The History of the Discovery of Cinematography Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 8 January 2017

The History of the Discovery of Cinematography

Not know the exact date of introduction of motion picture films to us. But if according to the first introduction of ‘moving picture’ presented by the Lumiere brothers in Paris, it happened in December 1895. However, in view of the case have said the film first screened as early as 1917 again, he may be said to be the age of the film is almost a century.

Regardless, the film is not to be in a form that we can watch now. It is said to start with the success of a designer of the camera can transmit images to a banner quoted the picture is not moving (still). This led to enhance the capability of this camera can transmit images can be moved. So the term `movie` used comes from the word ‘moving’ – that is moving. Oxford Dictionary of movie termed as ‘cinema’ or `movie` only. Motion picture had moved, but still dumb (silent pictures). But it was unveiled to the public and make a new form of entertainment that would never have imagined by people at that time.

This phenomenon existed before the First World War. In the interim period between World War I and World War II films already available from the West. Should still have more senior citizens remember with nostalgia the film Charlie Chaplin, Laura And Hardy. Required to be disclosed to relive the era of “silent movies in Hollywood, recently, released a film titled` silent The Artist and won the Orange Bafta Awards in France by Jean Dujardin plays, able to beat superstars including Brad Pitt and George Clooney.

But when the film appeared to speak “ we have had no feature film of the Middle East to this country, especially Egypt, thus witnessed the emergence of famous actors such as Mohd Abdul Wahab and Umm Kalthum. Mohd Abdul Wahab, for example, known for its melodious song. Egyptian movie featuring the two of them play very well among the Malays at that time because whatever comes from the Arab countries will be respected by them, let alone many young Malays began to have the opportunity to Egypt to study.

On the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, this bear was the spirit of Arab culture and berqasidah “ melodious. Meaning melodious recitation of the Koran Karim in taranum and performed at weddings and feasts, goes up, especially in rural areas.

However, Western films also began to enter the country. Titles such as Cowboy – Roy Rogers, Zorro and Tarzan is no stranger at the time. Due to World War two, too many young people 18-35 years old were killed in the West there is a situation that the number of young women far exceed men. But the West was once said to also have high morals and practice puritisme, began little by little changing patterns of social liberalism and culminates in an independent and free sexual practices.

This situation affects the pattern of entertainment, including actors in theater and film entertainment. And appeared in a movie star, which emphasized the sex symbols like Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor, Gina Lollobrigida and Brigitte Bardott. In the era of the 1950s and 60’s, they pushed this film as a sex symbol, either within or outside the film and stage.

For Elizabeth Taylor, the highlight of her acting was as Cleopatra with Richard Burton and doubles in the movie titled the same. Marilyn Monroe was performed enthusiastically in the movie Seven-Year Itch. For the heavyweights, including actor Richard Widkmark, Cary Grant, John Wayne and Rock Hudson.

Due to the heat of World War II at that time still be felt decades after the 1940s, the film appeared with prolific character of war at that time. Titles such as Battle of Britain, The Longest Day, Battle of the Bulge, All Quiet on the Western Front, A Bridge Too Far, Saving Private Ryan and the Sands of Iwo Jima is considered as a blockbuster until the 21st century.

In Malaysia, the film Lieutenant Adnan be a trial highlighting the history of patriotic courage of a fighter at the time of the Second World War where our troops advancing all-out defense of the Japanese in Singapore. If we watch a documentary film called The Rising Sun Over Malaya, which aired on History channel (Astro) on February 15 last, we can see how violently bestial and the Japanese at that time under the command of General Yamashita.

Why do we not continue to defend the historical film of water which may whet our patriotism? Government or rich GLCs should be urged to sponsor a film like this.

Sekual to World War there was a clash of two ideologies of power that a form of democracy dipenghulukan NATO supported the United States, while communism (Marxism-Leninism) is a right belonging to the Soviet Union. The outcome was what is called the Cold War or the Cold War, which saw two sides gather ‘nuclear arsenal’ to be directed to the respective blocks.

In this era, the activities of spy-spy or intelligence must be essential for both parties. These symptoms are infectious to filmmaking. Arose the James Bond film series (Sean Connery as a film icon intelligence), The Saint (Roger Moore), Man from Uncle, CIA, FBI and MI-5. But because filmmakers belong to a same block in terms of ideology, the end of the film almost all countries in favor of the block that’s it. The other party is portrayed as evil and mischief-maker and always lose!

