The Roles of Women
The Roles of Women
History tends to present the social advances made by women as a result of progress itself up as the result of a process in which, in any case, women do not have influenced. However, the reconstruction of history shows that women have achieved social gains only where and when it has been women fighting and starring those conquests. They were the struggles of many women, allowing us to enjoy rights today in the very near past were denied. While not change the societies in which we live, will basically claims and successes of the women who allow further progress on equality.
Women, like men, have opinions and attitudes very different political and ideological because they have very different interests, but as human beings have a common set of rights ranging from the right to work, freedom of expression, to participate actively in politics, to study, and also to the well-deserved rest after long days of work, the right to leisure, culture and recreational aspects. Ridiculing the issues affecting women’s rights is a strategy that has always worked the most immobile of society.
Often, many of the problems women have been problems “invisible” from the “double day” (at work and at home) to the so-called “glass ceiling” (no explicit barrier often find women to reach positions managers in public and private companies). The fact of trying to keep women hidden at home has been a way to keep it hidden. “What is not there. ” But the new woman, a woman with rights, has come forward just to go to work outside the home and to get to demand what belongs to without feeling bad about it, in short, be individuals who act accordingly.
What is happening right now in the feminist movement raises a number of considerations: first, feminism is currently visible mainly in academia, in research and in the statement of social change, but more sparingly in the opinion public. As a social movement, apparently is not very active. However, women are coming forward and in many countries there have been significant advances in recent years. The main cause for this to happen is that education is necessary, and in most developed countries is reaching not only equality in higher educational levels, it is being done more fruitful tilization degrees. The process that the female gender is suffering for years is so unstoppable that most of the public has assumed that this is one of the main drivers of social change today. Changes made to achieve formal equality and affirmative action to advance true equality have been useful tools for the equality of women. But my question is this analysis of social change and equality is correct?
Despite this, it is the female role that has suffered the most profound changes in recent decades. Today, even in developing countries, we see a more empowered woman who is gaining ground in the workplace and political. However, to redefine the role of women, what happens to the male role? On the other hand, man has maintained a passive stance in this process of change, it is hoped that things will happen and today we speak of a masculinity in crisis. Speaking of the new male, less “all powerful” and more sensitive, is not easy.
Generates some scary to think how important issues such as live new parenthood, new sexuality, etc.. But it was not just the fault of man be lagging behind in this way. The main problem is that we are, as a society, unable to integrate it into the discourse of new social roles in a positive, constructive and actionable. However, from a total inequality, perceived as logical and long assumed by women themselves have come to the current situation in which there is formal equality but social reality is quite different.
To get to talk XXI century, we must take into account what has been the evolution of the history that has brought us to where we are now: • In the Middle Ages, between the ninth and thirteenth centuries creates socioeconomic and political structure known by the name of feudalism. The woman was in a very adverse legal situation as it was subordinate to men, their role, at this time, is more active than in later periods. The noble woman devoted primarily to the care of the mansion, said to the servants, handles and serves delicacies, sporadically, the education of young children. The religious women: The monasteries played a very useful role in the Middle Ages as they were the daughters shelter did not marry, only way to access other culture and solution for women who were not out to poor economic situation. • Rural women: Regardless of marital status, rural women had to work to earn their livelihood and that of his sharing this activity with the housework. • Women in cities: In the eleventh century begins participation of women in female occupations that develop in the boroughs.
In times of economic expansion, the woman had access to work without problems, although charged lower wages. During the thirteenth century, women’s participation is essential in the garment trades and in the production and sale of food, beverages, leather and metal. While medieval trade and industry were open to women, at the end of this time, when the economic crisis is intensifying, there were significant labor restrictions, were expelled from the guilds and were denied the opportunity to organize, a situation that worsened in later centuries. The Modern Age is a period of profound change that will constitute the foundation of the modern world. The consolidation of the bourgeois class was the largest commitment of women to household chores, they are closing the doors and were devoted more to the internal space of the house, which runs parallel to the exclusion of institutional work, while the man was increasingly responsible for family support. Women participated in small numbers in the productive activity of the cities and working, mostly, were working as maids.
Some trades, traditional women are usurped by men and worsen working conditions. Already in the seventeenth century, when it occurs pre-industrial revolution takes place a shift of women to productive sectors marginal. But not all the facts of history have a higher meaning. The French Revolution with the liquidation of the old regime, not only reached the abolition of the French monarchy and the disappearance of titles of nobility, but involves a major change to European civilization. They start making demands and protests by the subordination of women to men.
The nineteenth century is characterized by the existence of profound changes in the areas ideological, economic and social, that affect an essential for women, and that fall logically into the major changes taking place in human society, as a result of crises social causes industrial revolution. Specifically, stands the great transfer that occurs in the agricultural sector to the industrial sector, which results in greater inequality in the conditions of life and work of the female population as a whole. Begins at the end of this century, the struggle for access to the professions and higher education.
