The nature has provided plant wealth for all residing or

Categories: BiologyNaturePlants

The nature has provided plant wealth for all residing or living creatures, which possess medicinal properties. Medicinal flora are an important source of drugs in traditional system of medicine. Medicinal plants have been used considering the fact that they were used in prehistoric period for the remedy of a number of diseases. Since these are in common use by the local people and are of excellent importance that’s why a lot of humans are engaged in the trade of necessary medicinal herbs throughout the world.

Calotropis procera is amongst them. Calotropis procera is oftentimes recognized as ‘Sodom apple’. Calotropis procera is more common which has purple flower (Verma et al 2016). It occurs in parts of the tropical world, in waste land and grows abundantly as a weed (Mainasara et al 2012, Ajiboso et al 2015). Calotropis procera is a drought-resistant and salt-tolerant species that is capable of surviving in a range of soil sorts including alkaline and saline soil, and prefers free draining sandy soils.

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It grows abundantly in arid and semiarid areas barring irrigation, chemical fertilizers, pesticides or other agronomic practices (Hassan et al 2014).

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It is a 6-meter high shrub that belongs to the Asclepiadaceae plant family and is often located in West Africa and other tropical places. It is well known for its medicinal properties (Alrheam et al 2015).

In ayurvedic all parts of the tree used in in different healing techniques for specific diseases. The plant is additionally acknowledged for its poisonous properties that consist of iridocyclites, dermatitis and acts like a poison and produces lethal effects (Talsaniya et al 2014). The internal bark of Calotropis is used to make strong fibers known as madar which are used in the manufacture of weave carpets, ropes, sewing thread and fishing nets. (Quazi et al 2013). Its branches, leaves, stems and fruit are covered by serous, with the presence of white latex which flows in abundance when tissue is broken (Silva et al 2010). It rapidly becomes established as a weed along degraded roadsides, lagoon edges and in overgrazed native pastures (Sharma et al 2011).

Plant of Calotropis is commonly known as “apple of Sodom” (Shobowale et al 2013, Hassan et al 2015, Kubmarawa et al 2007, Talsaniya et al 2014). Calotropis procera is widely distributed throughout the world as well as India and are known by number of names viz “Madar tree”, “milkweed”, “crown flower”, “swallow wort”, in English, “Kisher”, “usher” or “oshar” in Arabic, “pomme de sodome” in French, “calotrops” in Italian, “Vellerukku”, “Erukku” in Tamil, “arka”, “Adityapuspiker”, “ravi”, “arka” in Sanskrit, “aak”, “akavana”, “madar” in Hindi, “rui”, “mandara” in Marathi, “akado” in Gujarati, “ak” in Punjabi, “ekka”, “ekkadagida” in Kannada, “jilledu” in Telugu, “madar”, “akk” in Urdu, “acka” in Kashmiri, “akanda”, “akone” in Bengali, “akand”, “akan” in Assami, “erikku” in Malyalam (Shobowale et al 2013, Hassan et al 2015, Kubmarawa et al 2007, Khare et al 2008, Srivastava et al 2015, Yogi et al 2016, Talsaniya et al 2014).

Phytochemicals are naturally occurring bioactive components found in plants that work with nutrients to show a defence mechanism against diseases and this plant is a hub of different phytochemicals (Shobowale et al 2013). Various phytochemicals have been reported that can be extracted from different parts of C. procera, namely, calotropin, calotropagenin, calotoxin, calotropagenin and voruscharine, steroids, di and triterpenes, alkaloids, tannin, saponin, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, cardenolides, polyphenolic compounds (Mainasara et al 2012, Alzahrani et al 2017, Moustafa et al 2010). The different parts of this shrub has also been known to possess analgesic, antitumor, antihelmintic, antidaibetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidairrhoeal, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, oestrogenic, antinociceptive, and antimalarial activities. (Yogi et al 2012, Sharma et al 2011, Jan et al 2015). Calotropis procera, a well known shrub has be traditionally used to treat diarrhoea, stomatic, sinus fistula, and skin disease and the leaf part is used to cure jaundice. It is also used as a purgative, digestive, emetic, expectorant, sedative, blood purifier, an antidote for snake poisoning (Chaudhary et al 2016).

