Increased Morbidity and Mortality: Displacement-induced social stress and psychological trauma, the use of unsafe water supply and improvised sewage systems, increase vulnerability to epidemics and chronic diarrhea, dysentery, or particularly parasitic and vector- borne diseases such as malaria and sadomasochists. 7. Loss of Access to Common Property: For poor people, loss of access to the common property assets that belonged to relocated communities result in significant deterioration in income and livelihood levels. 8. Social Disintegration: Displacement causes a profound unraveling of existing patterns of social organization.
This unraveling occurs at many levels. When people are forcibly moved, production systems, life-sustaining informal networks, trade linkages are dismantled. In the planning and implementation of development projects, the Guiding Principles (formulated by a team of international legal scholars and presented to the United Nations in 1998) maintain that it is essential for the authorities first to explore all feasible alternatives to avoid displacement altogether. Where it cannot be avoided, development-induced displacement should be minimized along with its adverse consequences.
Moreover, authorities must demonstrate that such displacement is Justified by compelling and overriding public interest. In all instances, displacement should not threaten life, dignity, liberty, or security and it should be effected in conditions of adequate shelter, safety, nutrition, and health. According to these principles, in situations other than during the emergency phases of disaster or armed conflict and this would include most instances of development-induced displacement, the displacement must be of those affected, as well as their active participation.
It must guarantee compensation and relocation, where applicable; and it must be subject to the right of judicial review and effective remedy.
Finally, the authorities must take special care to protect against the displacement of indigenous peoples, minorities, peasants, pastoralist, and others with special attachment to their lands. Achaean: An Overview Tamil Nadia constitutes the south-eastern extremity of the Indian peninsula. Achaean is the capital city of the State, besides being an important district.
In spite of being the capital of a Tamil speaking State, it has emerged as a cosmopolitan city playing an important role in the historical, cultural and intellectual development of India, representing still the distinct components of the highest form of Dravidian violation. In addition, it holds out an interesting fare of South Indian architecture, music, dance, drama, sculpture and other arts and crafts. Achaean is situated on the north-east end of Tamil Nadia on the coast of Bay of Bengal.
It lies between 12* 9′ and 13* 9′ of the northern latitude and 80* 12′ and 80* 19′ of the southern longitude on a ‘sandy shelving breaker swept beach’. It stretches nearly 25. 60 SMS. Along the Bay coast from Authoritarian in the south to Trustworthy in the north and runs inland in a rugged semi-circular fashion. It is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal and n the remaining three sides by Exchangeable and Tribunal Districts. The city of Achaean came into being due to a strategic necessity and historical accident.
It symbolisms the rise of British power in South India by setting up and consolidation of the East India Company in the seventeenth century with its headquarters at Fort SST. George in Achaean as a trading centre. Within 350 years, a few scattered villages (important being Monolayer, Triplicate and Achaean Putnam) have developed into a modern metropolitan city without shedding its traditional customs, religious outlook ND other traditions The growth of the city is significant and closely linked with the development of British Institutions and administration.
In short, Achaean city was the chief centre from which the British rule expanded in the sub-continent and it remains a standing monument of British contribution to India. Achaean city has acted as an important centre of culture and education in South India and has been the cradle of many movements which have played an important role in the history of the sub-continent. According to the Census of 2001 , the total population of Achaean was 2, 16,268, which comprised of 21 ,605 males and 20,54,663 females.
The total number of literates add up to 30,79,004 which includes 16,70,094 males and females. The total number of marginal workers residing in the city is 97,804. As of 2011 census, the city had 4. 6 million residents making it the sixth most populous city in India; the urban agglomeration, which comprises the city and its suburbs, was home to approximately 8. 9 million, making it the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the country.
As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Achaean confronts substantial urban pollution, traffic congestion, poverty, overpopulation, and other logistic and Description of the Area of Study DERIDER VILLAGE In the year 1980, work began to set up a Nuclear Power Plant about 60 SMS south of Achaean, what is known today as Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) and Nadir Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (CIGAR) at the coastal town Kalmia.
