The Impact of Cueing on Recall of Brands Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 17 February 2017

The Impact of Cueing on Recall of Brands

Appendix 8. 2 Questionnaire – Second Condition (Primed – Cheap)19 Appendix 8. 3 Questionnaire – Second Condition (Primed – Luxury)20 Appendix 8. 4 Questionnaire – Third Condition (Primed – Cheap)21 Appendix 8. 5 Questionnaire – Third Condition (Primed – Luxury)22 9. Reference List23 2. Abstract This paper analyzes the part-list cueing effect and it explains how marketers can utilize cuing strategies to influence the recall of brands by customers. In order to support the part-list cuing effect, a survey was conducted, which proves that providing cues of a category inhibits the recall of additional items in that category.

However, there is no support for the fact that when more cues are given fewer items will be recalled. Therefore, it is recommended for marketers to position their products and services next to competitors since a larger evoked set will prevent a customer from searching for alternatives. ? 3. Introduction Many companies in different markets find it increasingly difficult to compete successfully. One way companies try to differentiate themselves from their competitor is to build a strong brand. Companies with strong brands are able to ask premium prices for their products and services.

When consumers are deciding for a purchase, they are evaluating their evoked set of brands in order to find the optimal purchase decision. Because a company’s competition consists of the brands incorporated in the consumer’s evoked set, the company should be able to enhance its competitive position by reducing the overall size of the consumer’s evoked set while maintaining its presence in the set (Alba & Chattopadhyay, 1985). It is important for marketers to cue potential customers with the brand of the company.

When properly cued, customers become fixated on cued brands and they will recycle those brands and, at the same time, neglecting competing ones (Alba & Chattopadhyay, 1985). When marketers provide the potential customers with a large subset of the total pool of brands as cues, the probability of sampling a noncued brand is reduced (Alba & Chattopadhyay, 1985). As a result, marketers could make use of comparison advertisements that do not mention threatening competitors, because potential customers may exclude those competitive brands from the evoked set (Alba & Chattopadhyay, 1985).

This is the so-called “part-list cuing effect”, which indicates that when customers are being shown some items from a list, it becomes harder for them to retrieve other items which were not shown from that same list. Therefore, the part-list cuing effect could be a strong marketing instrument for many companies in order to compete successfully. This research analyzes how marketers could use the part-list cuing effect to influence the recall of brands by consumers. It will examine this by focusing on the car industry.

In order to formulate an answer to this problem statement, the following five research questions are formulated: Research Question 1: “How does gender have an influence on the recall of car brands? ” Research Question 2: “How does nationality have an influence on the recall of car brands? ” Research Question 3: “How does familiarity with car brands have an influence on the recall of car bands? ” Research Question 4: “How does the number of car brand cues provided have an influence on the recall of car brands? ” Research Question 5: “Does priming have an influence on the recall of car brands in the primed category?

” These five research questions will be investigated and discussed in depth in this research. The conclusions and answers for each research question will provide an answer to the problem statement. In the next section, an overview of existing literature will be discussed and the most important and interesting findings will be examined. Moreover, several hypotheses will be stated. Next, the methodology of this research will be explained. Further, the results of the statistical analysis will be discussed and the five research questions will be answered individually.

Following, the main findings, the managerial and theoretical implications, unexpected results, the limitations and suggestions for future research will be discussed. 4. Theory In this section, the expectations for each research question will be discussed. Moreover, existing literature will be provided in order to verify the several expectations for the research questions. Finally, for each research question a hypothesis will be formulated. It is important to mention that three different conditions will be used in this research.

The first condition is the control group, which receives no cues. The second condition is the group of participants that receives five car brands as cues. The third condition is the group of participants that receives ten car brands as cues. Research Question 1: “How does gender have an influence on the recall of car brands? ” In this research, the focus will be on the recall of car brands. In general, it is believed that men have more knowledge and interest in cars than women do. Therefore, the researchers believe that men will recall more car brands than women.

As a result, the following hypothesis is formulated for the first research question: Hypothesis 1: “Men will recall more additional car brands than women in each condition”. Research Question 2: “How does nationality have an influence on the recall of car brands? ” For the second research question, it is important to mention that the participants were divided into three “nationality” groups: Dutch, German and the “Other Nationality” group. It is believed that the German participants will recall more additional car brands than non-German participants will do.

