* Physical abuse: hitting, slapping, kicking, punching & misuse of medication * Sexual abuse: rape/non-consensual sex, sexual assault, inappropriate touching, kissing & groping * Emotional/psychological abuse: threats of harm/abandonment, over controlling, harassment, intimidation & withdrawal from support networks/services * Financial abuse: financial exploitation, theft, misuse of possessions, property or benefits, by someone who has been trusted to handle finances. * Institutional abuse: misuse of medication, failing to provide appropriate care for a vulnerable adult/child, treating adults as children, little/no choice of social activity/dress/possessions * Self-neglect: a failure to attend to own basic needs – personal hygiene, a healthy food/drink plan, wearing appropriate clothing.
* Neglect by others: lack of suitably trained staff, not providing appropriate/adequate amounts of food/drinks, failing to provide adequate care for individuals’ needs.
1.2 identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse *Physical abuse: sprains, bruising, broken bones, fractures, dislocations & open wounds *Sexual abuse: genital pain/irritation, bruising/bleeding, UTI/STI/STD, difficulty walking/sitting *Emotional/psychological abuse: rapid weight loss/weight gain, irregular menstrual cycle, depression, malnutrition, bedwetting, distrust of others.
*Financial abuse: sudden loss of assets/home, unusual bank transactions, depression, a certain visitors’ arrival on ‘benefit day’. *Institutional abuse: tiredness/drowsiness, signs of misuse of medication – rash, cotton mouth, diarrhoea, vomiting etc. loss of energy/want for life, depression, lack of dignity. *Self-neglect: confusion, weight loss/gain, depression, loss of self-image/presentation (unkempt). *Neglect by others: bed sores/other illnesses, signs of misuse of medication, persistent weight loss,
1.3 describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse *lack of knowledge/ability – this may be a factor because an individual may rely on other people/carers to help in areas they cannot complete themselves. *untrained carers/support staff – this will contribute by putting the individual at risk of a detrimental service by the staff member, this could lead to illness/hospitalisation/death. *disability – this can contribute due to staff taking advantage *learning disability – this could make a person too trustworthy of their carer and could then lead to any of the abuse types defined above.
Learning Outcome 2
2.1 explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused I would make a written document/account of any suspicions I may have regarding the individual, I would also inform my line manager so that they too are aware of the suspicions and can if necessary assist with any task related to the specific individual, so that they too can be involved and aware – first hand – of any allegations that the individual may then proceed to make.
2.2 explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused If an individual makes an allegation, I would inform them that I cannot promise, due to my duty of care & training, to keep their allegations a secret and that I’d have to inform the necessary persons so that the right course of action can be taken. I would then listen to everything that I am being told by the individual, not interrupting so that I get a complete account of the allegation. I would make any notes required after the individual had finished what they were saying, that way I would not limit them to only saying a small amount when they may have a lot to divulge with me.
2.3 identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved
* body maps
* incident forms
* medical notes located within support plans (in my work place) * recorded voice conversations (if the individual is able to communicate and consent in this manner)
Learning Outcome 3
3.1 identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding
and protection from abuse
*Health & Safety Policy
*Safeguarding Adults training
3.2 explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protection individuals from abuse
3.3 identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse
* Winterbourne View
* Cornwall Report
* Stafford Hospital
3.4 identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse.
* Health & Safety policy
* Dignity policy/dignity champions
* Staff team/colleagues
* Line managers
* Whistleblowing policy
* Support/care plans
Learning Outcome 4
4.1 explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by:
* working with person centred values – these may include things that are specific to the individual, their rights and dignity should be respected at all times. Individuals have the values of any person in the world; rights, independence, privacy, dignity, choices for every aspect of life, partnership & individuality should all be respected in order for a person to have their own values met. If all these things are met for the individual, then the likelihood of abuse may be reduced due to the person being able to make his/her own decisions in everyday tasks E.G. choosing clothing/meals/activities. Each individual whether in care or not has the expectation to be listened to and their choices respected, if this is not done, then the person centred values are not being adhered to, and they are not working for the individual.
* encouraging active participation – each individual within my workplace, is regarded as an active partner within their support routine. They are asked to choose their own clothes for the day with a little support to make suitable choices depending on weather and planned activities. An example of active participation is; they choose what they want for their evening meals each work by participating in a menu planning session each week. This is discussed between all the individuals, using their chosen communication method or their likes/dislikes lists, staff support them so that they can make a suitable choice for meals, helping them to decide a healthy balance between meat/vegetarian/fish based meals.
* promoting choice and rights – if an individuals’ choices are promoted, they are less likely to be abused as they have their choices respected. Their rights, as with mine, should also be respected, this reduces chances of abuse because if I have my choices and rights promoted, I feel like I am participating within the upkeep of my life. If I had no choices and I was not respected, I would most likely feel depressed, ignored and I would probably feel like a second class citizen even though it is my life and I have the right to be listened to.
4.2 explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse. If the complaints procedure is accessible, then abuse is likely to be reduced by the ease that complaints can be made/listened to should they then require being made. An accessible complaints procedure is useful for everyone, not just the individuals I support. This is because, having the knowledge of who I can turn to/discuss concerns with is vital within my workplace so that I can knock any problems on the head as soon as they are realised by myself. Knowledge is empowering for everyone, if everyone has the same knowledge, the likelihood of abuse may be reduced because we all ‘sing from the same hymn sheet’ and we all know the procedure to follow if we have a complaint to make.
Learning Outcome 5
5.1 describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of individuals Staffing levels are a resource difficulty that can be a big factor in my workplace. If staff are short, the individuals chosen activities cannot always go ahead as planned, this can affect the well-being of the individuals because they may have been looking forward to a planned activity which, with it not happening can cause disruption to the service. For example, in my workplace, an activity not happening can cause negative behaviours to increase which can lead to all people within the setting (staff included) being at risk.
Training being out of date may also affect the individuals, this is because the staff member may be unable to support the individual in the required manner. This is also the case for those who are new to the setting or regular staff who are not up to date with support plans and any changes that may have recently occurred. Support plans hold a vast array of information on the individuals that we support, if I do not make myself aware of any changes that have occurred to these plans I can affect the well-being of the individuals I support by not knowing what is ‘new’ in their lives.
5.2 explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified If I notice that we are short staffed, I inform my line manager who can then either switch staff around to cover the activities planned or they can involve external agency workers to support activities. If I am out of date with training, I inform my line manager so that they can check for available dates to refresh my knowledge. Any other actions include reading the communication book for any updates regarding the individuals, reading the minutes from any house/staff, person centred review meetings as these occur regularly & reading them would be a good way to catch up & signpost me in the right direction if I require any further reading. I find that reading the support plans (or necessary parts of them) helps to refreshes my memory. If I notice something is out of date i.e. risk assessments, I take this to the line manager who can assist me with updating the assessment.
5.3 describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response If unsafe practices which have been reported but no response has been given I take the matter to my line managers manager. They can assist with anything I feel hasn’t happened but should have occurred. The same can be said for suspected abuse, if I have reported something I feel requires attention and this has not happened the next line manager can chase up any conclusion that may/may not have been reached. If necessary, I can get the paperwork regarding any suspected abuse/unsafe practices from my line manager to support the reasons as to why I have taken I have decided to take it to my line managers manager.