The Syrian Revolution: An Annotated Bibliography Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 5 November 2016

The Syrian Revolution: An Annotated Bibliography

Rania Abouzeid is a reporter for TIME magazine who is based in Lebanon. Most of her research is spent on the happenings in the Middle East such as her lengthy reteach on the Arab Spring. “Scenes From A Revolution” is a very descriptive account of a particular demonstration in Syria. This article focuses on creating a relationship between available statistics and personal accounts gathered by Middle Eastern citizens living through the revolution. This article does not focus on vague ideals; rather, it focuses on specifics, enticing those who are educated on the subject of the Syrian Revolution. It allowed me to approach this area of research on a more personal account. Baker, Aryn, Lebanon Buqaya, and Rami Aysha. “Deepening Divide.” Time 177.24 (2011): 24. TOPICsearch. Web 3 Apr. 2012.

Aryn Baker is the Middle East Bureau chief for TIME Magazine. She covers politics, society, religion and Arab Uprisings across the region. She also covers news in both Pakistan and Afghanistan for which her work earned her the title of Bureau Chief in 2006. This article addresses possible effects of the Syrian Regime. This piece discusses the Assad Regime in great detail. The setting of this article was based in the once serene town of Aarida. Baker magnifies the heartache of the women in this city as they fight Syrian Security for attacking their husbands and sons while protesting. She then steps back from modern day Arab riots in Syria and takes a glance into the future. Baker discusses the possibilities of what could happen if the Syrian government was to shatter. This article was very helpful because it offered detailed accounts of riots in the modern scope but then also provided analysis for a broader scope. Bell, Curtis. “Buying Support And Buying Time: The Effect of Regime Consolidation On Public Goods Provision.” International Studies Quarterly 55.3 (2011): 625-646. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Apr. 2012.

This paper by Curtis Bell is a revisionary copy of on presented at the 2010 conference of the International Studies Association in New Orleans. Bell is a University of Colorado graduate; he reviewed this piece in September of 2011. This marked his first publication of a journal for the Academic Search Premiere. This journal was very helpful as well as lengthy and detailed. It offered plenty of factual research in a myriad of different ways. This articles main focus was to create a relationship between the tendencies of Regime Leaders and the production of public goods. Baker attacks the fundamentals of how a leader in office must maintain his position of power.

He believes power is credited “to how regime consolidations changes leaders’ incentives to provide public good.” This journal is not too complex, for it spends ample time discussing logic of basic terms. Baker also uses many different types of research as his basis of support such as his educated hypothesis’, factual statistics, comparing of results, and an analysis of data. All of this information proved this article to be of great merit. Ezrow, Natasha M., and Erica Frantz. “State Institutions And The Survival Of Dictatorships.” Journal Of International Affairs 65.1 (2011): 1-13. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Apr. 2012.

Dr. Natasha Ezrow teaches at the University of Essex. Ezrow teaches in the Department of Government as the director BA of International Development. She received her BA at UC Irvine and her PhD at UC Santa Barbara. Ezrow’s most frequent topics of studies are with International Relations, comparative politics, and Middle East politics. Erica Frantz is the Assistant professor in Political Science at Bridgewater State University and is also a former political analyst at IPS, a non-profit multidisciplinary research institute in Washington D.C. Frantz received her PhD from UCLA in 2008 and specialized in Authoritarian Politics with expertise in the Middle East and in Latin America. Both of these authors co-wrote two books together both published in 2011. This journal’s topic resides with State Institutions and the Survival of Dictatorships. The journal begins by identifying how a dictatorship is defined, how they are perceived politically and how they are responded to within a society.

Frantz and Ezrow further discuss dictatorships such as how and why they rely on parties, what it takes for a dictatorship to survive, and the nature of this type of government ruling. This journal gave me a firmer grasp on the origins of authoritarian government and why certain governments utilize this style of ruling. “Syria: History.” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. 2000-2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 09 Apr. 2012 The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and distributed by the Gale Group. The Electronic Encyclopedia is updated quarterly and contains over 84,000 hyperlinked references.

Unlike many other English online Encyclopedias, an individual may access articles free of charge. This particular article from the database moves in chronological order, focusing wholly on the Assad Regime. This article begins with the year of 1970 when the Assad Regime leader was first elected. Specific details within main ideas are shared within this article. The growth of popularity for Assad, the Ba’ath party ideals, the reconstruction of the Syrian Constitution, and the effect of the authoritative government is all addressed within this article. It proved to be very helpful because of its well-rounded style. “Syria.” Backround Notes On Countries Of The World: Syria (2011): 1. Buisness Source Premier. Web. 3 Apr. 2012. The Buisness Source Premiere is the industrys most popular business research database. Full text is available from as far back as 1965.

