The material, social, and spiritual selves were distinguished. The differences that were made between private and public were one of the most productive. For understanding the range of representations of the self and their implications for cognition, affect, and behavior the differences between that was made between inner selves i.e., unobservable selves and the outer selves i.e., we portray to others provides an important and also useful conceptual framework (Baumeister, 1986; Greenwald & Pratkanis, 1984).
The extent to which self is defined with others as interdependently or independently of others and the grounds of one’s own abilities refers as self-construal.
There were differences found in Westerners and the East Asians. Westerners were separated from others by traits, preferences, by attention to one’s abilities, by the primacy of one’s individual goals over those of in-groups, and wishes which is considered to have an independent self-construal. Whereas East Asians are characterized by attention to one’s role in in-group, by a sense of fundamental connectedness with others, and by the superiority of group goals over one’s individual goal which is considered to have an interdependent self-construal.
Through the differences in complex or detailed self-construal’s cultural differences arise in self-definition (Cross, 2011).
According to reviewed research by Markus and Kitayama (1991) Western culture emphasize on the individual over the group, and individuals seek autonomy, independence, and separateness from others. On the other hand it was seen that in East Asian cultures, the group is emphasized over the individual, and they seek to fit into the group along with it maintain harmony in the group.
These were the differences were seen in the construction of self-views of European or American and Asian culture’s members.
Psychological implications of individualism-collectivism by Oyserman, Dahna, Coon, Heather, Kemmelmeier, & Markus (2002) are as: Among Asians, only Chinese were seen as more collectivistic and less individualistic. African Americans were more individualistic as compared to European Americans. However, European Americans were more collectivistic than Japanese or Koreans. It was found that European American Value more personal independence and individualistic whereas they found to be less collectivistic and feeling duty to in-groups less than others.
Most of the research on the identity status has been inspired by Erickson’s writings. The outcome concludes on the validation of possible stage- like relationships between the identity states, and the associations between identity and intimacy, as well as identity types (Kroger, 1989, 1993; Marcia et al., 1993). Erik H. Erikson formulated the classical identity theory in a series of publications starting from childhood and society (1950; 2nd edition 1963). To reach the full development every human beings goes from different life stages since birth to death, Erikson postulated these stages into eight different categories (Friedman, 1999). In his life cycle model, An overall theory of human psychosocial development was presented by Erikson which emphasized on the interplay between the inward development of an individual ego, outward social as well as cultural stimuli. There are various conflicts or crisis in each stage of the life cycle, if an individual learns to hold the extremes of every specific life-stage challenge in tension then it results in a successful resolution.
The strategic approaches to how individuals resolve conflicts, process and evaluate self-relevant information, and solve problems are identity styles. It reflects how one attempt to achieve their goals and desires. A process model of identity formation was proposed by Berzonsky in 1990 that focused on differences in the social-cognitive identity processes and strategies individuals use to engage or avoid the tasks of constructing, maintaining, and reconstructing a sense of identity. Informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant are the three different social-cognitive identity processing styles.
Before resolving identity conflicts and commitments individuals with an informational style laboriously search out process and evaluate self-relevant information. Such individuals are interested in learning new things about themselves, with feedbacks they are willing to evaluate and modify their identity structure, doubtful about self-views, and self-reflective. According to researches problem-focused, high commitment levels, self-insight, open-mindedness, cognitive complexity, emotional autonomy, and adaptive self-regulation are associated with an informational style. Those individuals who score high on informational tend to define themselves in terms of personal attributes like personal goals, standards and values (Berzonsky, 1994; Berzonsky, Macek, & Nurmi, 2003; Lutwak, Ferrari, & Cheek, 1998). Such individuals define themselves by means of personal attributes such as my goals, my standards, and my values (Berzonsky, Macek, & Nurmi, 2003).
A style that is associated with a sense of purpose, high commitment levels, and self-control is normative style. There is a need for cognitive closure and structure, low tolerance for ambiguity, authoritarianism, and inflexibility. Individuals with this style more automatically adopt and internalize the goal and denotation group also characterized by conformity to socially prescribed norms and beliefs (Duriez & Soenens, 2006; Soenens,Duriez, & Goossens, 2005). Those individuals who score high on normative define themselves in terms of collective self-attributes like religion, family, and nationality (Berzonsky, 1994; Berzomsky et al., 2003; Lutwak et el., 1998).
According to Berzonsky’s model, diffuse-avoidance involves strategic attempts to avoid potentially negative self-relevant feedback. This style is more fragmented self and is associated with a delay in constructing an identity, weak commitments, diffusion identity status, impulsiveness, self-handicapping, and external locus of control (Berzonsly, in press; Berzonsky & Ferrari, 2009). Individuals with this style procrastinate and attempt to continue facing identity conflicts and problems as long as possible. (Berzonsky & Ferrari, 2009). Such individuals have a tendency to emphasize social self-elements such as my reputation, impression I make on others, and my popularity (Berzonsky, Macek, & Nurmi, 2003).
