The Principles of Infection Prevention and Control Essay
The Principles of Infection Prevention and Control
Explain employees’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection. To ensure that their own health and hygiene not pose a risk to service users and colleagues To ensure effective hand washing is carried out when working with service users, giving personal care, handling/preparing food. To ensure they use protective clothing provided when needed and appropriate. Explain employers’ responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control infection. making sure employees are aware of the health and safety aspects of their work (e.g. posting information on notice boards, keeping an information file such as COSHH, training, and providing supervision)They need to keep records in relation to infection control using appropriate documentation to ensure that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available within the workplace. 2.1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection.
The Health and Social Care Act 2008; Code of Practice for health and adult social care on the prevention and control of infections and related guidance. To help providers of healthcare, adult social care, (and others) plan and implement how they prevent and control infections. It includes criteria for CQC to take into account when assessing compliance with the registration requirement on cleanliness and infection control. Legislation, regulations and guidance that govern infection prevention and control.
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, Management of Health and Safety at Work Act (amended 1994)
The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984
Food Safety Act 1990
The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulation 1988
The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations (Department of Health 1995) The Environment Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991
Health Protection Agency Bill
2.2 Describe local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection.
The following local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection are The Public Health (control of disease) Act 1984, Social Care Act, the NICE guidelines and also company policies and procedures that relate to infection prevention and control. For example with regards to own company, it states that “Any persons suffering from an infectious or contagious disease must either have clearance rom own doctor or seek guidance from your line manager.
3.1 Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection.
Procedures and systems relevant to the prevention of control infection ae following companies policies and procedures which relate to correct hand washing procedure, wearing correct PPE for example gloves, aprons and protective clothing, the correct disposal of waste and using the correct cleaning equipment when cleaning spillages, surfaces and equipment.
3.2 Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organization.
The outbreak of infection can be fatal if care is not taken; for instance an outbreak of MRSA that can be resistant to most antibiotics can be fatal. The outbreak of an infection has consequences for individuals, staff and the organization. It can cause ill health to all concerned and it can also impact emotionally because people that acquire infection relate it to being dirty and some infections may require people to be isolated from others for a period of time. The organization could lose money if most of the staff are off sick and as they will need to employ more staff which they will be paying to cover in addition to staff that are off sick. The organization could also be fined by not complying with the law and in turn this will damage their reputation.
4.1 define the term risk.
Risk means the exposure to the chance of injury or loss.
4.2 Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace.
In the workplace supporting individuals with persona care activities and sharing facilities with others involve coming into contact with bodily fluids which contain pathogens. Cleaning areas such as bathrooms that are dirty and where bodily fluids are present may be more likely to be contaminated with pathogens. Handling laundry that may be dirty or contaminated with bodily fluids can also contain pathogens. Handling of disposing of clinical waste, emptying waste containers and receptacles that may also be contaminated with pathogens. Providing personal care activities that require being close to an individual and dealing with bodily fluids increases the chance of infection spreading.
4.3 Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment.
Risk assessment helps makes us aware of the risks involved in any activity and know how reduce or remove the risk. It also helps to protect the organization’s reputation because the risk assessment identifies the risks in the workplace and the measures put in place to control or eradicate suck risks. In general, risk assessments are important as they reduce the risks of accidents and ill health to everyone. Identify the hazard – this means finding out what the hazards are and what might cause harm by observing but also by speaking with individuals, staff and visitors. Evaluate the risks – this stage involves deciding who might be harmed and how and involves considering everyone in the workplace such as individuals, staff and visitors. Take precautions – this involves deciding on what precautions must be taken to remove, reduce or avoid the hazards for example wearing the appropriate PPE might be a precautions.
Review the risks – the effectiveness of the precautions in place should be checked regularly to ensure that they are sufficient. Report and record outcome – the findings of the risk assessment must be recorded and all those involved and who need to know should be given explanations and information on how these risks can be prevented and/or controlled. 4.4 Explain the important of carrying out a risk assessment. The main aim is to make sure that no one gets hurt or becomes ill. Accidents and ill health can ruin lives, and can also affect business if output is lost, machinery is damaged, insurance costs increase, or if you have to go to court. Therefore carrying out risk assessment, preparing and implementing a safety statement and keeping both up to date will not in themselves prevent accidents and ill health but they will play crucial part in reducing their likelihood.
Employers, managers and supervisors should all ensure that workplace practices reflect the risk assessment and safety statement. Behavior, the way in which everyone works, must reflect the safe working practices laid down in these documents. Supervisory checks and audits should be carried out to determine how well the aims set down are being achieved. Corrective action should be taken when required. Additionally, if a workplace is provided for use by others. The safety statement must also set out the safe work practices that are relevant to them. Hence, it is important to carry out a Risk Assessment and prepare a Safety Statement for Financial reasons
Moral and ethical reasons
5.1 Demonstrate correct use of PPE.
Have the responsibility and to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) Appropriately to avoid contamination as far as possible.
5.2 Describe different types of PPE.
Aprons and gloves are commonly used types of PPE. Disposal gloves have different types namely standard latex (example white gloves used for personal care tasks) nitrile (example used cleaning tasks) and vinyl example blue gloves used when handling food). Disposable plastic aprons are placed over uniforms and prevent the uniform from becoming soiled when carrying out different activities (example white apron for personal care and blue for handling food).
