The greatest inventions Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 7 April 2016

The greatest inventions

Introduction to Second Language Studies (ONLINE). Hudson This course introduces students to second language studies, as represented in the MA in SLS program at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, and to the field(s) of applied linguistics more generally. This course also serves as an introduction to the kinds of work that will be expected of students as they progress through the MA in SLS program.

Students will become familiar with the following:
1. The scope of second language studies/applied linguistics, including central issues and problems, key concepts and terminology, and work done by applied linguists in society 2. Professional issues and expectations for second/foreign language educators 3. The major domains of second language studies as they are addressed specifically by the UH SLS

4. A wide variety of research approaches employed by applied linguists The course will be online. There will be extensive online discussion group activity.




SLS 610 (1). Teaching Second Languages. Hudson
This course provides a survey of current theory, research and practice in the major components of second and foreign language pedagogy and teaching programs. These components include needs and means analysis, syllabus and curriculum design, materials writing, methodology and pedagogy, skills and skills integration, student assessment, and program evaluation. Consideration will also be given to the changing social, economic, and political roles of language teaching and the profession in the world today. Both theoretical and practical dimensions of classroom teaching will be treated.

By the end of the course, the students will have an understanding of the following: 1. Current theory, research and practice in second/foreign language teaching and teacher training
2. The socio-cultural, psychological and linguistic factors that have an impact on language teaching
3. Issues involved in teaching and integrating the different skill areas as and approaches to curriculum design and language teaching

SLS 614 (1). Second Language Writing. Gilliland
The course aims to provide insights into theories of teaching writing, with particular emphasis on the experiences of student writers composing in a second language. Consideration of various approaches to the teaching of writing in second and foreign languages is included as well as consideration of response to student writing.

Students will:
• Identify current and historical theories of teaching SL writing.
• Discuss and critique approaches to teaching SL writing.
• Describe and analyze contexts for teaching SL writing in US and internationally.
• Assess the instructional needs of a given writing class and/or student.
• Evaluate and respond to student writing.

• Plan appropriate and effective syllabi, units, and lessons in SL writing courses. Required text: Ferris & Hedgcock (2013). Teaching L2 Composition (3rd edition). Routledge.

SLS 618 (1). Language and Learning Technologies. Zheng
What is language? How do we understand language and language learning in the light of learning technologies? How do we make sense, make meaning and realize values when technologies are involved in the learning environment. Learning technologies, ranging from vernacular use of Skype, to sophisticated virtual world technologies, and to ubiquitous mobile devices, bring us new challenges and opportunities for communication and social networking, as well as learning & teaching.

What are the roles of learning technologies in learning, instruction and communication? Do they function as an input to aid learning, such as acquisition of lexicogrammer? Do they function as tools to help with problem solving, such as looking up a new word while reading an article? Do they function as a media to make distance communication and interaction possible? Do they function as objects that have potential to change the way we live so that our communication (language) is becoming inherently different? We will explore these questions as central themes of the course, so that we can gain a deeper understanding and be tuned to affordances of technology in the most broad sense.

Explore dialogical perspectives of language and its implications for sharing, coconstruction, co-authoring and co-creation of identity and meaning in technology supported learning environments.
Investigate the affordances of technologies as indicated by members of the class (through dynamic needs analysis) for language learning and teaching. Design and conduct studies of a specific technology that you are interested in. A range of research questions are encouraged by using quantitative methods, ethnography, discourse analysis, conversation analysis and multimodal analysis. Develop a mini curriculum that has major components of technology integration. Develop materials using the Web as a major resource for your target learners.

