The First Catilinarian Conspiracy

What year was the catilinarian conspiracy?
63 BC

In what year did Catiline lose his second Consulship? 3 marks
After Crassus withdrew his support
Caesar was best bet

Why did Cicero make up a conspiracy? 1 mark
To win consulship for 65

How did Cicero make a conspiracy? 3 marks
Used same techniques as the Verres case
Said if optimates don’t vote for him, hell will break loose
Only Cicero would be able to stop it (same as Marius)

What did the letters from Catiline to Cicero advise him to do?
Leave Rome as assassins were on their way
Letters were anonymous so didn’t mention any conspirators

After Catiline made a speech about Cicero being a Novus Homo, what happened? 2 marks
Catiline went into voluntary exile
Cicero: only a guilty man would run

In the third Catilinarian what did Cicero say? 1 mark
Catiline wanted to gather a slave army and burn Rome to the ground whilst killing everyone in their beds

How did Cicero win over the Optimates so he could win a Consulship even though he was a Novus Homo? 3 marks
Made Cataline public enemy
Optimates didn’t like him
Land reforms and debt cancellations.

What happened in early 62 BC? 2 marks
Cicero faced criticism
Nepos proposed bill recalling Pompey

What was the result of Nepos? 1 mark
Street rioting in Rome

What was the effect of the street rioting? 2 marks
Volatile situation
People are unhappy with Cicero

What did Cicero do in 60BC? 3 marks
Cicero published 12 consular speeches
4 delivered against Cataline
Didn’t prevent Cicero’s enemies

What was the result of 60BC? 1 mark
Clodius exploited concern amongst many citizens

What was the effect of Clodius’ rumours? 1 mark
Angry citizens wanted trial before execution

What happened mid October 63BC? 3 marks
Cicero’s first speech to the senate
Cataline fled to Etruria
After arrest, Cataline wanted to escape to Gaul

What happened in January 62 near Pistoria?
Faced army of Antonius Hybrida
In a bloody battle, Cataline and his men were killed

When was Cicero consul? 1 mark

What type of speeches did Cicero do during his consulship? 1 mark
Political and forensic speeches

When did the first conspiracy happen? 1 mark
Early November

When did the second conspiracy happen? 2 marks
Following day
Informed citizens of Catiline’s threats and flight to Rome

What was the third conspiracy about?
Told them he arrested Catilinarian conspirators in Rome

What was the fourth conspiracy about? 1 mark
Cicero argued to the senate for their deaths

Why did the senate get involved in the execution of the conspirators?
Threat was serious

What outcome did the senate have? 2 marks
Cato persuaded first 16 senators for death penalty
Caesar proposed life sentences

What was Catiline prior to the conspiracy? 3 marks
Aristocrat beaten by novus homo
In debt
result of prosecution and failed consular campaigns

Give an example of a key election appeal: 1 mark
Pass legislation cancelling debts

What were the disgruntled aristocrats prior to the conspiracy? 2 marks
Senators/equestrians so overpowered Catiline
Lots in debt and failed political careers (like Catiline)

What were the Sullan veterans like prior to the conspiracy? 2 marks
After prescriptions, Sulla’s soldiers got land in Etruria
Few veterans were disgruntled by their settlement

What were poor, landless rural citizens like prior to the conspiracy? 2 marks
Disruption of Spartacus revolt
Increasing debts of rural citizens

What did Cicero say of the numerous poor landless men? 1 mark
Overwhelmed by debt throughout Rome and Italy

Methods Cicero used to convince the senate of the threat: 6 marks
bodyguards and cuirass in elections
told senate of Roman march
had right to make army preparations
Hateful speeches to Cataline
Letters from conspirators urging advance in Rome
Spies all over Rome

What background did Catiline come from?
Impoverished Roman patrician family

What happened in 64 to Catiline? 1 mark
Prosecuted for murder

Who led Antonius’ army?

