The principles of infection prevention and control Essay
The principles of infection prevention and control
Outcome 1 Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infections 1.The main roles and responsibilities of the employee in relation to prevention and control of infection are as follows: To use protective clothing when needed to stop cross contamination. This includes gloves, aprons and masks. To wash hands regularly and effectively. This needs to be done after handling food, personal care, toileting etc. To ensure your health doesn’t pose a risk to others. This can be if you have been vomiting, cold symptoms etc. To avoid cross contamination. To ensure your hygiene is good at all times as not to pose a risk to others by passing on germs and cross contaminating.
2.The main roles and responsibilities of the employer in relation to prevention and control of infection are as follows: To ensure protective equipment is available at all times, and that they have plenty in stock. To make sure the employees are aware of all health and safety aspects of the job. This can include having posters around, having files for the employees to read and putting the employees through training. Keep all records related to infection control using the appropriate documentation and keeping them in a safe place. The employer needs to ensure that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available in the work place.
Outcome 2 Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections 1.The current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection are as follows: Health and safety at work act 1974
Health and social care act 2008
The public health (control of diseases) act 1984
Personal protective equipment (PPE) regulations 1992
Controlled waste regulations 1992
Management of health and safety at work regulations 1999
Food Safety Act 1990
The NICE guidelines
Relevant codes of practice
National Minimum Standards (CQC)
2.The following local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection are The public health (control of disease) act 1984, The social care act, The NICE guidelines and also company policies and procedures that relate to infection prevention and control. Our company states that anyone suffering from and infectious disease must have clearance from a doctor or you should seek guidance from your manager.
Outcome 3 Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections 1.Procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection are as follows: Hand washing – Hand washing is important in the work place as it stops cross contamination with residents and other members of staff. You should wash your hands after touching anyone, after handling food, after being to the toilet and after using equipment. Using PPE – PPE is important in the care home as it protects you and others from infection. You should always use PPE when dealing with food and when dealing with personal care. You should always dispose of PPE before leaving a room or dealing with someone else. This stops cross contamination, protecting yourself and others. Disposal of clinical waste – The correct disposal of clinical waste is important. Clinical Waste should be disposed if in yellow bags and tied straight away. This stops cross contamination.
2.An outbreak of infection can effect the organisation and the individual. The impact it can have is as follows: Impact on organisation – The impact on the organisation can be costly, this is due to staff being sick and cover being needed for them. There can be a loss of confidence from the public and the residents giving the home a bad reputation. There is also a risk of infecting family members and visitors. Impact on individual – There is a big impact on the individual as their health deteriorates meaning they need time to recover. It can effect their eating and drinking habits leading them to lose weight and become more ill. It could be fatal resulting in death.
Outcome 4 Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections 1.Risk is a situation, action or event that may cause harm or damage to an individual or to yourself. Risk of infection can be not hand washing, not cleaning equipment after use and not disposing of clinical waste safely and properly as not to cause cross contamination.
2.Infections are unavoidable in the care home as there are so many risks. Potential risks can include the poor hygiene of a resident. This can be caused by them refusing to wash or bathe. Food poisoning is a risk if the kitchen and food surface aren’t kept clean at all times. Another potential risk is not cleaning equipment after use, as this can cross contaminate others causing harm to them. You must also make sure you dispose of clinical waste in the correct way, in the correct bins and tie bags up straight away as this can lead to a risk of infection.
3. Five steps to risk assessment can be followed to ensure that your risk assessment is carried out correctly, these steps are as follows: Identify the hazards – Hazards can be identified by using a number of different techniques. This can include walking around the workplace, asking employees and asking family members. Who might be harmed and how? – Once hazards have been identified you need to understand who will be harmed and how. This could be the resident themselves, the staff or visitors. Evaluate Risks – After identifying the hazards and deciding who may be harmed, you then have to protect the people from harm. This is done by removing the hazards or controlling the risk so an injury is unlikely. Record findings – Recording your findings shows that you have identified hazards and shows how you plan on removing the hazards. It is a legal requirement to record your documents to prove you are stopping any harm to others. Your recordings should be stored in a safe and locked place. Review and update regularly – It’s important to regularly review risk assessments so you can update any changes immediately. This is so the risk assessment is always accurate.
4.It is important to carry out risk assessments as it’s aim is to make sure that no one comes to harm and that nobody becomes ill. Risk assessments will not prevent accidents and illnesses but play a crucial part in reducing the likelihood of it happening. They should be reviewed by all members of staff and kept up to date at all times so all changes are documented. Risk assessments are essential for legal reasons, ethical reasons and for financial reasons. This is so nobody can sue you.
Outcome 5 Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infections. 2.Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a term which covers all equipment intended to be worn, or held by employees that protects them against risks to their own and others health. There are different types of PPE used for different reasons. They are as follows: Gloves – Gloves prevent self-contamination when dealing with bodily fluids, chemicals or to protect breaks in the skin. Once gloves are removed you should discard them immediately into a clinical waste bin and thoroughly wash your hands. Aprons – Aprons should be worn whenever there is a risk of bacterial contamination. This includes bed making, toileting or barrier nursing. Aprons should be changed after every task. This includes resident contact, and between rooms. Masks – Masks should be worn when there is an increased risk of blood splashing or an other bodily fluids splashing. They also provide residents protection from staff who have a respiratory infection. Eye Protection – Eye protection (goggles, visors etc) should be worn when there is a risk of bodily fluid splashing to protect the eyes from infection.
