The French Revolution and Napoleon

Matching Match each term with the correct statement below.

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a. abdicate d. sans-culottes b. deficit spending e. suffrage c. plebiscite ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Spending more money than is taken in Working-class revolutionaries The right to vote Ballot in which voters say yes or no to an issue To give up power Match each person with the correct statement below. a. Napoleon d. Olympe de Gouges b. Jacques Louis David e. Clemens von Metternich c. Maximilien Robespierre ____ 6. ____ 7. ____ 8. ____ 9. ____ 10. Jacobin revolutionary who led the Reign of Terror French journalist who demanded equal rights for women Leading painter during the French Revolution French emperor who dominated Europe in the early 1800s Austrian prince who wanted to restore the status quo of 1792 at the Congress of Vienna Match each term with the correct statement below. a. blockade d. nationalism b. bourgeoisie e. sans-culottes c. émigré ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. The wealthiest members of the Third Estate A person who fled revolutionary France to live in another country Radical working-class men and women A feeling of pride in, and intense devotion to, one’s country A military tactic through which ports are shut off to keep people or supplies from moving in or out Match each person with the correct statement below. a. Louis XVI d. Olympe de Gouges b. Clemens von Metternich e. Robespierre c. Napoleon ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. “Let all three estates list their grievances to me.” “Lives must be sacrificed for liberty.” “Woman’s rights are the same as those of man.” “I love power as a musician loves his violin.” “Monarchy is the only way to save Europe from the ravages of nationalism.

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Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 21. The bourgeoisie belonged to which of the following groups? a. the First Estate c. the Third Estate b. the Second Estate d. the aristocracy ____ 22. The Constitution of 1791 a. abolished the monarchy. b. established a new Legislative Assembly. c. gave the vote to all citizens. d. reestablished the old provinces. ____ 23. During the Reign of Terror, Robespierre tried to a. execute all French nobles. b. restore the Catholic Church. c. crush all opposition to the revolution. d. reinstate the monarchy. ____ 24. Which of the following areas did Napoleon annex to France? a. the Netherlands c. Poland b. Russia d. Britain ____

25. Which of the following statements about France’s social structure is true? a. The Third Estate was made up entirely of peasants. b. The Second Estate was content with the social structure. c. There was inequality among the three estates. d. Most people belonged to the First Estate. ____ 26. France’s economy was mainly supported by a. the First Estate. c. the king. b. the Third Estate. d. the nobles. ____ 27. French nobles resisted Necker’s financial reforms because a. they supported free trade. b. they were already taxed too heavily. c. they wanted to pay no taxes. d. they thought the answer was to create more jobs for the Third Estate. ____ 28. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen stated that a. all men were born free and equal in rights. b. all male citizens had the right to vote. c. male and female citizens were equal before the law. d. all citizens had to pay equal taxes. ____

29. How did the French respond to threats to the revolution? a. by using mediation to settle differences b. by becoming more radical c. by welcoming their opponents into the decision-making process d. by ensuring that all citizens were free to speak ____ 30. How did the Napoleonic Code reflect Enlightenment principles? a. It guaranteed the equality of all citizens before the law. b. It guaranteed women equal rights. c. It valued individual rights above all else. d. It valued the security of the state over individual liberty. ____ 31. Which of the following was the chief goal of the Congress of Vienna? a. to punish France c. to create a lasting peace b. to create a united Europe d. to strengthen Germany

____ 32. Why did the Congress of Vienna redraw the boundaries of some European countries? a. to encircle France with strong countries b. to create more countries c. to distribute land more fairly d. to prevent the growth of nationalism

Figure 19-1 ____ 33. In Figure 19-1, why are the scepter, or staff, and the globe shown falling from Napoleon’s hands? a. to show Napoleon playing with his power b. to show Napoleon losing his power c. to show Napoleon passing on control of his empire d. to show Napoleon’s juggling abilities ____ 34. At which of the following times was Figure 19-1 most likely drawn? a. after Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Nations b. as he claimed victory after victory in Europe c. at the beginning of his military career d. when he was crowned emperor of the French ____ 35. In Figure 19-1 featuring Napoleon, what do the scepter, or staff, and the globe with the cross on it represent? a. defeat c. toys b. power d. freedom ____ 36. What is the cartoonist trying to show by including Russian buildings on the lower right in Figure 19-1? a. Russia has a unique architectural style. b. Russia is a world power. c. Russia is an important element in Napoleon’s fall from power. d. Russia is a religious country.

