United States of America is the world super power. During golden history of United States of America great leaders paved the way to achieve the present world supremacy. Dedicated service rendered by General George Washington as a war wining General to the great nation of America is significant. General George Washington is considered as the founder father of the United States of America. General George Washington is still in the green memories of the Americans due to his distinguished service as commanding general of the revolutionary army.
George Washington played a crucial role during the French and Indian War that lasted for seven years. During 1775 to 1783 George Washington led the American victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary war .Under his leadership America gained independence. General George Washington led the Continental Army towards victory. His great achievements and military operations were exclusive. General Washington’s military career provides a model of leadership strategic and tactical skills. As the commander in chief of the continental army, his achievements and services to the nation were remarkable.
He possessed a great strength of character and a wealth of sound leadership qualities. He was a leader with calm, trustworthy, wise, unselfish, determined sense of patriotic commitment to the nation and leader who treated his citizen solidarity
2. General George Washington’s greatness can be identified by three ways firstly, as commander in chief of the Continental Army, secondly as president of the constitutional convention, and thirdly as the first President of the United States of America. General Washington became the President in 1789, following the end of war with the Great Britain in 1783. His exemplary performances as the first president of the United States of America were commendable. As a political leader and as the first president of the country General George Washington displayed great leadership qualities same as he exhibited in battlefield. General Washington had a vision of a making America as powerful nation using federal power. As President, George Washington played a leading role in drafting the American Constitution in 1789 and extended his contribution by building a strong central government. General Washington first adopted the foreign policy of neutrality. In 1773, he prevented international conflicts and interruptions of other countries. He was the prominent figure in establishing essential political conventions to ensure the success of the new republic. General Washington was not a member of any political party. Due to dedicated service rendered and his exceptional contribution to the nation as the farther of the nation he is honoured by every American citizen. People all over the world admire his leadership and reputed character.
3. The aim of this presentation is to acquaint the student officers on military leadership and political leadership of General George Washington.
4. General George Washington was born in Virginia on 22 February 1732. Little George learned to read and write during his school time. He attended school from his 7th to his 15th year. His favorite subject in school was mathematics. He enjoyed hunting, fishing, and boating on the river a lot. At the age of eleven, his father died. George had to help his mother to run their farmhouse and watch his younger sister and brothers during his early stages.
5. General Washington embarked upon a career as a surveyor in 1748. In 1749 he was appointed to his first public office in Culpeper Company. George was joined the Virginia army when he was twenty one. Soon after his resignation from his commission George Washington married the widow Martha Dandridge Custis in 1759.
4. George Washington’s military accomplishments are not popularly appreciated for two reasons: his distinction as first president of the new nation was unique and his enduring achievements in military operations were not based upon a series of conquests or large-scale battles. Nevertheless, General Washington’s military career provides a model of leadership and strategic and tactical expertise.
5. Military career of George Washington spanned over forty years of service. General Washington’s service can be broken in three periods that is French and Indian War, American Revolutionary War, and the Quasi-War with France, with service in three different armed forces British provincial militia, the Continental Army, and the United States Army.
6. General Washington’s military experience began in the French and Indian War with a commission as a major in the militia of the British Province of Virginia. In 1753 General Washington was sent as an ambassador from the British crown to the French officials and Indians as far north as present-day Pennsylvania. The following year he led another expedition to the area to assist in the construction of a fort at present-day Pittsburgh. Before reaching that point, he and some of his men, accompanied by Indian allies, ambushed a French scouting party. Its leader was killed, although the exact circumstances of his death were disputed. This peacetime act of aggression is seen as one of the first military steps leading to the global Seven Years’ War. The French responded by attacking fortifications which General Washington erected following the ambush, forcing his surrender. Released on parole, General Washington and his troops returned to Virginia.
7. General Washington played a key role in the outbreak of the French and Indian war, and then led the defense of Virginia between 1755 and 1758 as colonel of the Virginia Regiment. Although General Washington never received a commission in the British Army, he gained valuable military, political, and leadership skills, and received significant public exposure in the colonies and abroad. He closely observed British military tactics, gaining a keen insight into their strengths and weaknesses that proved invaluable during the Revolution. He demonstrated his toughness and courage in the most difficult situations, including disasters and retreats. He developed a command presence, given his size, strength, stamina, and bravery in battle, he appeared to soldiers to be a natural leader and they followed him without question. General Washington learned to organize, train, and drill, and discipline his companies and regiments. From his observations, readings and conversations with professional officers, he learned the basics of battlefield tactics, as well as a good understanding of problems of organization and logistics.