The reasoning behind this belief is that Germany has a huge car industry with many companies and brands, especially compared with the Netherlands. As a result, the following hypothesis is formulated for the second research question: Hypothesis 2: “The German participants will recall more additional car brands than the non-German participants in each condition”. Research Question 3: “How does familiarity with car brands have an influence on the recall of car bands? ” In this research, the participants were asked to indicate on a likert-scale (ranging from 1 – disagree to 5 – agree) how familiar they are with car brands.

It is believed that when a participant is more familiar with car brands, that this participant is more likely to mention more car brands than a participant who is almost completely unfamiliar with car brands. As a result of this reasoning, the following hypothesis is formulated: Hypothesis 3: “Being more familiar with car brands increases the number of additional car brands mentioned in each condition”. Research Question 4: “How does the number of car brand cues provided have an influence on the recall of car brands? ” According to Reysen & Nairne (2002), when subjects are provided with retrieval cues at test often hinders recall performance.

This was the primary finding of the research conducted in this article. Moreover, Alba & Chattopadhyay (1986) demonstrate that providing consumers with a subset of brands from a product category can inhibit the recall of the remaining brands in that category and the size of the effect is being directly related to the number of brands provided. In addition, as the number of cues increases, the number of remaining brands decreases, as does the likelihood of retrieving a noncued brand on any single retrieval attempt (Alba & Chattopadhyay, 1986).

Moreover, Alba & Chattopadhyay (1986) demonstrated that subjects who concentrated their attention on a brand for one minute recalled significantly fewer additional brands than did control subjects. In addition, Alba & Chattopadhyay (1986) conclude that it is not necessary to cue customers with multiple brands in order to achieve recall inhibition; the effect can be obtained by raising the salience of a single brand. Therefore, the researchers of this study believe that when the number of car brand cues provided will increase, the recall of additional car brands will be inhibited.

As a result, the following hypothesis for this research question is formulated: Hypothesis 4: “Increasing the number of car brand cues provided will decrease the number of additional car brands recalled”. For Hypothesis 4, two sub-hypotheses are formulated: Hypothesis 4a: “Increasing the number of car brand cues from zero to five will decrease the number of additional car brands recalled”. Hypothesis 4b: “Increasing the number of car brand cues from five to ten will decrease the number of additional car brands recalled”. Research Question 5: “Does priming have an influence on the recall of car brands in the primed category?

” According to a study of Chartrand et al (2008) in which participants were primed with either “prestige” or “thrift”, the results indicated that exposure to “prestige” or “thrift” cues does indeed engender consumer behavior consistent with a goal pursuit account. This indicates that participants primed with “prestige” chose more often the “prestige” product and participants primed with “thrift” chose more often the “thrift” product. Hence, it is believed that priming could have a substantial effect on the recall of car brands. The researchers have designed two types of questionnaires.

One type includes only several cheap car brands (e. g. Seat) while the other type includes only several luxury car brands (e. g. Ferrari). It is expected that the participants will recall more car brands in the primed category. As a result, the following hypothesis is formulated: Hypothesis 5: “Priming has a positive effect on the recall of car brands in the category primed”. 5. Methodology The main aim of this study is to examine the part-list cuing effect, which explicitly means that when participants are provided with more cues (e. g. car brands), that they will recall less additional car brands.

For the analysis, some variables have been used. Participants were asked to indicate their gender (female or male), age (18-30 or 31+) and their nationality (Dutch, German or Other Nationality). Moreover, participants were asked to indicate on a likert scale whether they are familiar with cars (“I am familiar with cars”). This is the “familiarity” variable. Finally, the participants were asked to list as many additional car brands as possible. Table A – What is the Gender of the Participant? FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent ValidFemale3548,648,648,6 Male3751,451,4100,0 Total72100,0100,0.

The participants were randomly chosen. In total, 72 participants have been selected for this research. As table A indicates, 35 females and 37 male respondents participated in this study. Table B – What is the Age of the Participant FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Valid18 – 306793,193,193,1 31 +56,96,9100,0 Total72100,0100,0 Next, the participants were divided into two age categories: 18-30 and 31+. It is important to mention that the great majority of the participants were undergraduate students from the University of Maastricht. As a result, 67 of the 72 participants were assigned to the 18-30 age group.

