The implementation phase
The implementation phase
The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the transition from the design to the implementation phase. The implementation phase is the fourth phase of the system development life cycle. This phase is refers to as the decisive moment. All the work that has been done up to this point to bring an idea to realty is coming to life. This phase is most expensive and time-consuming of the previous three phases. The work done in this phase is tedious, and requires the strictest focus to the attention of detail. The major activities involved in this area are coding, testing, installation, documentation, training, and support.
The purpose for this these activities are to transform the work from the previous phase into a physical working system that can process the specific task for the information management office for which it was created. This phase requires the coordination and cooperation of many people. The system analyst cannot conduct all the work alone. The first step involves coding. Coding is process of converting writing computer language that tells the system the commands to perform when certain commands are given.
As the coding process being, the process of testing is also taking place as well. When coding is written, it must pass validation or the computer will not understand the language and the expect program will not perform to standard. Many strategies are available for testing validation; the size of the system dictates which is best. Throughout the system development life cycle, software testing was taking place after certain events to ensure the preliminary creation was on track. During analysis the overall test plan was developed.
In the design phase, the unit test, integration test plan, and a system test plan was developed. Inspections are formal group activities that perform manually to find obvious errors such as syntax and grammar. The participants used a checklist of well-known errors for the specific language that written in the program. Using this type code inspection, a participant usually find from 60 to 90 percent of software errors. Other checks and balances that take place throughout the system development life cycle is a code walk through, desk checking, unit testing, and integration testing. A walk through is a process conducted similar to purchasing home, before you actual close on the house, you walk through it with the project manager to identify deficiencies that need to be corrected. In this case, a walk through is conducted at a review meeting chaired by the project manager or chief programmer. The programmer presents his work for review; he walks through the code in details with a focus on the logic of the code not specific test cases. The reviewers can ask the programmer to walk through specific test cases.
The chairperson will resolve disagreements that cannot reach among the participants. A second walk through will then be schedule to follow up correction if needed. Desk checking is an informal process where the program code is check for sequential order. Unit testing, which is also know as module or functional testing is when each module is tested to find errors in the code. Integration testing is the process of combining modules and testing in a top down incremental fashion. Some other tests are important to mention is the system testing, stub testing, acceptance testing, alpha, and beta testing.
System testing is similar to integration testing, but you do not integrate modules into the program for testing, you integrate programs into systems. Programs are typically integration in a top down incremental fashion. Stub testing is technique used in testing modules, especially where those modules written, test in a top down fashion, where a few lines of code are used to substitute for subordinate modules. The purpose of system test is more important than testing a few modules; it is intention is also to ensure the system meets its objective.
Accepted test is where the user test of the complete information system and accept it. The Alpha test, the user test simulated data on a complete information system. The last one to mention is beta testing, this is the user using real data in a real environment on a complete information system (Valacich, George, & Hoffer, 2009). Coding and testing process executed in conjunction with the installation process. This include standing up the new system and shutting the old the one. When these process complete, the system analyst expects certain outcomes to declare this portion a success in order to continue with implementation.
These are the three most important steps during this phase. There are four different approaches to installation, they are the direct, parallel, single location, and phased. It is not often that one approached is use over the other; there is usually a combination of two or more. Installation must be carefully plan; there are so many moving parts involved. You are converting more than software. You are also converting data, hardware, documentation, work methods, job description, offices and even more items that are tangible. Another element that is just an important as coding and testing is documentation.
Documentation should begin day one from every brainstorm session for the life of the system. System documentation records detail information about the system specification and all the working components. Internal documentation is part of the program source code. “During development, programmers attempt to realize their thoughts as source code. However, because they must operate within strict confines (i. e. writing code that complies and executes correctly), programmers’ ability to write human-readable code is limited” (Fry, Shepherd, Hill, Pollock, Vijay-Shanker, 2008).
External document includes important about outcome of all structured diagrams techniques of the system. User documentation is information how the application system works and how to use it. This information is written or available with visual documents. A programmer will eventually move on from his current position or organization, if the new system survives in the organization one day an issue with perform will arrive that needs attention. The next programmer who will perform maintenance on this system needs well documented information, which can be found in the system documentation.
System maintenance is the activity associated with keeping operational computer systems continuously in tune with the requirement of users, data processing operations, associated clerical functions, and external demands from government other agencies (Edwards, 1984). The installation is longest process of the implementation phase. There is so much expectation that comes with this process. The first two immediate deliverables that is expect from installation is the user guide and user training plan.
The users will need instructions on how to use the new system and they also need plan to tackle the process of getting trained on the system. End user training is a critical intervention to support the successful implementation of information innovations (Sharma, & Yetton, 2007). The size of your organization will have a tremendous impact on how the new information system maintains and how the users trained. Large organization provides training and support within the organization, smaller organization have outside support from consulting and maintenance organizations.
As time has change, information is available at your fingertips. User documentation is now online in hypertext format. The information is everywhere from so many different sources for so many different. Users can communicate directly with computing resources. Training and support is a critical element for the success of the new information system. Training and support is a big part of the user accepting the system as it is the top management pulling for it use. Support provides ongoing education and troubleshooting techniques to give user full understanding on what is associated with the system.
Many organization under invest in the training and support needed to maintain the system properly. The type of necessary training varies depending on the size of the organization. Here are a list of potential areas an organization should consider investing for the benefit of longevity of the new system; Use of the system, general computer concepts, information system concepts, organizational, and system concepts. In today society, most training is place on the organization’s intranet for self paced training and refresher.
This paper concludes a description of the elements involved with developing a new system into an organization. Although, each organization approach will be different base on the theory of the organizational leadership the basic concept is the same. The system development life cycle is the foundation in which the process begins. It is the methodology organized into major activities to accomplish the mission. We discussed all the people involved who are very important to leading and guiding this process from initiation to implementation. It takes a formal organized approach to develop the application.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 24 October 2016
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