Other PPE used in care settings can include uniforms (must not be worn outside of work and must be washed on a regular basis) and hats (worn when food is being prepared and served). PPE is used to reduce the risk pf pathogens being transferred from the support worker to the individual, from one individual to another, from one staff member to another. PPE form physical barriers from infections and protect staff from infection carried by individuals from any pathogens staff may be carrying.
5.3 Explain the reasons for use of PPE.
Gloves – protect hands.
Gown/Aprons – protect skin and or clothing.
Masks and respirators.
Respirators – protect respiratory tract from airborne infectious agents Googles – protect eyes.
5.4 State current relevant regulations and legislation relating of PPE.
Employees are responsible to use PPE appropriate and as instructed by employer. An employee has to check PPE before and after use and have to report any damage. Ensuring employees who store and handle dangerous substances are properly trained. Using appropriate precautions when handling substances – for example, wearing protective clothing or ensuring adequate ventilation. Checking containers are properly labelled. 5.5 Describe employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE. It is the responsibility of employees to ensure that they take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and that of their co-workers and other persons in or near the workplace. Report to management any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or risks that they identify in their work environment.
Participate in training provided by the employer, regarding the appropriate use, care and maintenance of PPE. Uses PPE in accordance with instruction provided and follow. 5.6 Describe employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE. Employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE include providing the correct PPE in relation to the specific tasks that are carried out and for staff members (example the correct fitting PPE); this must be provided free of charge. Employers need to have arrangements in place to make sure PPE is stored correctly and is available when needed. It is the duty of the employer to assess the need of PPE in the work environment. The employer must also train staff and provide them with information and guidance on how to use PPE. 5.7 Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE. Before putting on an apron you must first wash and dry your hands and then the neck strap must be placed over the head and the waist ties fastened behind the back. To remove the apron it is important to limit the areas your hand will touch in order to reduce the possibility of cross infection.
You should pull at the neck strap and waist strap making sure that it does not fall to the floor, then scrunch it up into a ball in your gloved hand and then dispose of it in the yellow bin bag. When removing PPE avoid touching any surface, remove the item before moving to the next patient, place the item in the correct bin and wash and dry your hands afterwards in case of cross contamination. Clinical waste like gloves and aprons are regarded as high risk and must be disposed of properly to reduce the risk of cross infection. Infectious, hazardous materials should be placed in yellow bags for incineration; black bags are for food waste and other waste.
5.8 Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE.
Put on medical gloves and place your PPE in a plastic garbage bag. Tightly tie and secure the garbage bag to prevent dripping. If dripping occurs and garbage touches your skin or clothes, wash them thoroughly. Put PPE in your workplace’s receptacles. It may be labelled for bio hazardous waste. Clean waste containers regularly. Your workplace may require you to clean receptacles daily depending on their policies; and wash hands thoroughly with soup and warm water after handling. 6.1 Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene.
Some of the principles of good personal hygiene include washing hands before and after tasks and bathing regularly to prevent the spread of infection and body odor, keeping hair clean and tied back, wearing clean clothing and ensuring uniforms worn are washed regularly and only worn in the workplace to avoid the spread of infection, keeping nails trimmed and clean, not wearing jewelry at work as this can be a way to transporting pathogens.
6.2 Demonstrate good hand washing technique.
Wet hands with water
Apply enough soap and hand wash to cover all hand surfaces
Rub hands palm to palm
Right palm over the other hand with interlaced fingers and vice versa
Palm to palm with fingers interlaced
Backs to fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlocked
Rotational rubbing to left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa
Rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in left palm and vice versa
Rinse hands with water
Dry thoroughly with towel.
6.3 Describe the correct sequence for hand washing.
Make sure that you remove any jewelry
Turn the water tap on and make sure that you can place both hands under the water comfortably and that it is at the right temperature so that you can wash your hands.
Wet both hands
Apply soup and lather both hands palm to palm
Rub each hand over the back of the other
Interlock fingers and rub fingers
Rub palms together
Rinse to remove the soap residue
Dry your hands with either a paper towel or an air drier
6.4 Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out. Hand washing should be carried out regularly to help prevent and control the spread of infection and should be washed before starting work and putting on a clean uniform, before and after using PPE, before and after specific tasks such as after using the toilet, before and after handling and serving food, after handling waste, before and after carrying out activities with individuals.
6.5 Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing. There are different types of products that should be used for hand washing and these include soup, antiseptic gels and alcohol-based hand rubs.
Liquid soup from a dispenser should be used for hand washing in communal area as these will have less pathogens then if bars of soup are shared between different people. Antiseptic gels contain chemicals that destroy pathogens and these are used where there is a higher risk of infection. Alcohol-based hand rubs should be used in addition to and not instead of hand washing with soaps and antiseptic gels and add an additional protective barrier against pathogens. 6.6 Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare.
Hand washing should be carried out regularly to help prevent and control the spread of infection and should be washed before starting work and putting on a clean uniform, before and after using PPE, before and after specific tasks such as after using the toilet, before and after handling and serving food, after handling waste, before and after carrying out activities with individuals. It is important to take care of our skin as it protects from pathogens; if the skin is not looked after it could become dry and develop cracks which in turn could become the route of pathogens. It is therefore important that hand cream is applied to help keep skin moisturized so that it does not become dry.