Only 5 participants were older. Table B shows the results. Nevertheless, it is impractical to calculate the mean and the standard deviation of the age of the respondents in this study. Table C – What is the Nationality of the Participant? FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent ValidDutch1622,222,222,2 German3345,845,868,1 Other Nationality2331,931,9100,0 Total72100,0100,0 Afterwards, the participants had to indicate from which nationality they are. There are three groups: Dutch, German and Other Nationality. As table C indicates, there are 16 Dutch respondents, 33 German respondents and 23 Other Nationality respondents.

? Finally, the participants had to indicate how familiar they are with cars. In the questionnaire, the participants had to indicate on a likert scale (1 – disagree, 3 – neutral, 5 – agree) whether they disagreed, agreed or were neutral about the following statement: “I am familiar with cars”. As table D indicates, the respondents were overall quite familiar with cars. Therefore, it is expected that the respondents could, on average, list quite some additional car brands in the questionnaires. Table D – How familiar is the Participant with cars? FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent.

ValidDisagree45,65,65,6 Somewhat Disagree68,38,313,9 Neutral2838,938,952,8 Somewhat Agree1926,426,479,2 Agree1520,820,8100,0 Total72100,0100,0 The dependent variable in this research was the number of additional car brands that the respondents could list in the questionnaires. The respondents were asked to list as many additional car brands. For all 72 participants, the number of additional car brands were counted and inserted into SPSS. The participants were divided into three conditions: a. Condition One – The Control Group: the 24 participants in this group received zero brands as cues.

These respondents had to list as many car brands as possible. b. Condition Two – Cued with five car brands: the 24 participants in this group received five car brands as cues. These respondents had to list as many additional car brands as possible. In addition, twelve participants received five “cheap” car brands as cues, while the other twelve participants received five “luxury” car brands as cues. The researchers wanted to examine whether priming effects would occur. c. Condition Three – Cued with ten car brands: the 24 participants in this group received ten car brands as cues.

These respondents had to list as many additional car brands as possible. In addition, twelve participants received ten “cheap” car brands as cues, while the other twelve participants received ten “luxury” car brands as cues. Thus, the third condition was designed almost the same as the second condition. The respondents had three minutes to list as many car brands as possible. The completed questionnaires were collected either manually (completed with pen) or digital (sent and received by mail). Finally, for testing several hypotheses, the independent samples t-test and the ANOVA-test have been used. 6. Results 6. 1.

Gender Influence It was predicted that men would recall more car brands than women, due to the fact that, in general, men are more familiar with cars. In total, 72 people have participated in the survey and the gender division is roughly equal with 35 female participants and 37 male participants. An independent samples t-test supports this hypothesis only for the first and second condition. The p-value for the first and second condition (4,5% and 1,8% respectively) is below 5%. Hence, it can be assumed that women and men do differ in recalling car brands. However, the p-value for the third condition is 11,45% (Figure 1).

This implies that gender does not influence the number of recalling car brands. For the third condition, women were able to list 11,67 car brands and men were able to recall 14,40 car brands (Figure 1. 2). As a result, the hypothesis that gender does have an influence on the recall of car brands is only partially supported. Figure 1Levene’s Test for Equality of Variancest-test for Equality of Means FSig. tDfSig. (2-tailed) How many car brands does the Participant recall without any cues? Equal variances assumed1,844,188-1,77122,090 Equal variances not assumed-1,73819,131,098.

How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues groupEqual variances assumed2,727,113-2,23622,036 Equal variances not assumed-2,15916,773,046 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group? Equal variances assumed2,739,112-1,23822,229 Equal variances not assumed-1,41121,994,172 Figure 1. 2NMean How many car brands does the Participant recall without any cues? Female1317,15 Male1121,91 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues groupFemale1311,62 Male1113,91 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group? Female911,67.

Male1514,40 6. 2. Nationality Influence Germany belongs to the top vehicle producers in the world. Therefore, it was expected that Germans would be able to recall more car brands than non-Germans. In order to test this, an independent samples t-test was conducted. First, the German participants were compared to Dutch participants. With a p-value lower than 5% (4,2% and 0% respectively) for the first and third condition it can be concluded that German participants were able to recall more car brand in comparison to Dutch participants. For the second condition, this cannot be assumed since the p-value is 17%, which is above 5% (Figure 2).