8. In 1755 he participated as a volunteer aide in the ill-fated expedition of General Edward Braddock, where he distinguished himself in the retreat following the climactic Battle of Monongahela. He served from 1755 until 1758 as colonel and commander of the Virginia Regiment, directing the provincial defenses against French and Indian raids and building the regiment into one of the best-trained provincial militias of the time. He led the regiment as part of the 1758 expedition of General John Forbes that successfully drove the French from Fort Duquesne.
9. General Washington gained valuable military skills during the war, acquiring tactical, strategic, and logistical military experience. His military exploits, although they included some notable failures, made his military reputation in the colonies such that he became a natural selection as the commander in chief of the Continental Army following the outbreak of the American Revolutionary war in 1775.
10. General Washington played a leading military and political role in the American Revolution. He appeared before the Second Continental Congress in military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, the next day it selected General Washington as commander-in-chief.
11. General Washington appeared before the Second Continental Congress in military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, the next day it selected George Washington as commander-in-chief. There was no serious rival to his experience and confident leadership, let alone his base in the largest colony.
12. George Washington assumed command of the colonial forces in Boston in July 1775, during the ongoing siege of Boston. George Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston and George Washington moved his army to New York City. In August 1776, British General launched a massive naval and land campaign to capture New York designed to seize New York City and offer a negotiated settlement. The Americans were committed to independence, but General Washington was unable to hold New York. Defeated at the Battle of Long Island, his army’s subsequent night time retreat across the East River without the loss of a single life or material has been seen by some historians as one of General Washington’s greatest military feats. On the night of December 25, 1776, General Washington staged a counter attack, leading the American forces across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. General Washington followed up the assault with a surprise attack on British forces at Princeton. These unexpected victories after a series of losses recaptured New Jersey, drove the British back to the New York City area, and gave a dramatic boost to revolutionary morale.
13. General Washington’s army led a massive attack on the British garrison at the Battle of Germantown in early October. While unsuccessful, the battle left the British army badly scarred and marked the beginning of several offensively-minded moves by General Washington.
14. French entry into the war changed the dynamics, for the British were no longer sure of command of the seas and had to worry about an invasion of their home islands. The British evacuated Philadelphia in 1778 and returned to New York City, with General Washington attacking them along the way at the Battle of Monmouth. This was the last major battle in the north. During this time, General Washington remained with his army outside New York, looking for an opportunity to strike a decisive blow while dispatching troops to other operations to the north and south. The long-awaited opportunity finally came in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap a British army in Virginia. The surrender at Yorktown on October 17, 1781 marked the end of fighting. The Treaty of Paris Treaty recognized the independence of the United States.
15. General Washington’s contribution to victory in the American Revolution was not that of a great battlefield tactician. In fact he sometimes planned operations that were too complicated for his amateur soldiers to execute. However, his overall strategy proved to be successful keep control of the population at all times, keep the army intact and avoid decisive battles except to exploit enemy mistakes.
16. On December 23, 1783, General Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief to the Congress of the Confederation. Because of General Washington’s importance in the early history of the United States of America, he was grated a posthumous promotion to General of the armies of the United States, legislatively defined to be the highest possible rank in the United States Army, more than 175 years after his death on 19th January 1976.
SUCCESSES AND DRAWBACKS OF MILITARY CAREER
17. Battle of Jumonville. The Battle of Jumonville Glen, also known as the Jumonville affair, fought on May 28 1754 near Uniontown in Fayette Country, Pennsylvania was the opening battle of the French and Indian war. A company of colonial militia from Virginia commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Washington and no of Mingo warriors led by Tanacharison ambushed a force of 35 Frenchmen commanded by Joseph Coulon Villiers de Jumonville. A larger French force had driven off the small construction crew, and sent Jumonville to warn General Washington about encroaching on French claimed territory. General Washington was alerted to Jumonville’s presence by Tanacharison, and they joined forces to surround the French camp. Some of the Frenchmen were killed in the ambush, and most of the others were captured. Jumonville was among the slain, although the exact circumstances of his death are a subject of historical controversy and on debate.