Origin and distribution

Calotropis procera, a wild perennial shrub was originated in African, Indian and Persian deserts (Taghvaei et al 2015). It grows mainly in arid and semi arid countries. It is native to Africa, Asia, America, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Nigeria, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe, Indochina (Hassan et al 2015, Rahimi et al 2014, Adebayo et al 2015, Verma et al 2016). It occurs frequently in Indonesia, Malaysia, China and the Indian subcontinent as wasteland weed (Pattnaik et al 2016). In India, it is majorly found in Punjab, Rajasthan, Assam, Kanyakumari, and in areas upto 1,000 m elevation but is found in abundance in Rajasthan. (Quazi et al 2013, Singhi et al 2015, Khairnar et al 2012). C. Procera is drought-resistant, highly salt-tolerant, and it disperses seeds through wind and animals.

Chapter 2 PROBLEM BACKGROUND

Chapter 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

An overview of calotropis procera and its different parts

Calotropis procera (Aiton) is a medium?sized medicinal or ayurvedic plant of approximately 3 to 6 m of height after reaching age of 3?5 years. It is a multipurpose tree commonly known as Madar in Hindi or Sodom apple (Hassan et al 2015). It is a member of the Asclepiadaceae family and grows in tropical and subtropical region (Chundattu et al 2011). C. Procera is a plant that is unaffected by drought, can tolerate salt conditions to a relatively high degree, and it scatters its seeds through air and animals. It rapidly became established as a weed along roadsides, and in overgrazed native pastures. It has its dominancy in areas of abandoned cultivation with low rainfalls such as in sandy soils and it is supposed to be an indicator of over-cultivation. C. Procera is native to India, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe (Rahimi et al 2014). Different parts of the plant have been used for the treatment of various diseases such as leprosy, ulcers, tumors, piles and diseases of spleen, liver and abdomen (Kirtikar et al 1999). Calotropis procera consists of various bioactive components that includes cardenolides, steroids, tannins, glycosides, phenols, terpenoids, sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. All these bioactive components posses positive effects such as antimicrobial, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, anticancer, anti-angiogenic, immunological, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, gastroprotective, hepatic protective, renal protective, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, enhancement of wound healing, antifertility and smooth muscle relaxant effect (Al-snafi et al 2015). A huge mass of white sap generates whenever any section of the plant is cut. The bark is corky, furrowed, and mild gray. The root is simple, branched, and woody at base and included with a fissured, corky bark, branches has very deep stout root with few branches. The leaves are opposite-decussate, simple, subsessile, and exstipulate. The leaves are slightly leathery and having a first-class coat of tender hairs. Flowers are shallow bell-shaped, like a campanula, bracteate, complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous, pedicellate, multiflowered, umbellate, peduncled cymes with axillary or terminal inflorescence. Fruit is simple, fleshy, inflated, and subglobose to obliquely ovoid follicle. Seeds are small, flat, existing in massive amount (Parihar et al 2016)

Composition and Phytochemistry

Calotropis procera is a useful medicinal plant. Several researches reported the variable quantities of moisture, as, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and minerals of Calotropis procera as shown in Table 1(a),(b),(c). Plants have the capacity to synthesize a wide variety of chemical components that are used to carry out important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals (Dutta et al 2014). Chemical investigation of this plants has shown a number of phytochemicals such as terpenes , alkaloids, tannin, glycosides and many more as listed in Table 2(a). The different parts of the plant are used around the world and are used as medicine for the treatment of various treatments. It also posses wide range of biological activities as shown in table 2(a) (Gupta et al 2012). These phytochemicals have the ability to treat various diseases like alkaloids for malaria, flavonoids as antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer, tannins act as antimicrobial and antifungal, and steroids as antimicrobial (Tiwari et al 2017)

Table 1(a). Composition of Calotropis procera

  • Parameters Composition References
  • Moisture 10-11.5 Hussain et al 2011, Tiwari et al 2017
  • Ash 1.96-17 Jan et al 2015, Hussain et al 2011,
  • Protein 3-28 Jan et al 2015, Hussain et al 2011, Tiwari et al 2017
  • Fat 4.5-5.5 Jan et al 2015, Hussain et al 2011
  • Carbohydrate 4.32 -62 Jan et al 2015, Hussain et al 2011
  • Crude fiber 2.5- 6.5 Jan et al 2015, Tiwari et al 2017
  • Energy 101.41- 313kcal/100g Jan et al 2015, Hussain et al 2011
  • Minerals (mg/l) Magnesium 1.5- 2 Adebayo et al 2015
    ————————————————————————–
  • Calcium 4-4.5
  • Sodium 3-3.5
  • Potassium 325-327
  • Manganese 0.8-0.1
  • Zinc 0.1-0.3
  • Iron 2-2.5
  • Cadmium 0.05-0.1
  • Copper 0.5-0.6
  • Lead 0.3-0.5