In order to set up the plant, a number of villages were evicted and resettled about inks from their original habitat. These villagers were from the fishing community, big, small, marginal farmers and landless peasants or agricultural workers from the dalai community. Each of these communities was interdependent on each other in their work. Derider colony is a hamlet of Sycophantically Penchant falling under Authoritarianism Penchant Union in the Champion District and about 70 SMS south of Achaean.
This hamlet was carved around 30 hrs back within the village and revenue boundary of Sycophantically Penchant as a resettlement site for the 50 dalai families who were evicted from their original village Derider (where now the Kalmia Atomic Power Plant stands) and each of these families were provided 3 cents of homestead land only. “We had to clear this area of the thick wild shrubs as it as like a forest”, remarked a few elderly women. We had to walk miles for transport and to reach other habitations.
Overall, the mood was one of despair and frustration over the role of the state in displacing them, destroying their livelihoods and not providing them with any access or guarantee of livelihoods in the relocated area. KLEPTOMANIAC’S VILLAGE Kleptomaniac’s is one of the hamlets of Email Penchant, falling under Trouper Penchant Union in Champion District and about 40 SMS south of Achaean. This village has around 200 families and all of them belong to the fishermen caste and are engaged in fishing. Most of them use catamaran or small fiber boats for their daily fishing activity.
During the months of January to March, they also do shore seine fishing where large nets are thrown into the sea and around 20 people drag these nets standing in the shore. All families earned a good livelihood income through fishing. All of them sent their children to school and a few of them are pursuing University education too. In the year 2008 the government of Thumbnail decided to augment the Achaean city drinking water requirements by going for a desalination plant to get molds per day of drinking water.
A RSI sorceress grant was availed from the Central government to set up this Desalination plant in Kleptomaniac’s in Email Penchant in the common land of around 50 acres adjoining the village. This plant currently is in the final stages of construction and is to be commissioned by December 2012. The Community is now living in a state of shock and panic not sure when their households will be washed away due to the severe erosion of the beach shore.
Stone walls put up by the government to stop the erosion have come crashing down due to strong ocean currents. If this was not enough, daily use of ouch above the normal permissible standards disrupting children’s studies and the This development project supposedly to provide drinking water to the urban residents of Achaean city has resulted in deprivation of the fishing community, leading to the loss of livelihoods, low nutritional intake, Psychological trauma and loss of common land.
Literature Review The paper by SUNNIS KUMAR KARA, CHIGOES SAURIAN, HIDE-SKI HARD presents and discusses primary data from a survey of 1,070 households in four poor settlements in Iambi comprising slum- and pavement-dwellers and squatters on the living environment and health conditions. The study attempts to examine the consequences of socio-economic and environmental factors in terms of income, literacy, sanitation and hygiene for morbidity. The needs of the urban poor and their priorities are seen to be hierarchical.
They need first assurance of being allowed to stay where they are and then provision of basic amenities of toilets, water supply, sewerage and drainage. Even though this paper takes indicators such as income, literacy, sanitation and hygiene to understand the living conditions of the poor, more emphasis is laid on health and hygiene rather than on income. Health, an important indicator to assess the living conditions of the poor, has certain limitations. It cannot illustrate the impact of socio-economic factors on the poor in real terms.
Income on the other hand can portray the consequences of a developmental activity in numerical form. For example, a development project may affect the income of the poor in a positive way but could also have adverse effects on their health and living conditions. The increased income from the development project could be used by the poor to achieve better health and hygiene. Thus, income would be a more suitable indicator to assess the consequences of socio-economic factors on the living conditions of the poor.
The article by Reassure Montana, titled “Impact of Development Project on the Displaced Tribal” is a case study of development projects in Eastern India. The author states that though infrastructure projects increases productivity and production to a great extent, it also has adverse effects on the surrounding individuals and environment. They give rise to involuntary displacement thereby creating despair to humans. These infrastructure projects not only affect developing entries alone but developed world too.