This database is also stocked with over 2100 journals that remain available. Business Source Premiere offers additional full text such as, non-industry reports, country reports, company profiles and SWOT analyses. This lengthy piece offers a vast amount of statistical information. This piece was very beneficial when literally retaining the “lay of the land” of Syria, my topic of interest. Information on geography, population, demographics, unemployment rates, economic trends (growth rates), exports, and religious affiliations was available, clear and concise.

This piece not only listed valuable information but also then spends time delving into the inter-workings of the Ba’ath party. It furthers information on the Ba’ath such as how it effects the Syrian government, political conditions, religious beliefs, foreign relation, national security and its civilians. This article was beyond helpful because it offered straight-forward factual information and statistics that helped paint a better picture of my topic of research. “The Long Road To Damascus. (Cover Story).” Economist 402.8771 (2012): 25 MAS Ultra- School Edition. Web. 12 Apr. 2012

The MAS Ultra- School Edition is a database designed specifically for high school libraries. This comprehensive database contains full text for nearly 500 popular magazines including American Civil War, American Heritage, American History, and more. Full text on Ultra School Edition is also available for 85,670 biographies and more than 360 reference books. This article focuses heavily on the violence seen within the regime. This piece begins with the implication of various quotes from Arab locals whom live through the violence of the regime every day. The focus of this article resides with the people of Damascus and their pleads for help as they strive for reform in the Syrian government. Violence is nothing short of extraordinarily common in Damascus. This article weighs in on some of the most horrid stories.

These stories, however, fail to gain the angle of recognition desired by the suffering civilians of Syria. This article did not help me specifically with my research but it provided assistance on a more personal level. The detail of this piece allowed me to visualize the horrors on account of those living through it and willing to speak out. Thompson, Nick. “Homs: Bloody winter in Syria’s revolution capital.” 2012 Cable News Network, 4 Apr. 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. <>. is amidst the world’s leading source in online news and the delivery of information. Reporters are staffed 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The headquarters reside in Atlanta, Georgia, and in other bureaus worldwide. CNN relies heavily on its global team of almost 4,000 news reporters. features the latest and most valuable global stories. is updated continuously through out the entire day.

This article is a play-by-play of Syria and the warzone it has become. The ancient city of Homs is nothing more than a battleground of Syria’s 11-month-old anti-government uprising. Nick Thompson discusses the horrific sights seen day by day as dozens are reported dead nearly every day; even more are wounded on account of the everlasting violence. Thompson discusses the after fact of these daily protests, addressing the fact that Syria lacks the numbers of doctors and medicine that is needed. It is also discussed what civilian life prior to this revolution was like. This article was helpful because it dug deep into the homestead of Syria’s uprising’s in its most ethnically diverse and populated city. Walt, Vivienne. “Escape From Syria. (Cover Story).” TIME 179.11 (2012): 30 Middle Search Plus. Web. 12 Apr. 2012.

Vivienne Walt is a foreign correspondent, reporting for TIME magazine since 2003. Walt has been twice nominated for the Pulitzer Prize for her work overseas. Her work has been published in The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, National Geographic and other prestigious sources. She is also a regular guest on CNN, Fox News, and the National Public Radio. This article begins by taking a wider approach. Walt explains warzone settings commonly targeted, in the Middle East. She continues to explain the ideology of mass chaos, and how rules of morality no longer apply when this level of desperation kicks in. The article then continues on account of several reporters who face multiple near-death experiences as they occupy a space where a bombing takes place. This article was very interesting as well as factual. It not only addressed generalities but also magnified specific details that helped offer a concise tone and angle to the piece. “What Happens If Assad Goes?.” Economist 398.8734 (2011): 52. MAS Ultra- School Edition. Web. 12 Apr. 2012.

The MAS Ultra- School Edition is a database designed specifically for high school libraries. This comprehensive database contains full text for nearly 500 popular magazines including American Civil War, American Heritage, American History, and more. Full text on Ultra School Edition is also available for 85,670 biographies and more than 360 reference books. This article provides a look into the future for Syria. This information was very beneficial to my topic of research, The Assad Regime. The over-arching theme of this article is that everlasting peace cannot exist in the Middle East without the stability of Syria. However, because Syria is economically faulty and militarily feeble, its structure is on the cusp of a collapse. The idea of unrest in Syria, continuation of anarchy, failure to reform and the unbalance of the regime throws Syria’s neighbors in for a long road of triumph. This piece was more analytical than anything else. It was helpful because it helped tackle the question of “why is this important?” and “what next?”.

The Syrian Revolution

The Syrian Revolution began in 2000 and has escalated greatly within the past year. Protesting and rioting by the Syrian people is fuelled by their dissatisfaction of the authoritarian Assad Regime. This issue is very relevant on both a global and domestic scale. Globally, if the Syrian government topples, it with greatly impact neighbors such as Lebanon and Turkey. If the Regime in Syria continues, it could also encourage neighboring cities to attack the Jewish State.