Table 1(b). Composition of different parts of Calotropis procera

Plant parts Energy

  • (kcal/100g) Moisture (wet basis)
  • Ash Fat Protein Fibre Carbohydrates References
  • Leaf 80-82 79-82, (d)2.43 1.5- 9.5 3.5-5 6.5- 9 3- 10 3.5-4 Jan et al 2015, , Adebayo et al 2015, Ajiboso et al 2015
  • Flower 96-100 77.5-81 2- 7.5 4.5-5.5 6-9.5 1.5-3 4.5-5 Jan et al 2015,
  • Fruit 107-113 76-79 1.5-2 5-5.5 10-11 1.5-2 5-5.5 Jan et al 2015
  • Seed 107-113 75-79 1.5-2 5-6 10-11 2.5-3 4.5-5 Jan et al 2015
  • Root 100-105 76-85 2-4.5 5-5.5 10-11 2-2.5 3-3.5 Jan et al 2015, Srivastava et al 2015
  • Stem 105-113 74-79 1.5-3 5-5.5 9-10 2-3 4-5 Jan et al 2015, Konathala et al 2014
  • Table 1(c). Mineral profile of different parts of Calotropis procera
  • Plant parts Na K Ca Mg P Fe Zn Cu References
  • Leaf 2-2.5 7-8 21-23 18-19 10.5-11 1-1.5 0.5-1 0.15-0.20 Jan et al 2015
  • Flower 1.5-2 2-2.5 9.5-10.5 15-15.5 8.5-9 1.5-2 0.3-0.55 0.1-0.2 Jan et al 2015
  • Fruit 0.5-0.7 0.6-0.8 9.5-10 3.5-4 9-9.5 0.3-0.5 0.1-0.2 0.09-0.10 Jan et al 2015
  • Seed 0.10-0.15 0.5-0.7 7.5-8 6-6.5 7.5-8 0.1-0.3 0.1-0.2 0.09-0.10 Jan et al 2015
  • Root 1-1.5 2.2.5 25-26 17-18 14-15.5 0.2-0.5 0.1-0.2 0.1-0.2 Jan et al 2015
  • Stem 0.7-0.8 1-1.5 21-22 24-27 12-14 0.5-1 0.10-0.15 0.09-0.10 Jan et al 2015
  • Table 2(a). Phytochemicals and therapeutic potential of different parts of Calotropis procera

Plant part Phytochemicals References Therapeutic use References

Root bark Terpene (Pentacyclic triterpenes, ?- amyrin, triterpenoids), phytosterols , taraxasterol, saponins, glycosides, benzoyllineolone, benzolisolineolone, ? -amyrin, , tannins Hassan et al 2014, Khare et al 2008, Gupta et al 2012, Morsy et al 2016 Antipyretic, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial Kakkar et al 2012, Kubmarawa et al 2008, Khare et al 2008

Leaves Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, glycosides, saponin, (amyrin, amyrin acetate, ?-sitosterol, ursolic acid, Procesterol, Multiflorenol) cardenolides (calotropin, calotropagenin), hydrocarbons , terpene (triterpenoids , beta-amyrin, nonoxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.73%),, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (11.84%), oxygenated monoterpenes (3.63%), oxygenated heterogeneous compounds (38.11%),

, stigmasterol Shobowale et al 2013, Hassan et al 2014, Mascalo et al 1988, Khare et al 2008, Srivastava et al 2012, Gupta et al 2012, Mainasara et al 2012, Yogi et al 2016, Ajiboso et al 2015, Morsy et al 2016, Silva et al 2010, Alzahrani et al 2017, Antimicrobial, antidote, antitussive