3.Personal protective equipment is used to protect employees and residents from potential risk of harm. Everyone that uses PPE should be properly trained by the employer and follow all correct instructions and procedures. PPE should be used when handling contaminated items, to prevent cross contamination, to protect yourself from infections and to avoid diseases.
4.There are many relevant regulations and legislations relating to PPE. These should be read by everyone that uses PPE. They are as follows: Personal protective equipment at work regulations 1992
Control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) regulations 2002 National institute for health and clinical excellence (NICE) guidelines The public
health (control of diseases) Act
The public health (infectious diseases) regulations 1998
Health and safety at work act 1974
The management of health and safety at work act 1994
The environmental protection (Duty of care) regulations 1991 Hazardous waste regulations 2005
5.Employees must wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while performing tasks to prevent themselves and residents from getting an infection and to prevent cross contamination between individuals. The employees responsibilities are as follows: To use PPE appropriately and as instructed by their employer Check PPE for damage before and after use
Report any damage or wear to PPE
Make sure PPE is stored in the right facilities
6.Employers must provide personal protective equipment (PPE) required by employees for free of charge, and must provide training to all staff. The employers responsibilities are as follows: To make sure PPE is available to staff at all times
That staff know how to use PPE correctly
That all staff know the correct application of PPE
That all staff know the correct disposal of PPE
That all staff know the correct preparations for use of PPE
7.Before putting on PPE, you must always thoroughly wash your hands. Different protective equipment should be applied and removed differently. Staff should be trained in all different types of PPE. Gloves
Select the correct size of glove and correct type of glove (e.g. latex free) Wash hands thoroughly
Pull over hands far enough that your wrists are covered
Grab the outside of the glove with the opposite gloved hand and peel off Hold the removed glove in the gloved hand
Slot your finger under the lip of the remaining glove and peel it off carefully making sure not to touch contaminated surface of glove. Dispose of the gloves in the clinical waste bin
Wash hands thoroughly
Wash your hands thoroughly
Pull the apron over your head carefully by trying not to come into contact with your skin Tie the straps around your back carefully not to rip it
Unfasten (or break) the ties around your back
Pull the apron away from your neck and shoulders taking care to touch the inside only and not the outer side that is contaminated Fold the apron into a bundle with the inner side on the outside Dispose in the clinical waste bin
Wash hands thoroughly
8.It is important that PPE is disposed of correctly to avoid contamination and infection to yourself and others. This is done as follows: Put on some medical gloves and place the PPE into a plastic garbage bag Tie the garbage bag tightly and securely to prevent dripping. If dripping does occur and touches your clothes or skin, make sure you wash them thoroughly to prevent infection. Place bag in the correct bin. These are normally labelled.
Clean waste containers regularly to stop infection growing.
Wash your hands thoroughly afterwards.
Outcome 6 Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections 1.There are many principles to maintain good personal hygiene. These help prevent infection and cross contamination. The main principles of good personal hygiene are as follows: Clothing – Uniforms must be clean and free from contamination and washed separately from other clothing on a high temperature. Uniforms should be changed before leaving the care home to avoid contamination. Nails – Nails should be kept short and clean with no polish on and no extensions. This can cause contamination if polish flakes onto an individual or into food. Hair – Hair should be kept clean at all times and tied up in a bobble out of the way. This is to prevent the risk of infection. Jewellery – Jewellery should not be worn as they harbour dangerous bacteria. Jewellery can also cause harm to the resident by causing damage to the skin.
3. The correct hand washing sequence is as follows:
Remove all jewellery
Turn the water tap on making sure it’s at a comfortable temperature Wet both hands
Apply soap from a dispenser and lather both hands palm to palm Rub each hand over the back of each other
Interlock fingers and rub fingers thoroughly
Rinse hands to remove the soap
Dry your hands with a paper towel or hand dryer
4.The purpose of hand washing is to reduce the risk of carrying infection on your hands which could be a risk to yourself or to others. Washing hands with soap and water is the most effective measure in the prevention of infection. Routine hand washing should be done after the following: After using the toilet
After handling laundry or waste
After handling a resident
Before and after handling , preparing or eating food
Before and after giving medication
Before and after removing gloves
Before starting work and after leaving work
After touching animals
5.There are different types of products that should be used for hand washing. Soap, antiseptic gels and alcohol based hand rubs. Soap from a dispenser should be used in communal areas as bars of soap can carry bacteria that will then be passed around to different people. Antiseptic gels contain chemicals that destroy pathogens and these are used when there is a higher risk of infection. Alcohol based hand rubs should be used as well of and no instead of hand washing as these add an additional protective barrier against infections.
6.It is important that hand cream is applied regularly to the hands as frequent hand washing can cause skin problems. It can cause them to dry out which can cause the skin to develop cracks, this itself causing bacteria. Allergies to washing preparations and gloves can sometimes occur and need reporting to your manager straight away, in order for them to get you the equipment to protect your hands. If there are any cuts or grazes of the skin, they should be covered by a plaster or bandage at all times to prevent infection into the wound and from the wound to others.