Development of children and young people are describe In five deferent areas; physical, cognitive, communication, social ND emotional and moral development. Physical development describes the development of the physical movements. This is divided into fine motor skills, gross motor skills and locomotive movements. Fine motor skills involved skills such as tying shoes laces and gross motor skills involving larger movements such as throwing a ball. Locomotive movements involved the development and learning of movements such as balance and walking.
The development of physical aspects will enable children and young people to develop their Independence.
Cognitive development Is also known as the intellectual development area of a child’s development. This area of development is relatively large encompassing the way in which the brain processes information. This area will cover all areas including remembering a name of face of someone to being to distinguish between two items such as colors. Cognitive skills that will also be learnt during this area of development will include imagination and is found to link closely to language and communication.
Communication Is the area of development which Involves a person being able to Interact with other people and understanding their communications towards others. Communication includes talking, reading and writing and the use of gestures. Communication and language are linked closely to cognitive development as a more complex understanding of communication is needed as the child develops and starts to encounter other forms of communication. Social and emotional development is the area of development where relationships and understanding of oneself are described.
The understanding of behaviors such as empathy, sympathy and knowledge of your own emotions and how to handle them is all areas of social and emotional development that children and young people will learn. A sub section of social and emotional development with links to cognitive development Is known as oral development. This area of development includes the decisions and principles that children will make and adopt as they get older with a greater understanding of their own behavior towards other people.
Although the development of children and young people are looking at as separate areas It Is Important to understand that development is holistic and cannot be focused on solely as separate areas as each are co-dependent and if one area is not developed a child or young person may not be able to complete certain tasks or skills. The sequence and rate of each aspect of placement for children and young people follow a typical pattern with the minority of children and young people not developing at the same rate as others.
Babies who and will normally require more time to reach a developmental milestone as a baby born around the fortieth week. Babies are born with reflexes which they perform uncontrollably due to survival instincts. A child at birth will be born with both the sucking and swallowing reflex to ensure they can feed in order for their survival. A baby at this age will also be born with the rooting reflex in order to look for the nipple or the teat by using their cheeks or mouth as a guide. This reflex is also linked to the need for survival.
Babies will react by grasping something that touches the palm of their hand and if startled will push their arms outwards and clenching their fists. This reflex is normally seen if a baby is startled by a loud noise or a bright light. When held upright so their feet are touching the floor a baby at this age will take stepping movements as a reflex movement rather than conscious stepping. Within their first month babies development changes dramatically. They have usually developed into a pattern with most of their time sleeping but starting to spend more mime awake.
They will cry to communicate their needs with their parents starting to understand the different types of cry indicating the different needs. A baby will starting to recognize the parents or careers voices and may calm when they hear this and will be noticeably trying to focus on the face of the person who is holding them and are able to focus at a range of 20 – CACM. As a baby progresses to about 3 months old the child would have grown in both height and weight. Babies may have learnt the difference between night and day and may be able to sleep through the night.
It is important to note that not all babies develop at the same rate and so not all babies may be sleeping through the night. Parents and careers are more able to understand the differences between their babies cry and hence babies begin to cry less. Due to babies beginning to understand the difference between night day babies will begin to sleep less and start to seam more alert. A baby may be able to lift and turn their heads and notice objects around them such as mobiles. Babies will start to show they recognize their careers and will smile more as a sign of this.
At the age of 6 months babies have learnt and are development multiple skills often turning their heads to see what is happening around them. They will start showing their enjoyment during play by smiling and squealing with delight. Coordination skills are developing shown by babies grabbing an object and moving this from hand to hand. Babies will show they are starting to understand what careers and parents are trying to communicate to them and will try to communicate back in response. Babies will start to show their independence by grabbing spoons and trying to feed themselves although these skills are still developing.
At this time the teething process begins and is often painful for babies. The physical developments is progressing with their strength often being able to sit up on their own in a high chair and are able to roll over by themselves from their backs onto their fronts. The routine they started to develop is more settled and babies will often develop their own patterns where they are happy to nap with other times of the day where they are wanting to play and be awake communicating this by lifting their arms to be picked up and held or by grabbing objects they can reach to explore them.
Babies will explore their surrounding often putting objects into their mouths and touching them with their fingers. Babies will start to become more mobile at the age of 9 months, trying to to sit independently spending a lot of time sitting up and playing. The development of language is now noticeable as babies babbling has become tuneful and longer stings of sounds are used together. They are starting to understand basic words their parents or careers use such as dinner, drink and up and start to show excitement when they hear these words said.
From around 8 months old babies will start to cry if hey are left with a stranger and actively seek to be with their main care givers. A baby’s cognitive development is making significant development at this stage as the understanding of objects and beings continuing to exist even if out of sight is evident, being shown by babies objecting to being left alone and seeking to be with their care giver rather than being left alone or walking out of a room.