SLS 650 (1). Second Language Acquisition. Ziegler
This course is designed to provide a review of current theory and research in child and adult second language acquisition. In addition, it will review relevant research in first language acquisition and explore relationships between theory and practice in the second and foreign language learning classroom. Various theoretical perspectives and issues are addressed, including cognitive-interactionist, emergentist, social, and psycholinguistic approaches, and principal areas of research such as age effects, cognition, development of learner language, and individual differences will be discussed. We will also examine the available quantitative and qualitative research methods and how they might be used in second language (L2) research. Suggested reading: Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

This course covers basic concepts and issues in sociolinguistics with a focus on multilingual language learning and teaching. The initial course readings (Davis, 2012a, 2012b) provide an overview of the theoretical foundations and diverse research methods of sociolinguistics, including the work of sociologist Goffman (presentation of self in everyday life); sociolinguists Sacks, Schegloff, and Kasper (conversation analysis); sociolinguist Gumperz (interactional sociolinguistics), anthropologist Hymes (ethnography of communication); language and education anthropologists Cazden, Philips, Heath, Erikson, Geertz, and Anzaldua (ethnography of communities and schools); and critical anthropologists Hornberger, Davis, Valdés, Zentella, and McCarty (language policies and practices). Subsequent course readings and the final project then focus on the most recent trends in sociolinguistics that include: multilingualism/super diversity; interdisciplinarity, fluidity, and multiplicity in language use, identity, and learning (translanguaging, multiple identities); neoliberalism/ideological analyses; public and counter public discourses; and engaged language policy, practices, and ethnography. The final course project assignment involves designing and presenting a proposal for either research or instruction that draws on current sociolinguistic theories and language learning practices.

SLS 673 (1). Applied Psycholinguistics and Second Language Acquisition. Grüter This course provides an introduction to the psychological processes involved in language behavior, with a particular focus on those relevant to speaking and understanding a non-native language. Areas covered include speech perception and accent, lexical access in bilinguals, structural and discourse processing by native and non-native speakers, the role of working memory, neurological correlates of (non)native language processing, and language disorders and bilingualism. Experimental methods used in psycholinguistic research on second language acquisition will be introduced and discussed.

SLS 675 (1). Second Language Qualitative Research. Kasper
The course will introduce students to the principles and practices of qualitative research and their application to research problems in the domains of social institutions, multilingualism, and learning and development, including the development of language and professional competencies. The course pursues two aims: (1) to develop students’ ability to critically appraise reports of qualitative (L2) research and (2) to prepare students to conduct a qualitative study on an applied linguistic topic of their choice, or to further develop a study that is already under way. In order to meet both of these goals, particular emphasis will be given to the articulation of theory and methodology, i.e., the coherent transformation of theory into method. Students will get first-hand experience with practices of observation and interviewing, visual analysis, document analysis, and multimedia analysis. Course requirements will include reading and discussion of methodological texts, reviews of reports on qualitative studies, and practical activities.

SLS 680P (1): Philosophy of Teaching. Crookes
Participants will explore philosophical positions underlying S/FL teaching. We will address philosophical systems and procedures (including critical, moral and ethical thinking) in the contexts of S/FL teaching, and in respect to the decisions teachers are faced with daily, as well as long-term, as they shape their careers and their positions in society. Since all of the ideas about S/FL teaching and their philosophical dimensions have historical contexts, a historical perspective will be emphasized in the initial sessions. The concept of a philosophy of teaching can be set in practical terms because a philosophy of teaching statement is often called for in employment actions, such as job applications, contract renewals, and job interviews. It also falls into the area of professional development and personal growth, since it assists with that reflection without which efforts at a consciously constructed professional practice are not possible.

SLS 680R (1). Narrative Analysis. Higgins
This course introduces students to narrative analysis as an analytical framework for the exploration of research questions in sociolinguistics and applied linguistics. Most centrally, narrative analysis is used to explore questions of identity by examining how speakers construct their social worlds in and through telling stories. Narratives are also useful for examining ideologies on any number of topics. Because people tell narratives in their everyday interactions with others, researchers can also examine the role of stories in conversation and in various forms of institutional talk, including classrooms, courtrooms, clinics, and workplaces. This course will provide students with the foundation for analyzing narrative data by focusing on both ‘big stories,’ or, narratives which relate to speakers’ life histories, as well as ‘small stories,’ or narratives which take place in everyday settings. As the focus of the class is on the analysis of narratives, students will be expected to contribute narrative data in the form of data workshops in class and to write a 20-page term paper on data they have collected. A final presentation will also be required.