Second, the German participants were compared to the respondents of Other Nationalities, which mostly were Asian participants. The p-values for all three conditions are above 5% (20,5%, 21,6%, and 19,8% respectively); hence, Germans cannot recall more car brands than others (Figure 2. 2 and Figure 2. 3). Therefore, the hypothesis that Germans would recall more car brands than non-Germans is only partially supported. Figure 2 (Dutch vs German)Levene’s Test for Equality of Variancest-test for Equality of Means FSig. tDfSig. (2-tailed) How many car brands does the Participant recall without any cues?

Equal variances assumed7,602,013-,96717,347 Equal variances not assumed-1,84915,756,083 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues groupEqual variances assumed1,078,3291,0158,340 Equal variances not assumed1,2005,829,277 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group? Equal variances assumed1,971,177-3,68318,002 Equal variances not assumed-3,92615,169,001 Figure 2. 1 (Dutch vs German)NMeanStd. DeviationStd. Error Mean How many car brands does the Participant recall without any cues? Dutch416,00,816,408 German1518,875,7921,496.

How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues groupDutch313,331,528,882 German711,862,268,857 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group? Dutch99,222,682,894 German1116,555,4291,637 Figure 2. 2 (German vs Other Nationalit)yLevene’s Test for Equality of Variancest-test for Equality of Means FSig. tdfSig. (2-tailed) How many car brands does the Participant recall without any cues? Equal variances assumed6,737,018-1,21018,242 Equal variances not assumed-,8874,773,417 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues groupEqual variances assumed,426,522-,80319,432.

Equal variances not assumed-,89516,101,384 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group? Equal variances assumed1,121,309,87813,396 Equal variances not assumed1,15610,288,274 Figure 2. 3 (German vs Other Nationality)NMeanStd. DeviationStd. Error Mean How many car brands does the Participant recall without any cues? German1518,875,7921,496 Other Nationality523,4010,9224,885 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues groupGerman711,862,268,857 Other Nationality1412,933,125,835 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group?

German1116,555,4291,637 Other Nationality414,002,9441,472 6. 3. Familiarity Influence Familiarity with a product or service indicates interest towards these products or services. Thus, it was assumed the more participants were familiar with cars the higher would be the number of recalled car brands. An ANOVA test partially supports this prediction. For the first condition, the p-value is 22,4%, which is above 5%. Therefore, when no cues are given, it cannot be assumed that people being more familiar with cars can recall more car brands than people who are less familiar with cars.

However, the p-value for the second and third condition is below 5% (0,9% and 0% respectively). Consequently, when car brands are already given to participants, participants who are familiar with cars can recall more car brands than participants who are less familiar with cars (Figure 3). As a result, the hypothesis that when being more familiar with cars will influence the recall of car brands is only partially supported. Figure 3 – ANOVASum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig. How many car brands does the Participant recall without any cues? Between Groups183,067445,767,970,447.

Within Groups896,2671947,172 Total1079,33323 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues groupBetween Groups76,100419,0253,877,018 Within Groups93,233194,907 Total169,33323 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group? Between Groups349,292487,3235,599,004 Within Groups296,3331915,596 Total645,62523 6. 4. The Influence of the Number of Cues on Car Brands Recall According to Alba & Chattopadhyay (1986), providing consumers with a subset of brands from a product category can inhibit the recall of the remaining brands in that category.

Moreover, the inhibiting effect should increase directly with the number of cues presented (Alba & Chattopadhyay, 1985). Therefore, it is hypothesized that when the respondents are provided with more car brands as cues, they will recall less additional car brands. In Figure 4, for each group participants in each condition, the average of car brands recalled are showed. The participants in the first condition (No Cues) recalled the most additional car brands (? = 19. 33), while the respondents in the third condition (Ten Cues) recalled the second most additional car brands (? = 13. 38).

Finally, the respondents in the second condition (Five Cues) recalled, on average, the least additional car brands (? = 12. 67). The results only partially support the theory. The hypothesis that increasing the number of cues from zero to five will decrease the average number of additional brands recalled was supported. But the hypothesis that increasing the number of cues from five to ten will decrease the average number of additional brands recalled was not supported by the findings. Figure 4NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation How many car brands does the Participant recall without any cues?