Every individual try to change their emotions when they feel sad. Various events occur when emotion is induced in an individual. Evidences show that people can manage their ongoing emotional experiences and most of them are successful in managing their emotions (Andrade and Cohen, 2007; Gross and Thompson, 2007). Managing of own emotion is known as emotion regulation. It is self-management process in which individuals manipulate either the emotion antecedents or the subjective, behavioral, and physiological elements of emotional response (Gross, 1998).
Situation selection, situation modification, attention deployment, reappraisal, and response modulation are the five different emotion regulation strategies described by research. The emotion regulation in which an individual either approach or avoids circumstances that would result in desired or undesired emotional experiences is situational selection. After entering to a situation, a person can engage in situation modification. Here the person modifies aspects of the emotionally loaded external environment. Person may shift their attention from emotional targets towards and away, this is the process of selective attention deployment. Individual distance themselves mentally from discomfort or frazzle situations (Gross, 1998). If one is failed in emotional regulation then an individual may act physiological, expressive, and subjective reactions as their emotional response. These forms of strategy may enhance person’s processing of disturbing material called reappraisal. Enhancing or hiding a facial expression is response modulation. This type of strategy changes the experience of emotion but hardly hides the internal emotion states from external world so it is least effective type of emotion regulation (Gross and Levenson, 1993).
As an emotional community in practice there are few groups like nations, age groups, or professions that are too large to function. They attribute different emotional identities despite having too large function. Soldiers are associated with courageous behavior, painters with a passionate temperament, scientists with a lack of emotional and social intelligence, where as poets as heightened sensitivity. Adolescents are identified with their mood swings whereas elderly people are expected to mellow as they age (Manfred Beller and Joe Lessen). Different academic disciplines like Maths, Chemistry, History, Psychology, Arts, and Psychology use varying concept of identity (Bosma et al., 1994). Sociologists, psychologists and psychiatrists use it as a means of understanding selfhood or individuality (Yardley and Honess, 1987; Lapsley and Power, 1988; Breakwell, 1992; Kroger, 1993; Archer, 1994).
According to studies, emotional intelligence (EI) is related to professional as well as academic success it also contributes to individual cognitive-based performance (Romanelli et al., 2006). Students who has higher emotional intelligence they are regarded by peers as prosocial as well as less conflictual and show more positive social functioning in interpersonal relationship (Brackett et al., 2011). In medical education, emotional intelligence is one of the psycho-affective domains (concerned with feelings) which have been related to higher academic achievement and also with the clinical performance (Codier et al.)
Emotion is important aspect for understand the engagement and motivation. Contemporary research on emotion increasingly recognizes the need for an interdisciplinary approach. Classroom and School is the place where mind is not only influenced and affected by cognitive faculties but it is more affected by socio-emotional aspect. Changes in the way we think about emotion effects in group level. We recognize that both Negative and Positive can be infectious, though why this is the case remains a puzzle. This negative and positive is only standards which are socially constructed by society and the construction of emotion is not merely individualistic process but it is two way process. Firstly the emotion which is related to individualistic identity and second it is related to member or being in group. Research has shown that children’s and adolescents’ emotions are linked to their academic achievement. Typically, positive emotions such as enjoyment of learning show positive links with achievement, and negative emotions such as test anxiety show negative links (for overviews, see Goetz & Hall, 2013; Pekrun & Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2014; Zeidner, 1998). Positive activating emotions (e.g., enjoyment of learning) are thought to preserve cognitive resources and focus attention on the learning task, support interest and intrinsic motivation, and facilitate deep learning. Accordingly, these emotions are expected to positively influence students’ academic achievement under most task conditions. The opposite pattern of effects is proposed for negative deactivating emotions (boredom, hopelessness). These emotions are thought to reduce cognitive resources and task-related attention, to undermine both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and to promote shallow information processing. Discipline may not encompass all the elements of one’s way of life and it is not that a career choice is the only serious life decision one makes; but the choice of career certainly has a spillover effect on all dimensions of life. A practical answer to the Socratic question of “what kind of life one should live” may be given in one’s choice of a career.
In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the phenomena of discipline choice as it presents itself to a student. Students who resolve to seek a career are supposed to negotiate the issue of choice on the basis of their own best estimates of their long-term interests, capacities, and circumstances. Although it is a crude assumption but it seems natural to think that career choice is linked closely to the individual’s expression of the self. Identity style influence the choice of Subjects, so this study is attempt to explore the preferences of subjects in different identity styles. And in what extend this identity styles are connected to achievement emotion.