Also, women are the first trade unions, by the refusal to admit women in the male. Leagues were established in several countries in Europe and the United States but eventually the female unionism was absorbed by the tendency to integrate women into male labor organizations. Importantly, from the second half of the nineteenth century, began to be considered the work of women as an instrument of social mobility and not as a temporary solution to help the family in their economic situation. This is what makes the male role, that is, the old patriarchal society begins to fade and begins to generate a gender equality.
Having delved into the history of the advancement of women and minor male leadership, we ask the following question: What will be the role of women in the ideal state, ie in the society in which we live? For Plato, the ideal city men and women are trained to perform the same functions as long as they are of the same education. But Socrates asks whether men and women can perform the same tasks considering having different natures. That is, the process of social change for women who have been seeing throughout the trial, remains stalled due to differences between men and women.
For years, man is regarded as superior to women. At present these power relations or relations of domination / subordination have been separated from everyday life. This will make a new act of violence against women, in this case by default, to remove or make invisible power relations that exist in other areas, for example in private life to recognize that women are located in the crossroads between production and reproduction, between economic activity and the care and attention of human beings and therefore between economic rowth and human development. Gender Theory clearly states that the power relations are presented in all areas of society, which places them both in public life and in private. It crosses the threshold and light a candle for analyzing relationships in the field of the daily life of the couple and the family.
However, despite the development of concepts and relations of power hat has been achieved since feminism is still little knowledge we have about the realization of these relations domination / subordination in private life and the factors that may eventually affect to vary these relationships. Although it is argued that power relations in those involved are not entirely without power, not broken down what the powers that women have rather deepened in their roles as subordinate and falls almost victimization, which prevents display his powers, though limited, to rethink these relationships.
The power relations that developed in capitalist society was patriarchal domination / subordination between genders. From the society we live corresponds to a capitalist patriarchal society, we assume that the power relationships that develop are of domination / subordination of male over female. As these relationships are given at all levels of society in the areas of private life and public life. Dominion powers are social, collective and personal, exploit and oppress allow individuals and groups and all types of communities.
For Foucault power is a balance of power, and extends saying that power is not a form but a strength. As the force is never singular, since its main feature is to be in relationship with other forces, so that it’s all relative strength, ie power. In this relation of force men develop relations of oppression while women respond subordination situation that occurs at macro and micro level of public life and the private life.
These relationships domination / subordination are complemented by factors such as Foucault posed in the sense that: power is not essentially repressive (since “incites, inspires, produces”) is exercised rather than possessed; happens dominated by both as dominant. This statement (of which power relations are productive) is challenged by feminist theory, in the sense that productivity is positive if measured from the parameters as defined by patriarchal society, but not for half of the population that responds to relations of domination with subordination, as a form of response that has been imposed.
So to the extent that the interest in the profit and social control are inextricably linked, patriarchy and capitalism will be a comprehensive process … With these statements we can conclude that the ideas of men and women to equality is different, in addition to current society inequality parked public to the private sphere, using capitalism patriarchal power and this in turn is determined by the needs of capital.
Throughout, the paper confirms that the starting point that the power relations are marked by patriarchal society. Power relationships involving dependence of those involved, because they are forced to interact with each other, some have what others do not have, the relationships that occur in a family are dependent, depends both man of the contribution of women in the housework, as the woman of the man brings resources to the financial support of the family.
When given a lot of value to the economic contribution of man as breadwinner, and based on this the relations of domination / subordination experienced by women in patriarchal society, is falling into several traps: play the invisibility of reproductive work; ignore that power relations involved who have some kind of power, and replicate the model of society in which it is something that can be assessed monetarily. Reproductive work in capitalist patriarchy is the quintessential way in which society oppresses and becomes invisible to women.
Given this historical dominance of men over women, we find an author, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, who writes a novel which describes an isolated case of a society composed exclusively of women, which reproduce by parthenogenesis and where the result is an order social ideal, without war, conflict and domination. Does this benefit the equality of women?
In capitalist patriarchal society women have the “hidden power” which is the other side of “legitimate power”. As discussed in this essay, the power relations that develop in the patriarchal society dependence involve their participants.
It has raised the vital dependence of the woman husband’s income, but does not consider the dependence, also vital, that man has the services provided by women of reproductive work. In the traditional family woman exchanged domestic services, care and care of children and a number of tasks, for financial support and protection of the husband. According to one of the streams of feminism, the primary objective of this movement was and remains “The creation of a truly common space to men and women” are used to achieve equality theories.
But this equality must be seen as equal rights, not equal identities, which otherwise will benefit of existing male identity. Must make room for the play of differences, individual or collective. Feminist theory proposes building egalitarian relationships, and therefore no power relations between people, but on the basis of that society must create the conditions for everyone to exercise its power to develop their individual capacities, not dominate or subordinate to another.
By accepting that power relationships are of dominance / subordination and therefore are two sides of the same reality, overcome these relations involves building cooperative relations, which we will be leaving in the past or dominating or being dominated. To build this world, you must know, visualize and appreciate the female culture that emphasizes the values of cooperation, interdependence, consideration and expressive relationships, instead of instrumental relationships. Thus could transform the hierarchical structure of society.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 20 November 2016
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