Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447-438 BCE (ﬁg.1) are built by Iktinos and Kallikrates. This, architecture was contributed to Athena also means a virgin. Greek mythology, Athena is a justice and wisdom goddess as a Greek protector. This temple total high is 13.72 meters, the base is about 69.5 meters long, wide is about 30 meters long; the length is about 70 meters long, and the wide is 30 meters long. Between 447 and 438 BCE, built in the highest point of Athens Mountain of the Acropolis in Greek.
The background of this temple, in 440 BCE Greek army defeats the invading Persian armies. This war makes Greek has glory and renown.
In this essay, I will discuss the key ﬁgure associate, how this piece reﬂects its cultural, social, historical, or political, and how this piece is the cultural values of its society. First, I want to talk about Greek architecture background. Greek architecture refers to the Greek mainland and the Peloponnese, the islands of the Aegean Sea, the Greek colonies in Ionia, and Magna Graecia.
Greek architecture has deep inﬂuence Rome architecture. Let Rome Imperial architecture adopt and corporate with many Greek elements in their architecture. The building demonstrates the range and diversity of Greek architecture.
This architecture was reﬂected in the culture of Greek. The Parthenon is the most important symbol of Greek civilization. These temples built for Athena as Athens protector which also shows Greek religious beliefs. Beside the temple reﬂects the Greek victory civilization. The Athenians have established content with the classical period and they can claim cultural superiority.
The Parthenon not only interest in Classical architecture but also inﬂuence modern-day building to use this style. Many architectures use majestic columns and symmetrical forms to show culture elegant associated with a Classical past. The Parthenon brings culture reﬁnement to the Greeks from that structure to commemoration monument and this is how Athenians feel great to symbolize in the Classical period. As Athenian citizens were proud of their cultural identity and conscious their ideal was important in history. “They think they are civilized among barbarians and that their culture and political achievements will change their civilized people.” Their all accomplishments are systematizing which never has before it is Democracy. Can say that Democracy the Athenian way of thinking and this is a direct democracy system.
Most identify architecture is the temple. At the Archaic period, they development diﬀerent type of the column such as Doric (ﬁg.2), Ionic (ﬁg.3) and Corinthian (ﬁg.4). 123The Parthenon will be the largest Doric Greek temple, although it has innovated with Doric and the Ionic. The temple measured 30.88 m by 69.5 m. This temple embodies an extraordinary number of architectural reﬁnement, which has sculpture appearance to the building. Besides, the temple stylobate or ﬂoor was not ﬂat, it has little rise at the center. The outer was Doric columns. When peoples went through the door can see it has a large wooden with decoration in bronze, ivory, and gold. The column separated in two-room. The small one was supported by four Ionic columns also to be city treasury; the big one was supported by a Doric column inside has worship sculpture.
Doric Column: A square abacus connects the capital to the entablature. In Greece, the Doric column 1was placed directly on the pavement or ﬂoor without the beneﬁt of a base. Examples of Doric columns in the Greek style Ionic Column: The Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of 2the column from the stylobate or platform; the cap is usually enriched with egg-and-dart. Corinthian Column: one of the classical orders of architecture. Its main characteristic is a 3ornate capital carved with stylized acanthus leaves
The other key ﬁgure is about the statue of Athena in the main cella of the temple(ﬁg.5). The statue is covered by ivory and gold, inner is made by the wooden core. It shows the Athena majestic while she stands there. The statue must be awesome and it has it owned richness part. Whatever is at artistically and literally; send a very clear message about the wealth and power of the city that can tribute to their patron god. The Parthenon was reﬂect in their culture and politic. This temple is the most important symbol of Greek civilization. These temples built for Athena as Athens protector which also shows Greek religious beliefs.Beside the hole temple reﬂects the Greek victory civilization. The Athenians have established content with classical period and they are able to claim cultural superiority. The Parthenon not only interest in Classical architecture but also inﬂuence modern-day building to use this style. Many architectures uses majestic column and symmetrical forms to show culture elegant associated with a Classical past. The Parthenon brings culture reﬁnement to the Greeks from that structure to commemoration monument and this is how Athenians feel great to symbolize in the Classical period. As Athenian citizens were proud of their cultural identity and conscious their ideal was important in history. They think their culture and political achievement will change the civilized people and this also means at this period developing a system that never has before its Democracy. Can say that Democracy is what the Athenian way of thinking and this is a direct democratic system.
Parthenon represented the ancient Greek architecture, which including proportional design, columns, friezes, and pediments. This element makes the architecture unique and own style character. With this kind of design inﬂuence now very much. Modern times there are some designs is using the element from Greek, such as the House of Commons entrance of the former Irish Houses of Parliament(ﬁg.6), it uses Ionic columns, dentil molding, and pediment with high relief sculpture. The other one is the Second Bank of the United States(ﬁg.7), although it lacks sculpture to decorate it uses the Doric Column to be the model.
The Greek period has many things that inﬂuent society such as architecture, culture, and religion. But the main inﬂuence is the architecture. Columns are the popular modern architectural style in modern times. The architrave, frieze, and cornice were supported by columns, this also represents that people have impress about democracy, power, and respect.
NewsParthenon voted the most beautiful building in the world, https://neoskosmos.com/en/ 40762/parthenon-voted-the-most-beautiful-building-in-the-world/ WebsiteMark Cartwright, https://www.ancient.eu/parthenon/ published on 28 October 2012 Cultural Important of the Parthenon, https://thegreekparthenon.weebly.com/cultural- signiﬁcance.HTML
The Parthenon: Religion, Art, and Politics, https://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/farberas/ arth/arth200/politics/parthenon.html
The Glorious Parthenon, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/glorious-parthenon/
Introduction to Greek architecture, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient- art-civilizations/greek-art/beginners-guide-Greece/a/introduction-to-greek-architecture
Fig.1 Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447-438 BCE Fig.2 Doric Column
Fig.3 Ionic Column
Fig.4 Corinthian Column
Fig.5 The statue of Athena
Fig.6 Irish Houses of Parliament
Second Bank of the United States