Why did Petrius kill Catiline?
He fought brave by near Pistoria

What did Cicero think about Catiline? 1 mark
Should be made public enemy

What did Catiline conspire in 66? 1 mark
Kill new consuls on installation date

Who saved Catiline from prosecution? 1 mark

Who, when and what pact did Catiline make? 1 mark
Made a pact with Antonius for consulship of 63

What was Catiline, Caesar and Crassus’ relationship like? 1 mark
Supported him in electoral campaigns

What did Catiline plot in 63? 1 mark
Cicero’s murder

What did Cato persuade the senate to do?
Death penalty

What did the death penalty signify? 3 marks
Unconventional voting system
Should’ve been a trial

How were the conspirators executed? 2 marks
Led into subterranean execution chamber

Who was the execution announced to? 1 mark
To crowd of citizens in Forum and later to senate

What did Cataline do in Italy? 2 marks
Raised troops in Etruria
Made frenzied plans (mental illness?)

Was Cicero aware of Cataline? 3 marks
Aware of Cataline and supporters plots through Fulvia
Cicero approached Curius (betrayed Cataline’s plans)

Why did Cataline expect himself to win? 5 marks
Promised to cancel debt
Had supporters across Rome
Thought would solve their problems
Economic crisis
Most populares were land rich but money poor

Why did Cicero have no proof against Cataline? 3 marks
Information shared between supporters.
Questioned Cataline
Stayed calm because Cicero couldn’t do anything

What did Cicero do when he learnt there were plots to murder him? 2 marks
Cancelled the election
Had bodyguards and cuirass

How did they finally get proof? 2 marks
Crassus came to Cicero with anonymous letters addressing several senators
Catalina was gathering army

Why were the senators reluctant at first? 4 marks
Didn’t believe noble would harm the republic
Cicero summoned Senate at dawn
Read letters aloud by their addresses
SCU not in place

Why did Cicero ask for SCU? 4 marks
to levy troops
conduct war
apply unlimited force to allies and citizens
exercise supreme command and jurisdiction at home

What did Cicero do once SCU was passed? 4 marks
Had 4 armies dispatched to trouble spots
Shut down all gladitorial schools
Rewards given to people who gave info about actions of Catalina and supporters
Put night watchers in place.

What had Cicero been unable to do up until this point? 1 mark
Prove link between Cataline and Manilius

Where did Cataline placed himself at Cicero’s first speech against him? 2 marks
In hand of Celer (nobleman)
Slipped away and held secret meetings with important supporters in house of Scythemakers.

What did Cicero use in his first speech against the Catalinarian conspiracy? 3 marks
Information from meeting in first speech
Summoned Senate to meet at temple
Catalina attended

What was the message conveyed in Cicero’s first speech against the Catalinarian conspiracy? 6 marks
Clear message
Reported details of the meeting
warned Catalina about his actions
Told senate about plans to kill him and other leading senators
Rebuked those in senate who believed a noble than a Novus Homo
Demolished Catalina’s reputation in eyes of Senate.

What did Cicero’s first speech include? 2 marks
insulting details
Tide turned for Cataline because of Cicero’s command of reverie

Who was Lentelus? 3 marks
Disgraced senator
Let back into senate and had influence
‘ring leader’ of the conspirators

What was Clodius’ role in the conspiracies? 1 mark
Cicero’s informant

What did Clodius do in December 62 BC? 6 marks
disguised as a woman and went to Bona Dea festival
men were barred from entry
Held yearly in home of pontifix Maximus (Caesar)
Supervised by wife and Vestal Virgins
Clodius was discovered during festival
Women turned on him
Gossipers questioned whether it was an inside job

What happened in May 61 BC for Clodius?
Bona Dea trial
Caesar divorced wife and refused to testify against him
Clodius insisted he was out of town during the festival

What did Cicero do at the Bona Dea Trial? 2 marks
Swore in court he spoke to him in Rome that day
Thought he was asked to by his wife out of jealousy for Clodius’ sister.