18. Siege of Boston. Siege began on April 19, when the militia from many Massachusetts communities surrounded Boston and blocked land access to the then peninsular town, limiting British supply to naval operations. In March 1776, using the artillery pieces Dorchester Heights were fortified, overlooking Boston and its harbor and threatening the British naval supply lifeline. The British commander William Howe realizing he could no longer hold the town. He withdrew the British forces, departing on March 17.
19. Battle of Trenton. During the American Revolutionary war the Battle of Trenton took place on 26 December 1776. The hazardous crossing of Delaware River made it possible for General Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army’s flagging morale. Because the river was icy and the weather was severe, the crossing proved the danger. Two detachments were unable to cross the river, leaving General Washington and the 2,400 men under his command alone in the assault. General Washington’s forces caught them off guard and, before the Hessians could resist, they were taken as prisoners.
20. Battle of Princeton. General George Washington’s revolutionary forces defeated British forces near Princeton, in the battle of Princeton on 3 January 1777 New Jersey. On the night of 2 January 1777 George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, repulsed a British attack at the Battle of Assunpink Creek in Trenton. That night, he evacuated his position, circled around General Lord Cornwallis army, and went to attack the British garrison at Princeton. Brigadier General Hugh Mercer of the Continental Army clashed with two regiments commanded by Lieutenant colonel Charles Mawhood of the British Army. Mercer and his troops were overrun and General Washington sent some militia under General John Cadwalaader to help him. The militia, on seeing the flight of Mercer’s men, also began to flee. General Washington rode up with reinforcements and rallied the fleeing militia. He then led the attack on Mawhood’s troops, driving them back. Mawhood gave the order to retreat and most of the troops tried to flee to Cornwallis in Trenton.
21. Sieges of York Town. Decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces commanded by General George Washington and French forces commanded by Comte de Rochambeau against British Army commanded by Lieutenant general Lord Cornwallis. It proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America, as the surrender of Cornwallis’ army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict.
22. Battle of Fort Necessity. The Battle of Fort Necessity or the Battle of the Great Meadows took place on 3 July 1754. The engagement was one of the first battles of the French and Indian war and George Washington was the only military surrender.
23. Battle of Long Island. First major battle in the American Revolutionary War. The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, fought on 27 August 1776. United States Declaration of Independence the largest battle of the entire conflict, and the first battle in which an army of the United States engaged, having declared itself a nation only the month before.
24. On 22August 1776 the British landed on the western end of Long Island , across the Narrows of from Staten Island from the East River crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked American defenses on the Guana Heights Unknown to the Americans., however, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, although a stand by 250 Maryland troops prevented most of the army from being captured. The remainder of the army fled to the main defenses Brooklyn Heights on the night of 29,30 August General Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of material or a single life. General Washington and the Continental Army driven out of New York several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.
25. Landing at Kip’s Bay. During the New York Campaign in the American Revolutionary War the Landing at Kip’s Bay on 15 September 1776, was a British amphibious landing occurring on the eastern shore of present day Manhattan Heavy advance fire from British naval forces in the East River caused the inexperienced militia guarding the landing area to flee, making it possible for the British to land unopposed at Kip’s Bay.. The operation was a decisive British success
26. Battle of White Plains. The Battle of White Plains was a battle in the New York and New Jersey Campaign of The American Revolutionary War on 28 October 1776, near White Plains, New York White Plains, Following the retreat of George Washington’s Continental Army northward from New York City. British General William Howe landed troops in Westchester Country, intending to cut off General Washington’s escape route. Alerted to this move, General Washington retreated further, establishing a position in the village of White Plains but failing to establish firm control over local high ground. Howe’s troops drove General Washington’s troops from a hill near the village; following this loss, General Washington ordered the Americans to move away further north.
27. Arrival to the Politics. With the support of his best and influential friends, George Washington stepped on to the politics. That is in 1759 in Virginia. Having engaging actively in his politics for ten years General Washington became the leader of Virginia’s political party. The main ambition of General Washington’s leadership in the politics was opposition to Great Britain’s colonial policies. At first he hoped to reconciliation with Britain, although some British policies had touched him personally. British land policies and restrictions on western had seriously effect to the public and its expansion after 1763 was seriously hindered to the country. Discriminations by the colonial military officers to the public were not so longer with General Washington’s up rising. General Washington started make influence to British by representing the usual planter’s dilemma actively. All forms of events leaded to a revolution over Britain. In June 1775 he was Congress’s unanimous choice as commander in chief of the Continental forces.
