1: Temperance: moderation of self, restraint in action, statement and self-control or PROHIBITION.
Americans were worried about the effects of alcohol. 1st.
This movement first urged people to stop drinking hard liquor and limit drinking beer and wine to small amounts.
Later the movement wanted to ban the sale of alcohol-banning became a major goal, it was banned in the 18th Amendment, which was later repealed by the 21st Amendment.
2: Women’s Rights:
women couldn’t vote in many states and had little control over own property; could not get a higher education; didn’t get equal pay for equal work; weren’t allowed to enter traditional male professions.
Declaration of Independence: signed by 100 people– began to shape the future of women’s rights movements.
Fight turned into a political movement– many women were arrested and jailed– in 1860 states gave women rights of ownership, but many reforms (right to vote) weren’t achieved.
Lucretia mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton– organized Seneca Falls Convention– wrote Declaration of Sentiments for Convention.
Susan B. Anthony– had organized skills that further helped the movement. Led campaign for equal pay for equal work, allowing women to enter traditional professions, and for changing laws regarding women’s property. Organized petitions for new laws that were passed.
3: Public Education:
families did not expect formal schooling because they needed children to work to help support the families.
Common-School Movement: which wanted all children educated in a common place, regardless of class or background.
It set the standard for education reform and brought children out of factories.
Horace Mann: leading voice of education reform in mid 1800’s. He explained the idea of the Common School.
Slavery in America.
a movement was formed (ABOLITION) to completely end slavery in U.S. Did this through news papers, articles and pamphlets, speeches.
PROPAGANDA… use written word and pictures to get sympathy.
Eventual end of slavery: North outlawed, South refused because they needed help with the economy.
William Lloyd Garrison: published abolitionists newspaper, The Liberator.
Frederick Douglass: former slave who became one of the most important African American leaders of the 1800’s.
Sojourner Truth: African American who became famous from her dramatic and fiery speeches.
Harriet Beecher Stowe: wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin. the most powerful anti-slavery novel ever written.
terrible prison conditions.
2 and 3. state hospitals for mentally ill were created. Reform schools were established for children in prison. Houses of correction were established, which tried to change prisoners’ behavior through education.
4. Dorothea Dix: middle-class reformer who helped change the prison system by reporting on terrible prison conditions.