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Marriage is a way in which male and female are legally bond and form the family according to the biological process. Marriage is a socially, religious and culturally practice that is accepted all over the world. The belief of marriage by people that marriage of two person such as male and female will be success only when there was child is born.
Early marriage is the common practice and largely in the South Asia area, especially in the developing countries. Early marriage is the way in which the one person of marrying couple is less than 18 years.
Early marriage negatively affects the girls more than boys (Khanna, Verma andWeiss, 2011).
According to research, 14 million of girls are married each year below the age of 18 years (UNFPA, 2005). According to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), three percent of girls in Pakistan are married before the age of 15 and 21 percent are married before the age of 18 (UNICEF, 2008). Pakistan is a patriarchal society in which male has more power than female in the authority of house and men has superior than women.
Women and children play the role as inferior. According to World Health Organization (WHO), a recent research name as Demography of Early marriage in Pakistan, that early marriage most occur in the rural areas of country and below the age of 18 years of girls are married more than 140 million among the years from 2011 to 2020 (WHO,2015).
In Pakistan, Sindh, where level of early marriage is highest, with 72 percent girls and 25 percent boys are suffer from early marriage, but the 99 percent of girls who married as illegally were the believed by people who lived in the ethnic areas of Pakistan ( Rehman ur Z, 2017).
Different factors have been contributed to make the girl strong or weak for marriage. Such as education, the family where lived in house is rent or permanent, financial background all these factors depend on marriage of girl either married in early age or in later age. If women have education till bachelor level and family is educate, then the marriage of girl will be on time according to law and later in age. If family has less education and poverty and low of income, then the chances of early marriage have been more (ICRW, 2013).
The geographically place that cause the reason of early marriage of girls. The two places are urban and rural areas. Urban area of people has education, all classes of people are lived but mostly the upper class are larger in number than middle or lower class, every class of people are working for earning the money, in urban areas there is easy to access to school, colleges, university, hospital, courts, malls, food items and other things which is necessary for human being. In rural area, there is less number of school, college, hospital and other things (NIPS, 2013).
Early marriage of girl in rural area is more than urban area. Women who married below the age of 15 and 18 year face more domestic violence than women who married in later age (Emirie, G., 2005). The domestic violence of women is dowry issue, rape, psychological abuse, acid attack that destroy the life of women. In urban area, people are educated and have sense of law, the early marriage of girl in upper and middle class has lower than lower class. There is little number of people in urban and middle class to promote the early marriage who has less level of education. In lower class, there is much reason to promote the culture of early marriage of girl are lack of education, poverty, extended family, low level of income of father and financial transactions (Lane S., 2011).
In rural area, the people who believe about early marriage as well as in urban area, that early marriage of girls has protected the sexuality mainly the women. A watta satta culture in Pakistan, a boy married a girl from family that his family has given daughter to those family from which boy married the girl. It means that property has exchange within family and the wealth of house has been protected. If the boy or girl disagrees with this practice, that family has kill on the name of honour. In extended family, there is large number of member of family, if the father income has not fulfil the household expenditures, then family decided that early marriage of girls has reduced the member of family. Also, dowry issue has resolve by this early marriage (Aurat Foundation, 2014).
The amount of early marriage in Pakistan from 1990 to 1991, the percentage of women who married from 20 to 24 ages is 32 and the percentage of women who married at the age of 15 is 11 (Singh and Samara, 1996). According to Jensen and Thornton, the level of early marriage is highest in the South Asian countries from 1950 to 1970 and it is endless kind of activity, it is difference rather than developing countries (Jensen and Thornton, 2003). According to the study by US, collect the data from Demography and Health Survey (DHS) and after, separate the data on the basis of gender, religion and ethnicity, form that Pakistan has highly failure to reduce the early marriage and according to worldwide, early marriage in Pakistan has higher than other South Asian countries (West off, 2003).