28. The American Revolution. During 1775 to 1783 George Washington led the American victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander in chief of the Continental forces.
29. The presidency. After the many dedications following the American Revolution, General Washington was unanimously the first president of the United States of America on April 30 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City. Having colonial governing system the country did not had her own Constitution for longer. General Washington as democratic leader to the public he made the Constitution of his mother land and submitted to the state for ratification and became legally operative. By now being the first of the establishment he generally supported the advocates of strong central government. In his Inaugural address as the president of the United States of America he implements the various forms and rituals of government that have been ever since, such as using a cabinet system. As president he built a strong, well financed national government which he planned to avoid wars.
30. General Washington suppressed rebellion and acceptance among Americans of all types and now he is known as the Father of his Country. The First United States Congress voted to pay General Washington a salary of $ 25,000 a years a larger sum in 1789. But General Washington declined the salary, since he valued his image as a selfless public servant. How ever General Washington accepted the salary by thinking that with out a payment it is hard to serve when it comes to individuals. Reflecting his leadership General Washington proved an able administrator. An excellent delegator and judge of talent and character. He talked regularly with department heads and listened to their advices before making decisions. Inhaling routing tasks, he was systematic, orderly, and energetic. But when taking decisions he considered the future of the country as the first.
31. Establishment of Judiciary. When General Washington assumed office, especially the executive and judicial branches had not yet been developed. Apart from the constitutionally established offices, no other agencies or courts had yet been established, which should have to establish for the governing system. Instead of focusing the executive branch, General Washington wished to open judiciary. BY forecasting the future necessaries General Washington established the judiciary branches within the public community through the judiciary Act of 1789, General Washington established a six member Supreme Court.
32. The court was composed of one chief Justice and five Associated Justices. The Supreme Court was given the exclusive original jurisdiction over all suits and proceedings brought against ambassadors and other diplomatic personal which by that General Washington covered the legal aspects of the nation.
33. Creation of Cabinet. General Washington had himself with a sophisticated team of consultants, supporters and successfully delegated most of the responsibilities for the conduct of their offices to those trusted colleagues, with all these big heads General Washington made steps to the strong future of the country which will always depend on the best foundation. The first executive offices created under the,
a. President was the secretary of the state,
b. The Secretary of the Treasury,
c. The Secretary of War,
d. The Post master General and
e. The Attorney General.
34. Each office, excluding the Autonomy General would head an executive department. These five officials, along the President and wise president formed the backbone of the United States Cabinet. General Washington signed a bill into law of reauthorizing an executive department of foreign affairs on July 27, 1789. That was headed by a Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Analyzing the future benefits and its necessity General Washington show the important of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, which is by now playing the highest international player as the USA is the world super power at the movement.
35. Department of Foreign Affairs renamed as the United States Department of State and named the Secretary of the State as the head of the Department. General Washington approved this act on Septembe1789. Secretary’s main function was to serve as the principle advisor to the President in determination of foreign policy. General Washington established the United States Department of the Treasury and named the head of it as Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury served as the principle economic adviser to the President and would play a critical role in policy making by bringing an economic and government financial policy.
36. To manage the USA Army, he created the position of Secretary of War to head the United States Department of War. The Secretary’s duties were, planning and managing the national military and oversaw the creation of a series of coastal of fortification. By implementing and guiding with all these national establishments and policies General Washington made the future of the USA as well.
37. Retirement and Assessment. By March 2, 1797, when General Washington left the office, the countries financial system was well established. General Washington decided to not run for third terms of his political campaign and he went home to Mount Vernon when General Washington was succeeded by his vise- president.
38. General George Washington emerges as the most momentous leader in the United States of America. General Washington lived and worked with brilliant philosophers, thinkers, writers and organizers, such as Benjamin Franklin, Sam Adams, Patrick Henry, Alexander Hamilton and Dickinson. Almost all were far better educated than him and he acquired sound knowledge by associating them. General Washington’s profound morality, unselfish nature and self control coupled with what was obviously a good intellect enabled him surpass all the other contemporize.
39. His personality is extremely inspiring. His presence has always multiplied the efficiency and courage of his followers and contemplators. Leadership qualities of George Washington are extended to a grater magnitude. He is a fine mixture of all those qualities of balance personality, extra ordinary character, strong physical endurance, sound intellectual, grate moral and many others that a successful leader need to inspire with. Moreover, he had the best long and short range ideas and how to maintain coherency between them and he was a really innovative and farsighted leader.