Reflecting the strength of America came the films such as The West Wing, Raids on Entebbe and much more for American propaganda. The West Wing for example trying to highlight the strength and greatness of the United States. In addition, the CIA also depicted in the film with his role heading towards Islam. From the Arab / Muslim is also a ‘flavor’ in many movies and supposedly reflect any crime and violence caused by them. Symptoms of blaming Muslims in the film existed before the events of 11 September 2001 or 9/11. But post 9/11 sparked another aspect of Islamaphobia in the West.

Hong Kong film industry and Hindi (Bollywood) is also growing rapidly. Who does not know who popularized the art of Bruce Lee kung fu defense and Bollywood star Amitabh Bachchan, Sri Devi, Ashwariya, Shusmita Shen and Shah Rukh Khan.

If before this film is considered a little of the global political landscape, there is also describe the film to stand “ clash, between a producer and director with the other as portrayed in the film ‘Schindlers List and Passion of Christ. The first is a gain or fishing sympathy of the Jewish world who suffer by the Hitler regime, while another form of attempts to blame the Jews who allegedly due to their greedy ’cause Jesus Christ was crucified’. Jesus on the U.S., according to Islam the Quran he was not crucified. (See Surah An-Nisa verse 157 or 4:157). People say it just like the crucified Jesus the U.S..

The film industry in this country began as early as the 1930s, when the two companies established publishers in Singapore, Shaw Brothers and Cathay Film actor, accompanied by Malays who are still at an amateur level. However, with the guidance of people like L Krishnan, Haji Mahdi and then P Ramlee, the Malay film industry began to grow rapidly and achieve excellence in the early 1960’s.

The first film made possible to bring the title Laila Majnun followed many other topics which pioneered star acting like Siti Tanjung Perak, D Harris, Haji Mahdi, Neng Yartimah, Kasma Baty, Baking, Mussels Sarawak, S Kadarisman and AR Tompel. Further illuminate the emergence of Michael `natural` Ampas Street Studio film. As the son of artistic versatility, good acting, direction, music and lyrics, Michael’s iconic film art and film industry dominate the decade.

Not need further described Michael contribution to the glory of Malay films. Suffice it that the words of our great artiste is second to none. This is reflected also in the song arrangement, add to playlist Jeritan Change. Only difference in the past they called `the` movie star or artist, but now the artist. If P Ramlee alive at this age when so advanced production equipment and digital film, would he much greater than Stephen Spielberg.

World politics does not influence directly the Malay film genre. However, due to World War II, the Japanese military dictatorship then make the people in this region are poor, helter disorder and incoherent. This was reflected in films like Michael Tow Beca and Lost and Delirious.

There is a tendency to focus on compliance with the laws of God will (Semerah Rice) with reference to Law of the Sea of ​​the 15th Century Malacca and the influence of the Middle East (Ali Baba and Ahmad Single Lapok Albab) in culture. Law of the Sea reflects the firmness of Malacca Islamic Shariah. Films like this should be shown over and over again dilayar silver or even the TV as well as aspects of Islamic law it is also acting and artistic treasures of our culture should be an example to new generations.

Approach many Malay films, whether published Shaw Brothers or Cathay-Keris until the 1970’s can be regarded as a classic film, which comprises mostly Malays good value as role models for today’s society. Regardless of whether the issue of Malay films are considered outside the country because it comes from Singapore, which was once in Malaya. Anyway, the exposure to the public that there should be survival.

If a lot of old or classic song can only echo frequently on radio and TV, why not the old or classic movies as well as it can be perpetuated cultural heritage to be shown to the present generation?

If the world does not affect the political atmosphere Malay film genre what the local political landscape. Dare we publish certain political films, especially in present circumstances, such as political satire film (political Satire) although there are attempts in this direction, but the extent of the `square` only. The reason, perhaps there will be no producer dared to publish it, fear can not be shown in theaters or TV stations afraid to buy it?

Sophistication of the tools and techniques of film making should exploit our film industry. The film industry as a source of global economy also shows we are now able to watch movies in 3D and 2D animation. The question is, can we imagine the motion picture by the year 2020?