Terms To Know:
Economic Sanctions- A ban on trade; can be limited to specific items such as food and medicine. The United States posed a series of sanction on Syria on May 11, 2011. The Bush Administration’s Syria initiative has already begun to strain its relations with the global economy. Sunni Muslims- Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as the Orthodox version of the religion. Known as the “people of the tradition of Muhammad and the consensus of the Ummah.” Alwite Muslims- A branch of Shia Islam; they are centered in Syria with a population over 2 million. Beliefs are originated from the Qaran and the Shia book. Syrian National Council- Formed in August of 2011. This group is motivated by their opposition to the President of Syria, Bashar al-Assad. The council is made up of 270 members.


The topic of the Syrian Revolution carries great relevance worldwide. Casualties continue to increase as the revolution continues to heighten in intensity. Numbers continue to stack up as we reach numbers such as 5,000-casualties, 20,000 wounded and 25,000 captured fighters. The Syrian National Council is representative of the Syrian opposition. They yearn for a reform within the Ba’ath Party Reign. This proves relevant because it shows the effects an authoritative rule can have on its people. The capital of Syria is Damascus. Damascus houses 1.7 million people, equating to the population of Homs, a nearby city. Although the death counts are most abundant in these cities, it does not account for the 19 million other Arabs in the 9 other major cities that also face repression. When 21 million people under one-rule face severe daily conditions, the trickle down effect begins to take its toll. A revolution begins.

Review of Literature:

The infamous Assad Regime began in November of 1970 when al-Assad successfully ousted al-Attassi with an overwhelming win. Al-Assad was elected for a seven-year term presidency; he continued to reign as he was elected for three consecutive terms. Al-Assad, an advocate and loyalist for the Ba’ath party engulfed all facets of the Syrian lifestyle within the first year of rule. A new Constitution was written and approved in 1973. This constitution allowed for the Ba’ath party to occupy over 70% of seats in the peoples council. This new regime started subtly, as al- Assad’s first task was to dominate fellow government executives and figureheads. It was important to create a powerful stand within the “system”, therefore, he could then use domestic policy and governmental rule to create impact on the civilian front.

In July of 1973, 42 Sunni Muslims were executed. These 42 individuals were rumored to have been plotting an assassination attempt against al-Assad. Between 1976 and 1982, the Ba’ath ideology strengthened, this resulted in social and political unrest. The Ba’ath parties ideology resided with those similar to who facilitate a dictatorship. Within this 6-year span, Arab civilians began to directly feel the authoritarian rule exerting from their ruler Assad. Internet censorship, propaganda, social organizations, and political influences began to force their motives on all of society. This created much tension as the Syrian citizens felt their rights slipping out beneath them. A monumental shift for the extreme occurred in 2000.

Al-Assad suddenly died during this year. His son, Bashar al-Assad stepped up to take the position of the President of Syria. Bashar al-Assad was a 34 year-old doctor who was groomed for six years, preparing himself for the day he would be expected to rule. In order to legalize the presidency position, the Constitution was amended to lower the minimum age requirement for Presidency. Bashar- Assad was also named Chief of the Army and head of the Ba’ath party. He continued to reign under his fathers style of authoritative rule. 2000 marked the start of the Syrian Revolution. 12 years later, foreign relations have been shattered, territories have ben neglected, tens of thousands have been killed, and the Arab people have never been so repressed.

Proposal of Potential Outcome:

The Syrian revolution has been alive and thriving for a decade. Between the mass amounts of casualties and wounded, the fighting does not seem to come to a nearby ending. Protests are seen more often than not and the representation of the Syrian society as a whole is merely non-existent. The Syrian government claims that these protests are nothing more than an Islamist uprising. Assad figure-heads deny the widespread reports of torture, including cases of that have sparked international uproar. Not only is their a clear problem within the structure of the Syrian government, but the neglect is overshadowing many other problems desperate of recognition. If Syria were to topple, they could destabilize neighbors such as Iraq and Jordan. A continuation of Civil war could spark a sectarian conflict in both Lebanon and Turkey.

Syria also guards the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel since 1967. If threatened, the regime in Damascus could encourage Hamas and Hizballah to attack the Jewish state. If Syria were to collapse in full, it could transform into a battleground for militias supported by the regions major powers: Shi’ite Iran and Sunni Saudi Arabia. The collapse of this nation would not only devastate the 22 million people that call Syria as their home, but the problems within the system would flood over into the countries facilitated with any part of Syria. The after shock would do much more damage than the just the collapse of what seems like a rather small and relatively uninvolved country.

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