40. Visionary Leadership. As a visionary leader President General Washington continued to be a charismatic leader who kept the loyalty and affection to the people. He nourished this through his tours to all states and through numerous public appearances. However, when principle demanded that he acted in such a way that would engender serious opposition, but he stuck to his principles and in time the people discovering that he had acted wisely, renewed their regard and affection. The two major events causing such situations were his declaration of neutrality during the French Revolution and his signing of the Jay Treaty with Great Britain.
41. Moral Courage and Confidence. General Washington was a person of a highest moral character. His profound moral awareness and moral sensitive principles were brilliant. When compared to British strength, strength of his Revolutionary Forces wear nowhere mach to them, but his moral courage and confidence which he entrusted on his followers were the fact what make the different to defeat the British at last. Because he had morale to rise against even defeat after a defeat and the same morale were inculcated on to his contemporaries and followers to achieve common goal.
42. Integrity and Loyalty. His Presidency was somewhat tough. Because he relied a lot on the fact that throughout his whole life “the country first” and during the presidency he rule the country based on that. Like any President, he didn’t have much control over everything that he would have liked to have. But People trusted him to stand above the politics, stand above the disputes, and keep the interests of the country in mind. He did not admit formation of parties and believed that parties would divide the society or community. His Integrity, honesty and loyalty were remarkable. It is proved with the loyal service he rendered to Britain as a military officer
43. Self Discipline. George Washington was a sound self disciplined character. All his followers trusted him because of that he was very restrained to express any personal or religious views which may lead to unnecessary deviation of the common goal. Instead of going for personal benefits he was even reluctant to accept a wage for the presidency. Moreover he himself set as an example for well discipline character by doing such.
44. Determination and Willpower. General Washington really had a vision for where the US could go and what it could become and he had this idea of moving beyond parties and partial benefits. His every single move was planed against that. Strength of mind that he posses were inherited to his life which enhanced his willpower through out what ever the position that he held. His driving ambition, love of detail, endurance, sense of responsibility and other evident qualities that made him the person with strong determination and willpower. The inborn capabilities and talents enhanced his over role corrector.
45. Ability to communicate. Ability to communicate is one of the most important characteristic of a good leader. This is more common within the military leaders. The decisions of the military leaders are directly related to life or death and success or failure at lower levels and with fate of the nation at highest level. General Washington possessed optimum level of ability to communicate both as a military and political leader. This extraordinary ability were been used by him during his tours to all the states and numerous public appearances to address the heart and mind of the countryman’s which motivated them for extreme sacrifices for country.
46. There is much that can be learned by entrepreneurs from General George Washington, aside from this act of selfless leadership and dedication to his ultimate objective of creating a nation. General Washington was after all, an entrepreneur himself. He had to creatively resource the new and under-resourced Continental Army. As a leader, he had to train, organize, motivate and manage this new and different fighting force. He led his people through very adverse circumstances, always keeping them focused on their higher purpose rather than their current difficult state of affairs.
47. To understand the monumental task that General Washington undertook is to understand the stature he gained upon having achieved it. Achieving victory with the forced expulsion of the British via the Treaty of Paris, gave General Washington nearly unprecedented power and popularity. He was a truly mythic figure. His likeness was everywhere. Nearly all revered him and even his enemies and detractors had deep respect for his achievements.
48. Most people today think of General George Washington as the first President of the United States. Perhaps they may remember that he was also the commanding general of the Continental Army. However, General George Washington had much experience in the military before the Revolutionary War. Because of his experience, he was ideal for the responsibility of leading the new nation to victory over the British.
49. He was selected for strategically important positions because of his physical size and presence, charisma, energy, multi-faceted experiences, charm, courage, character, temperament, being a Virginian, wealth, ambition, his reputation as a stalwart patriot. Especially after the Revolution, the regard, admiration and affection of the populace at all levels of society. The most commonly cited characteristic given for his emergence as the supreme leader is his character. The most infrequently cited, are his intelligence and his decision making ability.
50. The people of America wanted to be free of the rule of England and fought for that freedom. General Washington was always trying to become a better person. He worked to learn how to write neatly so people could read his writing easily. To improve his manners, he copied 110 rules or sayings written by a French priest. One of his favorites was “When walking with a great man, don’t walk right beside him, but somewhat behind. Stay close enough that he may speak easily to you”. It is said of General Washington he
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