Required text: De Fina, Anna & Georgakopoulou, Alexandra (2012). Analyzing narrative: Discourse and sociolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press. Additional readings will be in the form of journal articles and book chapters, available on Laulima or through UH library.

SLS 680R (2). Classroom Action Research. Gilliland
This course is a companion to the summer SLS 690 Teaching Practicum in Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. All students must have participated in the practicum during Summer 2014. Required text: Burns (2010) Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching: A Guide for Practitioners. Routledge.

SLS 730 (1). Seminar in SL Pedagogy: Literature in the L2 Classroom. Day This seminar explores the use of literature in the second and foreign (L2) classroom. The primary goal is to help you develop a systematic and principled approach to using literature in your teaching. In addition to a focus on the major theoretical and research issues, the seminar explores how a literature component might be integrated into the L2 curriculum. Assignments provide opportunities to use and evaluate a variety of tasks and activities designed to incorporate literature into the L2 classroom. You will develop your own classroom materials and explore how those materials might be utilized in ways relevant to your own situations. The learning outcomes include being able to discuss the concerns and issues involved in using literature in L2 classrooms and to develop, adapt, and evaluate various literature genres and activities for the L2 classroom.

SLS 750 (1). Ecological and Sociocultural Approaches to Second Language Learning. Zheng
This seminar is designed to explore second language acquisition and language learning from perspectives that classical SLA does not usually take into consideration, namely ecological, sociocultural approaches. Topics regarding both epistemological and ontological orientations will be organized into the following modules:

• Learners: Are they truly individual beings cognizing or processing learning only in the brain, or are they only social beings who learn through socialization and interaction? Or are they ecological and dialogical beings who appropriate biological substrate, sociocultural values, semiotic resources for sense making?

• Environments/contexts: All research paradigms and pedagogical treatments consider the relationship between the learner and environments. Are environments considered as containers that function in the background? Are learners and environments reciprocally co-defining and co-changing? How are learners and environments connected? What are the roles of teacher, technology, community and personal biography in language development?

• Unit of analysis: Unit of analysis is the major entity that defines the ontological nature of your research and ultimately determines the values of finding in pedagogical practices and phenomenological discoveries. We will consider and compare a wide array of approaches on unit of analysis from different research paradigms, such as individuals, groups, tasks, t-units, turns, agent-environment coupling, communicative projects, etc. • Methods and Analytical tools: technological prevalence and advancement pushes the envelope of human limitations on data management, such as data collection, analysis and report. We will examine readily available tools that can advance conducting research from ecological and sociocultural approaches.

• Pedagogical Implications: Synthesizing the first 4 topics, this module explores what an ecologically and socioculturally oriented classroom looks like. This includes such topics as action-based learning, place-based learning, pedagogy as multimodal design, studentteacher relationships that are beyond the segregation between teacher-centered and learner-centered dichotomies.

This seminar is dedicated to the legacy of Leo van Lier’s work on The Ecology and Semiotics of Language Learning.
Required texts: van Lier, L., 2004. The Ecology and Semiotics of Language Learning: A Sociocultural Perspective. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA.
Additional journal articles, book chapters/sections and website will be available in Laulima and course website.

SLS 750 (2). Child L2 Acquisition. Schwartz
The purpose of this seminar is to examine research on child L2 acquisition, with particular emphasis on syntax and morphology. Research into child L2 acquisition has the potential to inform our understanding of adult L2 acquisition as well as L1 acquisition. We will examine some of the very few studies that directly compare L2 (and L1) children and L2 adults in the acquisition of particular grammatical phenomena. Students will become familiar with the theoretical issues at stake as well as the empirical base of recent work. We start off by focusing on the “critical period” issue, or more neutrally, on age-dependent effects of L2 acquisition in terms of ultimate attainment. We next consider the issue of endstate (“ultimate attainment”) vs. development for L2 children and L2 adults.