Shobowale et al 2013, Hassan et al 2014, Kubmarawa et al 2008, Khare et al 2008

Flower Terpenes( beta-amyrin oxygenated sesquiterpenes (11.84%), oxygenated monoterpenes (3.63%) and nonoxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.73%), triterpenoids), procesterol, stigmasterol, multiflorenol, cyclisadol, oxygenated heterogeneous compounds (38.11%), anthocyanins, and flavonoids, ,tannins Hassan LM et al 2014, Mascalo N et al 1988, Morsy N et al 2016, Gupta S et al 2012, Khare CP et al 2008, Yogi B et al 2016 Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, anti-pyretic, anti-cancerous, analgesic , antiasthmatic Chundattu SJ et al 2011, Kubmarawa D et al 2008, Mascalo N et al 1988, Khare CP et al 2008,

Stem Hydrocarbons , terpene (beta-amyrin, triterpenoids) Hassan et al 2014,

Tour et al 2012, Khare et al 2008, Morsy et al 2016, Alzahrani et al 2017 Anti-inflammatory Tour NS et al 2012

Latex Alkaloids, tannin, saponin , trypsin, sterol , hydrocarbons , cardiac glycosides, flavonoids(Quercetin-3- rutinoside), Cardenolides (calotropin , calotoxin 0.15 %, calactin 0.15 %, voruscharin, uscharin 0.45 %,Voruscharin, Proceroside, Calotropagenin, uzarigenin, syriogenin), terpene (beta-amyrin, (2-3%), lupeol, Taraxast-20(30)-en-3(4-methyl 3-pentenoate) Shobowale et al 2013 , Mascalo et al 1988,Moustafa et al 2010, Hassan et al 2014, Khare et al 2008, Gupta et al 2012, Yogi et al 2016, Verma et al 2014, Morsy et al 2016, Silva et al 2010, Alzahrani et al 2017 antibiotic, anti -inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitode, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic,antiseptic, laxative Shobowale et al 2013, Chundattu et al 2011, Kubmarawa et al 2008, Gupta et al 2012, Silva et al 2010

Seed coroglaucigenin, frugoside and corotoxigenin, Cardenolides (calotropin ) Hassan et al 2014, Morsy et al 2016, Alzahrani et al 2017

Cardiac glycosides Latex

Health benefits of Calotropis procera

Chapter 4 PROPOSED OBJECTIVES

1. To standardize the drying technology of Calotropis procera

2. To check the suitability of different extraction methods (eco-friendly and microwave assisted) for extraction of phytochemicals from calotropis procera.

3. Preparation and evaluation of calotropis procera enriched fruit based beverage.

Chapter 5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Proximate analysis of Calotropis procera, its different parts (leaves, flower, stem, root, stem)

  • Moisture Content AOAC 2000
  • Protein content AOAC 2000
  • Fat content Soxhlet extraction method
  • Crude fiber content AOAC 2000

Ash content AOAC 2000

Carbohydrates AOAC 2006

Dietary fiber content Van Soest and Wine (1967), AOAC 991.43

Extraction of phytochemicals

Product analysis

To study the various physico- chemical and functional properties of the Calotropis procera enriched fruit based beverage.

  • Moisture Content AOAC 2000
  • Protein content AOAC 2000
  • Fat content Soxhlet extraction method
  • Crude fiber content AOAC 2000

Ash content AOAC 2000

Carbohydrates AOAC 2006

Dietary fiber content Van Soest and Wine (1967), AOAC 991.43

  • Polyphenol content
  • Flavonoids content
  • Anti-oxidant content

5.3.2 Organoleptic Evaluation

A 9-point hedonic scale will be used to evaluate the experimental samples using semi trained panelists. Healthy male and female of suitable age will be selected for the evaluation. Samples of different concentration will be prepared to select the best out of them.

Expression Points to be assigned

  • Liked extremely
  • Liked very much
  • Liked moderately
  • Liked slightly

Neither liked nor disliked

  • Disliked slightly
  • Disliked moderately
  • Disliked very much
  • Disliked extremely 9

Sample code Color Appearance Flavor Texture Mouth feel Overall acceptability Remarks

(if any)

Mean sensory score on composite sensory scale for the developed product

Sensory attributes Possible score Mean score ± SD Number of judges

5.3.3 To study the storage stability of the product

The developed Calotropis procera enriched fruit based beverage will be evaluated for its:

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