TIDAK diketahui tarikh sebenar filem wayang gambar diperkenalkan kepada kita. Tetapi jika mengikut perkenalan pertama ‘gambar bergerak’ yang dipersembahkan oleh dua beradik Lumiere di Paris, ia berlaku pada Disember 1895. Akan tetapi memandang kepada hal ada mengatakan filem mula ditapis seawal 1917 lagi, maka boleh dikatakan usia filem sudah hampir satu abad.

Apapun, filem bukan terus berada dalam bentuk yang kita dapat tontoni sekarang. Ia dikatakan bermula dengan kejayaan seorang pereka kamera dapat memancarkan gambar dipetiknya kepada kain rentang dengan gambar tidak bergerak (still). Ini mendorongnya mempertingkat keupayaan kameranya sehingga dapat memancarkan gambar boleh bergerak. Jadi istilah `movie` yang digunakan berasal dari perkataan `moving`- yakni bergerak. Kamus Oxford mengistilahkan movie sebagai `cinema` atau `film` saja.

Wayang gambar sudah bergerak tetapi masih bisu (silent pictures). Namun ia mula dipamerkan kepada umum dan menjadikannya satu bentuk hiburan baru yang tidak pernah terfikir oleh manusia pada masa itu. Fenomena ini wujud sebelum Perang Dunia Pertama. Pada zaman interim antara Perang Dunia Pertama dan Perang Dunia Kedua sudah ada filem dipasarkan dari Barat.

Harus masih ada lagi golongan warga emas ingat dengan penuh nostalgia filem Charlie Chaplin, Laura And Hardy. Perlu dinyatakan untuk mengenang kembali era ‘silent film’ di Hollywood, baru-baru ini, diterbitkan sebuah filem ‘silent` berjudul The Artist dan menang Orange Bafta Awards di Perancis menerusi lakonan Jean Dujardin, mampu mengalahkan bintang handalan termasuk Brad Pitt dan George Clooney.

Apabila sudah muncul filem `bersuara` kita dapati sudah ada filem terbitan Timur Tengah ke negara ini terutama Mesir, sekali gus menyaksikan kemunculan pelakon terkenalnya seperti Mohd Abdul Wahab dan Ummi Kalthum. Mohd Abdul Wahab misalnya, terkenal dengan lagunya yang merdu. Wayang gambar Mesir yang memaparkan lakonan mereka berdua amat laris di kalangan orang Melayu pada masa itu kerana apa jua berasal dari negara Arab akan disanjung tinggi oleh mereka, apatah lagi ramai anak muda Melayu mula berpeluang ke Mesir untuk melanjutkan pelajaran.

Di Pantai Timur Semenanjung Malaysia, semangat Arab ini membuahkan pula budaya `berlagu` dan berqasidah. Berlagu maknanya membaca al-Quran Karim secara Taranum dan dilakukan pada majlis perkahwinan dan kenduri-kendara, terutama di luar bandar.

Pun begitu, filem Barat juga mula masuk ke negara ini. Judul seperti Cowboy – Roy Rogers, Zorro dan Tarzan tidak asing lagi pada masa itu. Akibat dua kali berlakunya Perang Dunia, terlalu ramai orang muda berusia 18-35 tahun terkorban sehinggakan di Barat wujud situasi bilangan wanita muda jauh mengatasi lelaki. Maka itu dikatakan Barat yang dulunya juga punya moral tinggi serta mengamal puritisme, mula sedikit demi sedikit berubah corak kepada liberalisme dan memuncak kepada pergaulan bebas serta amalan seks bebas.

Keadaan demikian mempengaruhi corak hiburan termasuklah pelakon dalam hiburan melalui teater dan perfileman. Dan muncullah bintang filem yang memberi penekanan kepada simbol seks seperti Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor, Brigitte Bardott dan Gina Lollobrigida. Pada era 1950-an dan 60-an, filem melonjakkan mereka ini sebagai simbol seks, baik dalam atau luar filem dan pementasan.

Bagi Elizabeth Taylor, kemuncak lakonannya adalah sebagai Cleopatra bergandingan dengan Richard Burton dalam filem bertajuk sama. Marilyn Monroe pula membuat persembahan ghairah dalam filem Seven-Year Itch. Bagi pelakon lelaki handalan termasuklah Richard Widkmark, Cary Grant, John Wayne dan Rock Hudson.