As the first year milestone is reached babies have developed a lot and may now be mobile and starting to show signs of walking, with some may be using their hands to hold on to objects and using this to balance and walking along the object. At this stage babies will require a good standard of supervision as babies will be crawling quickly and their vision will be as developed as adults. They will have good use of their hands now showing signs of organizing and moving objects enjoying putting items into and taking them out of boxes and containers.
Curiosities about what happens to objects are seen for example a baby dropping and object to see the result. Play becomes a strong feature in their day to day life enjoying doing something over and over again such as taking a hat off or pulling of their socks. At this age babies will have an understanding about what they do and do not like with foods and will be able to sit up and feed themselves using their fingers. Food that babies enjoy will be eaten while foods they are not enjoying may be thrown on the floor or away from them.
The babbling of the baby is longer and is more in tune with responding to communications from others and around 13 months the development of words start to appear. From 18 months the baby is beginning to be referred to as a toddler, which is usually used to describe a baby who is walking. They show enjoyment is being able to move about by walking and show the enjoyment of freedom. They are becoming fascinated by other children and are keen to play with adults. They notice what children of different ages are doing as well as peers.
Individuality begins to show and toddlers will protest if they cannot get what they want. Language is still developing and many toddlers will be able to use several words and understand words and phrases that adults say. Toddlers start to show distress when left with unfamiliar adults and often need someone familiar if not with their primary care ever. As they progress they show their individuality and enjoy walking and picking up objects to play. They know what they want to touch and do and what they enjoy to do.
They start to show frustration when they cannot do things for themselves and enjoy being able to complete tasks independently. The frustration occurs when their level of skill does not match what they desire to do. Toddlers show their emotions regularly often in outburst of frustration and anger presenting as a temper tantrum but also by laughing and squeals of delight when happy. They are starting to enjoy Ewing near other children although not necessarily playing with them. Games that are enjoyed are played over and over again and they are starting to enjoy pretend play.
As they develop their language is progressing with the child being able to put cannot do some things which they want to do and get frustrated at this. They have a strong sense of determination and often go to great lengths to get what they want climbing on things and moving large objects to get them. At around 2 and a half years children are starting to play with other children although some time will be spent simply playing alongside another child. Pretend play is becoming more enjoyable and they are starting to enjoy larger play items such as tricycles, slides and climbing frames.
They are still enjoying adult company enjoying helping adults or simply snuggling up to adults for company. Separation from their primary care givers is still a distressing time unless the toddler knows who they are going to be left with. This is often the age that care givers will try and start toileting training and some children will be able to be out of nappies within a few days. Children will start to tell adults or others how they are feelings rather than showing their feelings and temper mantras will start to decrease.
The understanding of other people’s needs will start to develop and at the age of 3 years most children will play with their peers and sharing objects becomes less difficult and more enjoyable. Separation from care givers starts to become less distressing as there is an understanding that the care giver will return to them and are more able to talk to those who are looking after them. At the age of 4 children will show large steps in their development. The language skills will have developed to the point of fluent speech and are easily understandable to adults who do not know them.
Their behavior will be cooperative but will be largely dependent on getting plenty of praise and recognition from adults around them. The child will enjoy being with other children and may start to develop friendships and will plan their play to have set ideas of what they want to do. They are starting to show independence skills such as dressing and feeding themselves and enjoy the responsibility given to them. From the age of 5 changes in physical development are less rapid rather they are developing confidence and coordination.
Most children at this age are beginning school and will be a difficult transition for most children especially if there no interest in learning to read and write. The different types of play start to show and children often enjoy games with set rules often choosing games to involve them. A child show good co-ordination in big and small movements and so shows a gain in confidence. Children continue to physically grow in height but the main development at this age is the way they think and reason with things. Through the ages of 7 to 9 the children find reading and writing easier although there will be variations between children.
Friendships are becoming more important and will start to develop a set of close friends and children will start to compare themselves to others around them. From the age of 9 many children show the first signs of impending puberty. Girls will begin to grow rapidly in height from the age of 10 with some girls beginning menstruation. At this age children start to request more independence such as walking to school with friends and boundaries and rules in the home start become questioned. The relationships with other young people become increasingly important.
Boys start to come into puberty later than girls usually around the age of 13. The physically changes for both boys and girls can cause embarrassment and anxiety. Self-confidence can be affected as young people start to notice their own development and compare themselves to their peers. This important than being with family and feel left out or anxious if they are not doing things with their friendship group and may experience bullying aspects if they are not with peers and rather with family. This pressure through peers is strong and can result in loss of self-esteem and a lack of individuality and self-worth.
Young people are starting to be more aware of their own identity and notice they have differing likes and dislikes to those around them. Although many young people are becoming more grown up in their ideas and individual identity the transition to adulthood is not complete with childlike comments occurring or comparison to other instead of being secure in their own choices. The development stages are set out and many children and young people will hit these development milestones and the stated age, it is important to know that not all children will develop at the same rate.