The schools of organization theories
The schools of organization theories
The schools of organization theories serve as the poles of support in keeping the order in an organization through the organizational functions. Each school of thought functions in a unique way causing changes in a certain work environment. The four schools of organizations theories that were listed are the human relations approach, neo- human relations school, the theories X, Y and Z (also known as the theories of motivation) and the systems approach. Major organizations that make use of the said theories include the finance undertakings, operations or productions, marketing and personnel purposes.
These functions must be executed effectively and efficiently to be able to achieve the organization’s objectives. The organizational theories are manifested to almost all functions but in order to see a clearer perspective, specific reflections of the theories to each organizational function will be laid down. The human relations approach applies to the personnel functions. It dwells on the change of relationship between the leader and the subordinate. There is existence of decentralization and decision-making which let the employees be involved to enhance skills.
The neo- human relations school is the “upgraded” version of the human relations school. Thus, it can also be reflected in the personnel functions. The said organizational theory patterns its principles to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. But, viewing form another perspective, the theory can also be utilized through meeting the goals of the marketing division. In marketing processes, advertising of a certain business entails the consideration of psychological aspects. In considering which marketing strategy to use, getting the consumer to respond to a certain product is important.
This can be done through highlighting the achievement of human needs in an advertisement. For example, a television advertisement about a body spray targets the market segment of teenagers. So, the advertisement will highlight the need of teenagers to gain self-esteem through showing scenes in the advertisement that once a teenager will use that body spray, he or she will gain admiration from the opposite sex. Therefore, if and when the message was conveyed to the target market, the marketing function of the business will be accomplished.
The third school of organizational theory is composed of the Theories X, Y and Z which somewhat clash in the purposes of managing the workplace. But, these are of great help in managing again the function of the personnel division. Theory X deals with a stricter work ethics to motivate the employees while Theory Y stated that workers have indeed a sense of self-direction. On the other hand, Theory Z (the hybrid of the Japanese and American management), incorporates the principles of creating a strong bond between the company and the employees through valuing the human resource development.
Lastly, the systems approach is manifested through the technical functions of finance and production. The theory caters the requirements for financial matters through the open and closed systems. The open system as the name speaks for itself, caters boundaries that can be penetrated while the closed system has more rigid boundaries. It is up to the financial management on whether adjustments will be done in investments through accepting the influence of external factors or keeping everything as internal matters. For the operations or productions, the company can decide on whether adopting an open or closed system.
Manufacturing lines can be subject to the transformation model if there is demand to do so. The company or the business can adapt the organizational theories for further improvement but it must be noted that some concepts of the theories can also hinder progress. As for the human relations and the neo-human relations approach, a concrete line must be drawn so to not abuse the professional ethics. It is true that the two theories give utmost importance in establishing individual autonomy to the employees, the leaders or managers must still be able to exercise power over major organizational matters.
There must only be a right dose of relationship-oriented activities so that the work-related activities will not be overpowered. Otherwise, the sense of leadership will be obliterated. The theories X and Y must be adapted in a careful manner since the two are polar extremes. If Theory X is implemented in a leadership aspect, rebellion might occur in the workplace due to very authoritarian rules. The leader may solicit suggestions from the workers but still ahs the power to decide on whether to accept those suggestions or not.
With this kind of management, conflict will definitely arise since the workers might think that the efforts are just put to waste. It must be made sure that the intensity of implementing it is well-adjusted to the needs of the organization. Theory Y does leadership in a lighter way but if the leader trusts the wrong people in the management to do specific tasks and these employees failed him, the quality of output will be affected. Theory Z may be taken in a brighter light so there may be fewer complications.
It encompasses long term employment, specialized career paths and other holistic concerns for the employees. The theory may seem to be idealistic but there will still be conflict since the workers will be the one who will resort to solving the issues. Hence, managers won’t be touching issues causing poor control over matters. Finally, the systems approach can help in outsourcing ideas but then again, accepting changes pose the risk of having a negative feedback. The transformation may also alter some organizational traditions.
The schools of organizational theories take on an effect of a double-edged sword. Some may help in facilitating tasks while some may worsen given situations. In a keen manner, the right theory to adapt for the company should be identified. The implementation of plans must of course go hand in hand with good management. References: Pugh, D. Organization Theory [PPT Document] Retrieved from http://www. scribd. com/doc/4880211/Organization-Theory Ankushsing. Theories of Motivation [PDF Document] Retrieved from http://www. scribd. com/doc/7781940/Theories-of-Motivation
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 22 October 2016
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