Disebabkan bahang Perang Dunia Kedua pada masa itu masih dirasai berdekad selepas tahun 1940-an, maka filem bercorak perang muncul dengan prolifik pada masa itu. Tajuk seperti Battle of Britain, The Longest Day, Battle of the Bulge, All Quiet on the Western Front, A Bridge Too Far, Saving Private Ryan dan Sands of Iwo Jima dianggap sebagai blockbuster hinggalah kurun ke-21.

Di Malaysia, filem Leftenan Adnan berupa satu percubaan penonjolan sejarah keberanian seorang pejuang patriotik pada masa Perang Dunia Kedua di mana tentera kita mempertahankan habis-habisan kemaraan tentera Jepun di Singapura. Kalau kita menonton filem dokumentari berjudul The Rising Sun Over Malaya yang ditayangkan di saluran History (Astro) pada 15 Februari lalu, kita dapat lihat betapa bengis dan zalimnya tentera Jepun pada masa itu di bawah pimpinan Jeneral Yamashita.

Kenapakah kita tidak meneruskan penerbitan filem sejarah mempertahankan tanah air yang boleh menyemarakkan lagi semangat patriotisme kita? Kerajaan atau syarikat GLC yang kaya raya patut diseru supaya menaja pembikinan filem seperti ini.

Sekual kepada Perang Dunia berlaku pula pertembungan dua ideologi kuasa besar yang mana bentuk demokrasi didokong NATO yang dipenghulukan Amerika Syarikat, manakala komunisme (Marxism-Leninism) menjadi hak kepunyaan Soviet Union. Maka terjadilah apa disebut Perang Dingin atau Cold War yang memperlihatkan dua pihak mengumpul ‘arsenal nuclear’ untuk dihalakan terhadap blok masing-masing.

Dalam era ini, kegiatan intip-mengintip atau risikan menjadi ramuan wajib bagi kedua-dua pihak. Gejala ini berjangkit pula kepada pembikinan filem. Timbullah siri filem James Bond (Sean Connery sebagai ikon filem risikan), The Saint (Roger Moore), Man from Uncle, CIA, FBI dan MI-5. Tetapi disebabkan pembikin filem tergolong dalam satu blok sama dari segi ideologinya, maka hampir semua penghujung filem itu memihak kepada negara blok itu saja. Pihak yang satu lagi itu digambarkan sebagai jahat serta pengacau dan sentiasa kalah!

Sebagai mencerminkan kekuatan Amerika maka terbitlah juga filem seperti The West Wing, Raids on Entebbe dan banyak lagi untuk propaganda Amerika. The West Wing misalnya cuba menonjolkan kekuatan dan kehebatan Amerika Syarikat. Selain itu, CIA turut digambarkan dalam filem dengan peranannya menghala terhadap Islam. Dari itu orang Arab/Islam turut menjadi `perencah` dalam banyak filem dan mencerminkan kononnya apa juga kejahatan serta keganasan berpunca daripada mereka ini. Gejala menyalahkan orang Islam dalam filem wujud sebelum peristiwa 11 September 2001 atau 9/11. Tetapi pasca 9/11 menyemarakkan lagi aspek Islamaphobia di Barat.

industri perfileman Hong Kong dan Hindi (Bollywood ) juga berkembang pesat. Siapa tidak kenal Bruce Lee yang mempopularkan seni pertahanan kungfu dan bintang Bollywood Amitabh Bachchan, Seri Devi, Ashwariya, Shusmita Shen dan Shah Rukh Khan.

Jika sebelum ini filem dianggap mencerminkan sedikit sebanyak landskap politik global, ada juga menggambarkan filem untuk `pertembungan pendirian`, iaitu antara seorang penerbit dan pengarah dengan yang lain seperti ditonjolkan dalam filem Schindlers` List dan Passion of Christ . Yang pertama itu sebagai meraih atau memancing simpati dunia terhadap kaum Yahudi yang terseksa oleh rejim Hitler, manakala satu lagi berupa percubaan menyalahkan kaum Yahudi yang dikatakan akibat angkara merekalah menyebabkan Jesus Christ `disalibkan`. Mengenai Nabi Isa AS, Islam berpandukan al-Quran menyatakan baginda tidak disalibkan. (Rujuk Surah An-Nisa ayat 157 atau 4:157 ). Orang dikatakan disalibkan itu sekadar menyerupai Nabi Isa AS.

