According to Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook in Columbia University and East Asian Curriculum Project: “the arrival of United States naval fleet commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry has ended the seclusion of Japan from the outside world, particularly western. Perry then instructed to open Japan to foreign trade and diplomatic contact”. The Edo bakufu, recognizing United States military superiority, signed a treaty of friendship during a second visit by Perry in 1854. In 1868, the Meji restoration was successful and totally isolated from westerners’ influence.
A new government was installed composed and led by rank and file samurai from the domains of Satsuma and Choshu. The newly restored government pledged to restore a new nation that shall be modernized and independent. As further cited by the Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook in Columbia University, East Asian Curriculum Project: “it meant finding a new symbol around which Japanese people could rally (the Meiji Emperor), a new sense of investment in the modern society being built, the opportunity to make a “success” of oneself, and the dismantling of the old feudal order”.
Subsequently over the period, in favor of a modern centralized government, the old feudal domains were abolished. The old feudal class distinctions were notably the samurai class. Resistance and contradiction in the newly restored government, as Saigo Takamori led a rebellion in 1878, were repelled. The Meji government proved its imperial power to rebuild its cultural heritage, society and the way of life. The government, as led by the Meji Oligarchs, has paved its governmental system into parliament. A constitution was enacted and the exercises of election that has finally outlined the parliament proceedings like modern states.