The third area is research on child L2 acquisition itself, where exposure to the nonnative language starts approximately between the ages of 4 and 7; this is likely to be the crucial age range, because it is after the native grammar has been (more or less) established and yet falls clearly within what is traditionally considered to be the critical period for language acquisition. Of special interest here are three issues: (1) whether child L2 acquisition “replicates” L1 acquisition; (2) whether child L2 acquisition exhibits features of adult L2 acquisition, in particular L1 influence; and (3) whether there are characteristic differences between L2 child and L2 adult acquisition, especially with respect to different domains, specifically syntax vs. inflectional morphology. The course will be a combination of lectures and student presentations of readings. While familiarity with introductory syntax is highly desirable, time will be taken in class to ensure understanding of the necessary linguistic background.

SLS 760 (1). Intercultural Communication. Higgins
Within a sociocultural linguistics framework, this seminar focuses on how the constructs of ‘culture’ and ‘cultural difference’ are enacted by speakers of more than one language in conversational interactions. The course will pay equal attention to the ways that cultural difference is associated with miscommunication and the ways that culture can be used as a resource in interactions among multilingual speakers. The course will emphasize the perspective that culture and cultural difference are social constructs that cannot be presumed, but rather are the result of active processes in interaction among conversational participants, processes which sometimes point to the relevance of cultural models, interpretive schemas, discourses, and ideologies. Students will examine seminal work in the field, starting with cross-cultural communication studies, followed by an examination of the developments in the field that have led to the reconceptualization of this area of inquiry. Following a seminar format, students will regularly lead discussions of readings and present data for analysis in workshop format during the semester. A final term paper of 20-25 pages (with deadlines for proposal and first draft) will also be required for the course.

SLS 760 (2). Language Ideologies, Policies and Practices: An Engaged Ethnographic Approach. Davis
While language policy (LP) scholars increasingly explore policies as shaped by global sociopolitical and economic ideologies, LP and applied linguistics scholars are increasingly calling for on-the-ground language practices that resist, negotiate, and appropriate inequitable policies (Davis, 2009, 2014; Johnson, 2013; Wyman, McCarty, & Nicholas, 2014). This course takes an engaged ethnographic approach that is designed to draw teachers, students, community members, and others into dialogic exploration of language education policy as an interactive process; covert ideologies and policies as potentially marginalizing; and plurilingual policies as desirable, effective and possible (Davis, 2014; Phyak & Bui, 2014). While challenging dominant neoliberal ideologies (Gegeo & Watson-Gegeo, 2001; Tollefson, 2013; Warner, 2002), the course explores ways in which to support practices that meet local language, education, economic and human welfare needs. Thus, the course takes an interdisciplinary approach in exploring societal and schooling issues such as multilingualism, translanguaging, and identities while considering the agency of individuals and communities as the epicenter of language policy reform (Davis, 2014; Pennycook, 2013).

The course draws on the above theoretical perspectives in exploring engaged dialogic and participatory efforts to promote equitable education in both developed and developing countries. Through readings, course activities and discussion course participants will develop both ideological analytical and engaged ethnographic abilities that can guide current and future work in schools, communities, and with education administration. Course participants will further gain insight into engaged ethnographic research methods through designing research proposal and/or documenting engaged efforts with teachers, parents and/or concerned others in promoting equitable language education policy and practices.

These efforts can focus on research and/or documentation in one or more of the following areas: 1) Conducting ideological analyses with parents, educators, and concerned others towards raising awareness of harmful neoliberal commodification and standardization language education policies; 2) Exploring and planning resistance and alternatives to marginalizing and ineffective national, state, and regional language ideologies and policies; 3) Developing community and school based language and education policies that are locally relevant, educationally forward-looking, and serve to provide models for wider change and 4) Developing relevant and engaging instructional practices through supporting teachers and building on local knowledge for schooling that is studentcentered and engaging. In sum, this course actively involves course participants in drawing on current theories and utilizing engaged ethnographic methods towards promoting equitable policies and practices.

Free The greatest inventions Essay Sample


  • Subject:

  • University/College: University of California

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 7 April 2016

  • Words:

  • Pages:

Let us write you a custom essay sample on The greatest inventions

for only $16.38 $13.9/page

your testimonials