Industri perfileman di negara ini bermula seawal 1930-an apabila dua syarikat penerbit ditubuhkan di Singapura, Shaw Brothers dan Cathay Film dengan disertai pelakon Melayu yang masih di peringkat amatur. Namun, dengan bimbingan orang seperti L Krishnan, Haji Mahadi dan kemudian P Ramlee, industri perfileman Tanah Melayu mula berkembang pesat dan mencapai tahap kegemilangan pada dekad 1960-an.

Filem pertama dijayakan membawa tajuk Laila Majnun diikuti banyak lagi tajuk yang mana lakonannya dipelopori bintang seperti Siti Tanjung Perak, D Harris, Haji Mahadi, Neng Yartimah, Kasma Booty, Junaidah, Siput Sarawak, S Kadarisman dan AR Tompel. Kemunculan P Ramlee menyinari lagi `alam` filem di Studio Jalan Ampas. Sebagai anak seni serba boleh, baik lakonan, arahan, muzik dan lirik, P Ramlee menjadi ikon seni perfileman dan mendominasi industri filem dalam dekad itu.

Tidak perlulah dihurai lanjut sumbangan P Ramlee ke arah kegemilangan filem Melayu. Memadailah kata-kata bahawa Seniman Agung kita ini memang tiada tandingannya. Ini dibayangkan juga dalam lagu gubahannya, Di Manakan Kucari Ganti. Cuma bezanya pada masa dulu mereka disebut `bintang filem` atau seniman tetapi sekarang artis. Kalaulah P Ramlee hidup pada zaman ini ketika peralatan penerbitan filem begitu canggih dan digital, nescaya beliau lebih hebat lagi daripada Stephen Spielberg.

Politik dunia tidak mempengaruhi genre filem Melayu secara langsung. Akan tetapi akibat Perang Dunia Kedua, kemudian pemerintahan tentera Jepun membuatkan masyarakat di rantau ini miskin, porak peranda dan tidak keruan. Ini dicerminkan dalam filem P Ramlee seperti Penarik Beca dan Ibu Mertuaku.

Ada kecenderungan untuk memfokus kepada kepatuhan akan hukum-hukum Allah (Semerah Padi) dengan merujuk Undang-Undang Laut Melaka Abad ke-15 dan pengaruh Timor Tengah (Ali Baba Bujang Lapok dan Ahmad Albab) dari segi budaya. Undang-undang Laut Melaka mencerminkan ketegasan Syariah Islam. Filem seperti ini patut ditayangkan berulang kali dilayar perak mahu pun di TV kerana selain aspek perundangan Islam ia juga khazanah seni lakonan dan budaya kita yang patut menjadi contoh kepada generasi baru.

Pendekatan banyak filem Melayu, sama ada diterbitkan Shaw Brothers ataupun Cathay-Keris sehingga tahun 1970-an boleh dianggap sebagai filem klasik Melayu yang kebanyakannya mengandungi nilai baik untuk dijadikan teladan masyarakat kini. Tak kiralah sama ada filem Melayu ini dianggap terbitan luar negara kerana ia berasal dari Singapura yang dulunya dalam Tanah Melayu. Pokoknya, pendedahan kepada umum patut ada kesinambungannya.

Kalau banyak lagu lama atau klasik sering saja boleh berkumandang di radio dan TV, mengapa tidak filem lama atau klasik juga memang boleh diabadikan sebagai warisan seni budaya untuk ditunjukkan kepada generasi sekarang?

Kalau suasana politik dunia tidak mempengaruhi genre filem Melayu bagaimana pula suasana politik tempatan. Beranikah kita menerbitkan filem berbaur politik terutama dalam keadaan sekarang, misalnya filem sindiran politik (political satire) walaupun sudah ada percubaan ke arah ini, tetapi itu setakat `siku-siku`saja. Sebabnya, mungkin tak akan ada produser berani menerbitkannya, bimbang tidak boleh ditayangkan di pawagam atau stesen TV takut hendak membelinya?

Kecanggihan peralatan dan teknik mengenai pembikinan filem wajar dieksploitasikan industri filem kita. Industri perfileman selaku sumber ekonomi secara global juga memperlihatkan kita kini sudah boleh menonton filem dalam bentuk animasi 3D dan 2D. Soalnya, bolehkah kita bayangkan bentuk wayang gambar menjelang tahun 2020 nanti?

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