2493519,336,850 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues group2481912,672,713 How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group? 2462513,385,298 Valid N (listwise)0 6. 5. Priming and Car Brands Recall Participants in the second and third condition were primed by either five or ten cheap car brands, either by five or ten luxury car brands. According to Alba & Chattopadhyay (1985), if brands are organized in a group by the consumers, mentioning of the group name of one of the brands in it will stimulate the recall of the entire sub-category.

Therefore, the participants in the second condition were primed with either five “cheap” car brands listed or either with five “luxury” car brands listed. For the participants in the third condition, the procedure was similar. The only difference was the increase of five listed car brands to ten listed car brands. Figure 5. 1 indicates that the average participant in the second condition was able to recall 12. 67 additional car brands. Those participants that were primed with the five “cheap” car brands, could list only 6. 25 additional “cheap” car brands. Thus, those participants listed on average 6. 42 additional “luxury” brands.

In addition, those participants that were primed with the five “luxury” car brands, could list, on average, only 6. 08 additional “luxury” car brands. Thus, those participants listed on average 7. 3 additional “cheap” car brands. Figure 5. 2 indicates that the average participant in the third condition was able to recall 13. 38 additional car brands. Those participants that were primed with the ten “cheap” car brands, could list only 3. 67 additional “cheap” car brands. Thus, those participants listed on average 9. 71 additional “luxury” car brands. Those participants that were primed with ten “luxury” car brands, could list only 4.

92 additional “luxury” car brands. Thus, those participants listed on average 8. 46 additional “cheap” car brands. As a result, priming failed in both the second and the third condition. Therefore, the hypothesis that priming a specific category of car brands would increase the recall of additional car brands in that specific category, was not supported. ? Figure 5. 1 (Second Condition)NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 5-cues group2481912,672,713 How many cheap car brands does the Participant recall when primed with five cheap brands?

12486,251,485 How many luxury car brands does the Participant recall when primed with 5 luxury brands? 12396,081,975 Figure 5. 2 (Third Condition) NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation How many car brands does the Participant recall in total in the 10-cues group? 2462513,385,298 How many cheap car brands does the Participant recall when primed with ten cheap brands? 12173,671,723 How many luxury car brands does the Participant recall when primed with ten luxury brands? 122114,922,712 7. Discussion The purpose of this paper was to analyze how marketers could use cuing strategies to influence the recall of brands by customers.

In order to answer this, the part-list cuing effect had to be examined first. The three different conditions in this paper show that the part-list cuing effect is partially supported. The participants were able to recall more car brands when no cues were given than when cues were given. However, it could not be proven that when more cues are given that even less car brands will be recalled. A reason for this could be the low number of participants. Furthermore, the low number of participants also led to no significant results.

In addition, it was also expected that German participants would be able to recall more car brands than non-Germans. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between Germans and non-Germans. This could be due to the fact that others were mostly Asians. Asians have a similar background as Germans since they also belong to the top vehicle manufactures. Hence, it can be assumed that Asian participants have more knowledge than for example Dutch participants and were therefore able to recall as many car brands as German participants.

Furthermore, it was predicted that participants primed with either cheap or luxury cars would recall more additional car brands in that category that they were primed with. This hypothesis could not be supported. Reasons for this could be that the car industry is very big and broad and that the participants were not primed long enough to be focused only on cheap or luxury car brands. This analysis shows how marketers can influence a customer’s evoked set, thus how to position their products in a better way. It is recommended to position its products or services next to competitors.

Positioning products or service next to competitors will provide the customer with a larger evoked set. A customer with a large evoked set will be less likely to search for alternatives. In contrast, if a customer does not have the opportunity to choose from a selection, there is a high chance that the customer will go somewhere else and look for alternatives. Future research could analyze how many cues should be give to optimize the buying behavior. 9.

Reference List Alba, Joseph W. , and Amitava Chattopadhyay (1985).

Effects of Context and Part-Category Cues on Recall of Competing Brands. Journal of Marketing Research (JMR) 22, no. 3: 340-349. Alba, Joseph W. , and Amitava Chattopadhyay (1986). Salience Effects in Brand Recall. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 23, No. 4 (Nov. , 1986), pp. 363-369. Chartrand T. L. , Huber J. , Shiv B. , and Tanner R. J. (2008). Nonconscious Goals and Consumer Choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (August), 189-201. Reysen, M. B. , & Nairne, J. S. (2002). Part-set cuing of false memories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 389–393.

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