Poverty is the major reason of early marriage. In lower family, there was low income that plan of early marriage has reduce the burden of financial household, by the passage of time, growing of children has agreed on the father. This plan has clear see in the extended family and rural areas, where girls require becoming pregnant after the marriage, benefit from the number of pregnancies and sufficient number of living children that fulfil the situation of household for work (Mathur et al., 2003).
After the early marriage of girl, the girls become a mother of children. Mother faces many health problems in giving the birth of child due to teenage. Mother of teenage who given the birth of child are die at the time of birth and after the birth, as recorded (Save the Children, 2004). According to worldwide, every year one million babies of young age of mother are cause of death due to pregnancy and child birth issues. If the child is born was good, then children are born by younger children was more than the older mother, after all children have poor health care and short food due to the lack feeding behaviour by younger mother (Kurz, K., 1997).
The thought of people about early marriage, that early marriage is the way to treat the mental health issues. Early marriage is to marry within your family boundary, marry within your caste and protect the family honour, marry within inherent culture and to stop the people to marry from another cultural group. It controlled the sexuality of women. The common problems faced by family which forced to marry the girl in early age are lack of education, poverty, low level of income, extended family and lower level of family (Zaman, S., and Lari, M. Z., 2013).
Early marriage can balance the financial transaction by ensuring the property, wealth within the family. Early marriage is empowered by different people and this practice is practically as formed rather than different experience. It has been happen very long time in the past and it is a form of violence which is more face by girl than boy, it involving domestic and sexual violence.
Early marriage is legally banned according to the below age of 18 years. Under the Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, According to this Act, the minimum age for marriage is 18 years for male and 16 years for female (Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929). Child marriage Restraint Bill 2018, a new bill was passed in Pakistani Senate; the minimum age for marriage for girl was increased to 18 years (NDTV, 2019).
If anyone violate the law of marriage, they has paid fine Rs. 1000 and live one month in prison and the punishment was same for all person who was involved in the violation, first the person who marry the girl illegally and person age is above 18 years has also be punished, second the person who contract the marriage and third the parent or guardian who did not want to stop the child from early marriage has been punished according to law (Shahab-ud-Din M., 2020).
Early marriage practice is a dependent variable. Early marriage practice is visible as culture in the lower class of people. Early marriage prevent from pre martial sexual relationship, it means to control the sexual behaviour of children especially girls. Early marriage protects the honour of family. The honour is an English word, if the honour translates in Urdu language that is izzat. Some people belief that honour responsibility of children on the parents could be safe only if girls are marrying in early age. There is a common incident can occur in some places before the marriage, for example if girl disagree with the parent decision on the marriage, that some girls run away from house and go to the boy where she like it and want to marry with this girl. After all, the honour of family in the society has no respect and people start negative view on this incident. This is the problem that why people promote the early marriage practice.
Domestic violence is an independent variable. Women who married in early age face more domestic violence than later married age of women. In early age, there is less information to girl that creates many problems. In some places, the early age of girl married to the older age of men. After the married, some men are drug addicted and they forced the wife to work for money, husband has loss the money in cards games. If the wife deny to give money and do any work at public place for women, then husband beat him and in some places, the murdered, burn in fire and acid attack on women has been recorded from her husband because the men who was in drug addict are dangerous to another person after taking the drug, they are mentally absence when they do anything. Domestic violence faces by early age of married girl at public place are rape, sex harassment and acid attack. Poor health services cause the death of child born and women at the time of birth.
Amount of financial transaction is a dependent variable. Financial transaction has protected when it is exchange the property and wealth within family because of the caste system. The watta satta marriage in which two family marry the children interchangeably it means that one family give daughter to another family of son then the family of son have also give daughter to the family where from they take the girl for marriage to boy. Watta satta is most exists in the rural area and lower level of family. Dowry is the issue for the daughter of family especially in lower class and poor people. The demanding of boy family for dowry is the main issue face by girl family, to complete the dowry demand that is the difficult task. If the family girl not fulfilling the demand of the boy family, then family of boy will reject it and find another girl for the marriage of boy.
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