expansion of the PNR network is one of the key projects in the ten-point agenda of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
So far, South Korea and the People’s Republic of China have offered to help restore Philippine railway services, with the former assisting with the rehabilitation and modernization of Southrail, and the latter helping to finance, build, and operate a rationalized Northrail service, as well as helping to rehabilitate and modernize Southrail as well. The Korean-funded portion covers the section of Southrail from Manila to Calamba, although present funding only covers the section of Southrail from Caloocan Cityto Muntinlupa City, which also serves as the Northrail-Southrail connection.
The Chinese-funded portion covers the section from Calamba to Legazpi and further on to Matnog, Sorsogon. The Korean-funded Southrail project was originally expected to cost some 50 million US dollars but now costs around 70-100 million dollars. No figures have been released for the Chinese-funded portion of Southrail.
The Northrail project involves the upgrading of the present-day single track to a dual-track system, linking Manila to Malolos City in Bulacan, and further on to Angeles City and the Clark Special Economic Zone, as well as Diosdado Macapagal International Airport.
This project is estimated to cost around 500 million dollars, with China providing some 400 million dollars in concessionary financing, as much of the right-of-way on Northrail will be brand-new. Construction began in
early November 2006.
Congress has lately passed a bill to restore, rehabilitate, and modernize old existing lines, and extend lines northwards to Tuguegarao City inCagayan and to Laoag City in Ilocos Norte, which could benefit from Thai financing, and the restoration of the two-line Panay Railway, which was not originally operated by PNR.
Figure no. 1
This study aims to show how capable PNR is when it comes to promoting tourism industry. It’s the only train who serves passengers up to Bicol region in the Philippines.
They are planning to extend it at the Northern Luzon and CALABARZON region as well. It seems to be that easy but it’s not. It will take so much time, labor, engineering and financial strategies.
This chapter presents the research design, research locale, respondents of the study, research procedure, research instruments and statistical analysis used in this study.
This study used the descriptive method of research. Descriptive research is a type of research that is mainly concerned with describing the nature or condition and the degree in detail of the present situation. This method is used to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular a phenomenon.
The aim of descriptive research is to obtain an accurate profile of the people, events or situations. With this research type, it is essential that the researchers already has a clear view or picture of the phenomena being investigated before the data collection procedure is carried out. The researchers used this kind of research to obtain first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study. The descriptive approach is quick and practical in terms of the financial aspect.
Descriptive type of research was defined by Creswell (1994) as the method of research used to gather information about the present existing condition. The emphasis is on describing rather than on judging or interpreting. The aim of descriptive research is to verify formulated hypotheses that refer to the present situation in order to elucidate it. Moreover, this method allows a flexible approach, thus, when important new issues and questions arise during the duration of the study, further investigation will be conducted.
In this study, the descriptive research method will be employed so as to identify the Effectiveness of the Philippine National Railways as a tool for tourism promotion.
The research was conducted at Philippine National Railway Tutuban station it is the main train station of the Philippine National Railways (PNR) and the main train station of the city of Manila in the Philippines. The name refers to two stations: the original Tutuban station, which today forms part of the Tutuban Centermall, and the PNR Executive Building, which houses PNR offices and serves as the current terminus of all PNR services.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of this study are randomly selected passengers who ride the train of the Philippine National Railways. A total of 100 respondents will be randomly selected. Along with primary data, the researcher will also made use of secondary resources in the form of published articles and literatures to support the survey results.
The survey questionnaire was used as the main-gathering instrument for this study. The questionnaire will be divided into two main sections: the profile of the respondents and the survey proper. The profile contains socio demographic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, civil status.
The procedure will be as follows:
I. A survey question will be given to the respondents.
II. They will write down their profile.
III. They will answer the survey proper that will determine the effectiveness of the PNR trains in terms of the following; a. schedule of trip;
b. ease and comfort of the ride;
c. traffic solution;
d. advantages and Disadvantages of the PNR trains; e. Help of PNR trains in the tourism industry.
Data gathered from this research instrument was computed for interpretation. Along with primary data, the researcher also made use of secondary resources in the form of published articles and literatures to support the survey results.
The study was conducted during the second semester of school year 2011-2012.
Respondents (X)Disadvantage (Y) XY
Uncertain Qualities302 60
Unpleasant View31 _1_ 31
WEIGHTED MEAN = ∑XY = 620 = 41
4. Help of PNR to tourism industry.
Table no. 4
|Can take lots of people from one place to another and enjoy each location. |69 | |You’ll see good scenery while riding PNR. |28 | |Can lessen traffic congestion. |91 | |Being with people and experienced local culture and lifestyle. |36 | |The train itself is a tourist attraction. |39 | |Can easily locate areas in a less period of time |55 | |Gives direct link of people from province to city. |57 | |Direct delivery of rural goods to the city, vice versa. |40 | |Gives the Filipino people the accessibility of travel. |85 |
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Table no. 1
30% of the respondents answered letter A, which shows that most of the passengers ride every day.
Table no. 2
44% of the respondents answered Fast as their first choice when it comes to the advantages PNR are giving. 37% answered Economical as their second choice, 48% answered Comfort ability as their third choice, 30% answered Meet and make friends with a lot of people as their fourth choice and 45% answered Safety as their fifth and last choice.
Table no. 3
53% of the respondents answered Crowded as their first choice when it comes to the disadvantages PNR are giving. 33% answered Security as their second choice, 44% answered Features that causes uncomfortable feeling as their third choice, 30% answered uncertain qualities of the service and the train itself as their fourth choice and 31% answered Unpleasant view of informal settlers as their fifth and last choice.
Table no. 4
This table shows the top five benefit of PNR in tourism industry. They believed that PNR;
1. Can lessen traffic congestion. 2. Gives the Filipino people the accessibility of travel. 3. Can take lots of people from one place to another and enjoy each location. 4. Gives direct link of people from province to the city, vice versa. 5. Can easily locate areas in a less period of time.
Based on the findings, The Philippine National Railway or the PNR contributed a lot in the tourism industry of the Philippines in terms of the speed of their train and also it is much affordable for the passengers. But there are things that bring PNR into bad impression because of their poor facilitation. The comfort room must be maintained clean and dry, most of their train are old and it may cause accidents.
The PNR may become a tourist attraction if they improvise and enhance the facilities inside of the PNR. There should be an entertainment area where the passengers may spend their time while waiting such as an onboard cart that sells souvenirs, pasalubongs, foods and drinks (in case the passengers need it for the long hour travel especially for the passengers who travel going to Bicol).
Based on the findings, there should be a ticket number for the passengers to avoid confusions and unorganized lanes. It must be a first come, first serve basis to have an orderly system. They must also improve the quality of the trains for the passengers’ safeness. It is important to know the quality of each train so that they can ensure that it may not cause any accident.
The PNR is very helpful to the transportation industry because it lessens traffic congestion and it is helpful for the passengers who travel going to Bicol because it is much cheaper than the other mode of transportation.