Short Answer 37. Describe the three divisions of France’s social structure before the French Revolution. 38. Identify three causes of the financial crisis France faced in the late 1780s. 39. Give two examples of how popular uprisings moved the French Revolution forward. 40. Identify the four stages of the revolution. 41. List five ways the revolution changed life in France. 42. List the main events in the rise and fall of Napoleon. 43. Describe the chief goal of the Congress of Vienna. Read the following excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted by the National Assembly in 1789. Then answer the questions that follow. “The representatives of the French people, organized as a national assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole causes of public misfortunes and the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration, the natural, inalienable and sacred rights of man. . . .

The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural . . . rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else. . . . Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its formation. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law.” 44. What does the declaration say are the natural rights of man? 45. Based on this excerpt, how do you think the monarchy viewed the French people before the revolution?

46. How does this excerpt redefine the relationship between the French people and their government? Essay 47. Comparing In what ways was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen similar to the Declaration of Independence? 48. Drawing Conclusions Do you think Napoleon did more to help or hurt the causes of the French Revolution? Use examples of his actions to support your answer. 49. Synthesizing Information How did the Reign of Terror contradict the ideals of the French Revolution as formulated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen? 50. Identifying Main Ideas Why is it possible to say that the “new order” established in Europe by the Congress of Vienna after Napoleon’s defeat was actually an “old order”? 51. Predicting Consequences What do you think would be a likely consequence of the Congress of Vienna’s decision to redraw Europe’s boundaries without any concern for national cultures?

Chapter 19 Test: The French Revolution and Napoleon Answer Section

SHORT ANSWER 37. ANS: The First Estate was made up of the clergy. The Second Estate was made up of the nobility. The Third Estate was made up of the bourgeoisie (or middle class) as well as peasants and city workers. 38. ANS: Answers should include three of the following: deficit spending, overspending, a declining economy, poor harvests, the failure of economic reform. 39. ANS: Answers may include two of the following: the storming of the Bastille—set the revolution in motion and pushed the National Assembly to take action; women’s march on Versailles—forced the return of the king to Paris and pushed the National Assembly to turn France into a constitutional monarchy; uprisings by the sans-culottes and “September massacres”—pushed the revolution into a more radical stage. 40. ANS: the moderate phase; the radical phase; the Directory; the Age of Napoleon 41. ANS: Answers may include five of the following: the revolution abolished the old social order and made all French men equal citizens; it instituted a new government; it brought the Church under state control; it changed fashion; it introduced nationalism; it made public education available; it encouraged religious toleration; and it promoted France as a secular nation instead of a religious one.

42. ANS: Main events in the rise of Napoleon: He won several victories against the Austrians and captured most of northern Italy; he helped overthrow the Directory and set himself up as First Consul; he declared himself emperor of the French; he defeated all the major powers, except for Britain. Main events in the fall of Napoleon: He lost his campaign against Russia, which led to his defeat by Russia, Britain, and Prussia; he abdicated. 43. ANS: to create a lasting European peace by establishing strong nations surrounding France and a balance of power and by protecting the system of monarchy 44. ANS: liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression

45. ANS: Answers should point to the idea that the monarchy most likely viewed the French people as resources to be used as the monarchy saw fit and worth little consideration as entities by themselves. 46. ANS: The government exists for the benefit of the people, rather than the people existing for the benefit of those governing them. ESSAY 47. ANS: It was similar in that it stated that all men are born equal; that they are born with certain natural rights, including liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression; and that the government exists to protect these natural rights.

48. ANS: Students who think that Napoleon hurt the revolution may point to the facts that he took away many of the liberties the French people gained during the revolution, including women’s rights, and that his defeat restored the monarchy. Students who believe Napoleon helped the French Revolution may point to the facts that he codified many of the changes brought about by the revolution into law (the Napoleonic Code); and that more people had the right to vote, own property, and be educated than under the old regime. 49. ANS: It denied people their rights to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. 50. ANS: Part of the aim of the “new order” was to restore political conditions to what they had been in 1792. To do this, the monarchy was reinstated in France and in the other European countries that Napoleon had conquered. 51. ANS: Most students will probably say that this would inflame feelings of nationalism and eventually lead to war.

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The French Revolution and Napoleon
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