The principles of infection prevention and control
The principles of infection prevention and control
Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infections Explain employees’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection. Employees have a duty of care to everyone including themselves and their families to do all they can to prevent infections and infestations from spreading. Staff should adhere to the policies and procedures set down by the company to help to prevent and control infections. This should include effective hand washing. Cleaning and the procedures for the cleaning of spillages The use of Personal Protective Clothing, Food Handling. The handling and storing of specimens. The handling and correct disposal of clinical and soiled waste and the disposal of sharps. Particularly for Care at Home there is a policy on pets and pests and infestations.
All gloves and aprons worn should be removed and disposed of correctly. All soiled items if disposable should be disposed of correctly. Effective hand washing and not coming into work when not feeling well are ways of preventing staff from passing on infections, ..All staff have a duty to read the infection control policy. All staff should renew their training annually. 2. Explain employer’s responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection. The employer has a responsibility to provide PPE equipment, the employer should organise training for all staff, and annual updates, and supervision.
The employer is also responsible for the general health and safety of all staff at work under the health and safety law and regulations. The employer should provide copies of infection control policies and procedures. Employers must carry out risk assessments and must ensure putting procedures in place and ensure procedures are followed by regular supervision. The employer should provide and maintain all necessary equipment and materials to staff. Employers should provide a COSHH file and provide training and supervision where necessary.
Outcome 2Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infection It is a legal requirement that staff have access to up to date policies guidelines, procedures and risk assessments. Staff should be aware of reporting immediately outbreaks of disease. /Staff should understand safe disposal of waste and food hygiene standards. The main legislation regarding infection control is :-The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 The Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Food safety act 1990
The Public Health (control of diseases) Act 1984
The Environmental Protection Act to dispose of clinical waste safely The Public Health (infections Diseases) regulations 1988 – it is a legal requirement to report specific infectious diseases under the Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act the list can be found on the web site at www,hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/noids/menu.htmHazardous Waste Regulations 2005 Health Protection Agency 2008 now part of Public Health England as from 1 April 2013 RIDDOR- Reporting of accidents or suspicion of diseases and dangerous occurrences Environmental Protection
2,Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection The local policies relevant to the control of infection are :- the Local Health Protection Team . HPT . The Team are at Fareham in Hampshire which covers Dorset, Hampshire and IOW Health and Safety at Work act 1974, employees to inform employers of any work related incident which could pose a risk of health and safety to themselves and others. Food Standards Agency – provides standards for information on infection prevention and controls practices RIDDOR – Reporting of injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences which requires the reporting of work related accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences. The organisational policies are Health and /safety policy. The MRSA policy, The infection control policy, Personal Hygiene Policy, Clinical Waste Policy, Spillage Policy, Scabies Policy, Uniform Policy.
Protective Clothing Policy, Pets, pests and infestations policy. The registered Manager is responsible for advising the Local Health Protection Team and Care Quality Commission immediately of any communicable Diseases. and RIDDOR. The Care Quality Commission Essential Standards which is based on regulation12 of the Health and social care act 2008. Outcome 3Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections 1.Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection Using risk assessments – considering the susceptible service user and any risk that their environment and other users may pose to them.
Providing a clean and appropriate environment to prevent the spread of infection. Provide accurate information on infections to staff and any person visiting the premises. Ensure that anyone who develops an infection receives the appropriate treatment and care to reduce the risk of passing on the infection. Effective hand washing and personal hygiene covered by the Personal /hygiene policy and is to be carried out at all times. After using the toilet before handling food stuff between seeing each and every client and direct clinical contact is involved after handing any body fluids or waste or soiled items after handling specimens
Staff should wash their uniform in accordance with the uniform policy Cleaning and procedures for cleaning spillages – all staff should clean up body fluids / body waste as quickly as possible, in accordance with the spillage policy The use of protective clothing all gloves and aprons are provided for staff and the protective clothing policy gives details of when they should be used. Food handling all staff should adhere to the food handling and food safety policy staff who are ill should refrain from working and should only return to work when the GP states that they are safe to do so. Staff should use effective hand washing and wear PPE no jewellery and tie hair back. handling and storing of specimens – Specimens should only ever be collected if order by GP they should be labelled clearly and packed in a self sealing bag.
Gloves should be worn and hands should be washed afterwards. Clinical waste should be disposed of in sealed yellow bags.- ref:- clinical waste policy. Health care providers are responsible for immunisation programmes and monitoring and controlling outbreaks of infections. 2, Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation. The potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual could be fatal for example if they contracted the MRSA infection and passed on to staff, other individuals and the organisation. Staff would need time off work. the staff could possibly have no salary. They could pass the infection on to family and friends.
The potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the organisation could be clients may have to be hospitalised or nursed at home. Could possibly die. Staff could become ill through contact. Further infections due to elderly becoming more susceptible to infection. Risk to the organisations business. The companies reputation could be at stake. The organisation could be fined if not complying with the law. Outcome 4Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections 1, Define the term risk
The likelihood of a hazard or an activity that could cause harm. A situation involving exposure to danger. For example the risk of catching an infection from a client is greater if not wearing PPE and vigorously washing of hands. 2. Outline potential risk of infection within the work place Supporting clients with personal care involves coming into contact with their bodily fluids. Handling laundry that may be dirty, contaminated with bodily fluids. Being close to a client to administer personal care that may have an infection is a risk to staff. Cooking meals for clients in their kitchen where their hygiene processes are not as stringent as staffs’ may be a risk for infection. Emptying clinical waste containers may be a risk. 3.describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment
A risk assessment is carefully looking at the processes that could cause harm to people. It is weighing up whether you have taken enough precautions or should more be done to prevent harm. Clients, staff and visitors have a right to be protected from harm. Failure to take reasonable control measures could result in harm. Where workers are required to go into a place of work the company is legally required to assess the risks and put a plan in place to control the risk. 4. Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment There are 5 steps to the process of risk assessment
1, identify the hazards ie. speaking with clients staff and members of the family if appropriate 2. Decide who might be harmed and how ie consider everyone who may visit the workplace, staff visitors family. 3. evaluate the risk and decide on precautions deciding what precautions must be taken to remove reduce or avoid the hazard. e.g wearing PPE 4. Record findings and implement the assessment. all those involved with the client should be informed and given explanations on how the risk can be prevented or controlled 5. review the assessment and update as necessary. The risk assessment should be reviewed regularly to check they are sufficient.
It is important to carry out a risk assessment for every client that has a care plan and a copy of the risk assessment is included in the care plan so that staff are aware of any hazards that they may come into contact with during the course of their visit. Having a risk assessment completed for each client may avoid infection or possible injury to the client. Outcome 5 Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infections 1.Demonstrate the correct use of PPE
Put on apron and gloves when giving personal care. To remove PPE, remove apron first, then holding apron in a screwed ball remove by the cuff the glove on one hand so that the apron goes inside the first glove transfer this to the other gloved hand and remove second glove by enclosing first glove and apron. Dispose of in bin correctly. 2,Describe the different types of PPE
The uniform trousers and tunic is worn to work. Gloves and Aprons are worn to protect the uniform from becoming soiled. Over the shoe protectors can be worn if perhaps there is soiling on the floor to protect shoes that will be worn out in the community, and prevent infection. Hats in some establishments may be worn when cooking food. 3.Explain the reasons for use of PPE
The reason for using PPE is to reduce the risk of infection and pathogens being transferred from the client to the member of staff and from one individual to another. PPE are a physical barrier to protect both staff and clients. 4.State current relevant regulations and legislation relating to PPE The regulations for PPE come under the Health and Safety at Work Act – protection and prevention The legislation relating to PPE is the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulation which sets out how PPE should be worn in the workplace and responsibilities of both the Employee and employers. COSSH control of substances hazardous to Health Regulations Infection Control Policy at work
5.Describe the employees responsibilities regarding the use of PPE Employees must attend training in their induction regarding the correct use of PPE, employees must report any loss or defect immediately. 6.Describe the employers responsibilities regarding the use of PPE Employers are responsible for ensuring suitable and appropriate PPE is provided and available. It should be appropriate for the risks and conditions used. Details of PPE available for staff should be available in the staff handbook and detailed in the Protective Clothing Policy. 7.Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE Hands should be first washed clean and drive well.
Put on aprons first its easier than trying to tie an apron with gloves on. hold the wrist end of the glove and put fingers in glove using other hand pull on glove to wrist repeat proceedure with other hand. Once the care or domestic has been completed remove the apron by carefull pulling roll into ball carefull remove one glove from the wrist and pull down over the apron. Hold the glove enclosed with the apron in the gloved hand and repeat the proceedure by pulling from the wrist and enclosing both the glove and apron again turning inside out. Dispose of correctly in a bin. Wash hands. 8.Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE
Removed PPE should avoid touching any surface or being handed to someone else to dispose of, to avoid risk of cross contamination and infection. PPE should be placed in the correct bin if provided and then wash and dry hands afterwards. Outcome 6Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections 1.Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene
Washing hands before and after the task. Bathing regularly to prevent the spread of infection and body odour. Wearing clean uniform, and only to be worn in the work place to reduce the risk of spreading infections. Hair tied back if long. Clean and short finger nails and no nail varnish. No jewellery. 2,Demonstrate good hand washing technique
3.Describe the correct sequence for hand washing.
Turn on tap and run for the correct water temperature, wet both hands and apply soap. Lather both hands palm to palm. rub the back of each hand over one another.Interlock fingers and rubs fingers, then thumbs. Ru b fingers into palms. Rinse hands to remove soap and dry if possible with paper towel. 4.Explain why and when hand washing should be carried out
Hand washing should be carried out regularly to control and prevent the spread of infection, Hand washing should be carried out before commencing work and before and after using PPE. Before and after handling or serving food. Hand washing should be carried after using the toilet. Before and after any activity with a client. 5.Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing. The products that should be used for hand washing are soap (preferably from a dispenser to avoid cross contamination) and water. Alcohol based hand gel / Antiseptic hand gel. Alcohol based hand gels are an addition to hand washing and not a substitute. 6.Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare
The main function of the skin is to act as a barrier to the body. Broken skin increases the risk of infection. Staff are at risk of skin conditions because of the use of protective gloves. Staff with existing skin conditions need to take extra care of their skin and may need to take special precautions. Adequate hand washing reduces the risk of infection. If hands are left damp or with products such as soap still on them this may increase the risk of infection. Hands should always be washed after removal of gloves. Gloves should be worn for the shortest possible period of time . Do not wear torn gloves or another persons gloves.
Cover cuts and wounds with waterproof self adhesive plaster when at work and change at least daily.After washing hands an emollient cream can be used, to protect the hands from becoming dry and cracked which in turn could become the route for infections. Using an emolient keeps the skin moisturised and prevents cracking.