How did the Bona Dea trial end? 2 marks
Clodius acquitted by Crassus
Vowed revenge on Cicero

How was Cataline at the start of the second speech? 6 marks
Clearly guilty
Role of Cicero uncovering his plans was appreciated
Left Rome to join Manilius in Etruria
Chose Lentulus to organise conspiracy in city
Declared public enemy before leaving Rome
Cicero and senate had to turn EVERYONE against him

How did Cicero deliver his second speech? 1 mark
Identified Catalina’s supporters

Who were Cataline’s supporters? 6 marks
Rich (unpopular with plebs)
Debtors (wanted control of state)
Various rebels (‘life’s losers’)
Criminal element
Special croonies

How did Cicero’s eloquence aid him? 3 marks
Left conspirators poorly supported in city
Managed to turn a lot of supporters away
They planned activities of Lentulus

What techniques did the second speech employ? 3 marks
Played on people’s fears
Prejudices for supporters
Controlled potentially explosive situation.

How did Cicero feel at the start of the third speech? 3 marks
Had proof he needed of plot within Rome
He led Lentulus down the hill
Authors of letters brought before Senate

Who confessed at the third speech? 3 marks
3 men (as did Gabinius)
Lentulus resigned as praetor
Men taken to homes of leading senators

What did Cicero do in his third speech? 3 marks
summary of events and Cicero’s own role in them
invocation to Roman Gods
Implied whole universe had seen events

Why did Cicero hold a debate in the senate? 5 marks
Found execution distasteful
Argued for speed
Growing demands for Pompey’s recall
Wanted it settled
Had 26 days left as consul

Could Cicero have done it without a senatorial debate? 5 marks
Yes, if he used SCU
Case of Rabirius must have convinced him
Backing of senate would strengthen own position
Senate not a court
Every citizen was entitled to trial before execution.

What did Silanus argue? 2 marks
changed his mind as did all of Cicero’s friends.

What triggered Cicero to make a fourth speech? 1 mark
Sensing mood of senate

What did Caesar argue? 1 mark
Life imprisonment

What did Cato argue?
They should die immediately
Cato reminded everyone republic was under threat – roused court

What did Cicero remind the senate in his fourth speech? 5 marks
Dangers Rome faced
unprecedented nature and difficulties of Caesar’s proposals
Complimented Caesar as genuine popularis
Cicero’s strong words paved way for Cato.
Cato was scathing of Caesar’s proposals.

What happened at the end of the debate? 1 mark
majority of senators voted in favour of death.

How did the debate began? 6 marks
concern about 5 criminals
Became personal for Cicero and Caesar
Cato rips open letter given to Caesar
Thought it proved Caesar was with Cataline
Actually a sexual letter from half-sister, Servilia
Caesar was having an affair with her

Where did Cicero go after the fourth speech? 2 marks
Went to Tullianum, city jail
Legality of executions has been long since debated.

What did Cicero believe Cataline did? 3 marks
Swept aside normal divisions within Roman society
Speeches were integral in this process
Political policy Cicero hoped would outlive events of 63

What were the rewards of successfully bringing down the conspiracy? 4 marks
hailed pater patriae
almost given a civic crown
made Cicero think they forgot his Novus Homo status
Senate voted him a public prayer

Outline Clodius and Milo’s relationship in 52: 6 marks
Unrest reached climax
Unsuccessful attempt to prosecute Milo in 56
Frequent outbursts of warfare for next few years
No appointed consuls
Milo was a candidate
Strongly supported by the optimates

Outline Milo and Pompey’s relationship in 52: 2 marks
Friendship grew cold
Pompey saw him as threat to own supremacy in Rome

How did Cicero describe Clodius and Milo? 7 marks
Clodius realised Milo would be elected consul
Backed by Romans
Worried it would restrict own power
Clodius wanted to be praetor
Helped other candidates
More he helped, greater Milo’s support grew
Openly stated Milo should be killed

How did Milo kill Clodius according to Cicero? 7 marks
Milo ran into Clodius in front of his estate
After coachman killed, Milo jumped from carriage to defend himself
Some of Clodius’ men ran to carriage to attack Milo from behind
Others thought he was killed so started hacking down slaves who escorted him
Some slaves tried to go help him but couldn’t
Upon hearing Clodius say he was dead,they believed it
Killed Clodius in revenge
Unsurprising – thought master was dead

Can we trust what Cicero says about the murder? 2 marks
Probably a biased account
Comes from speech planned to give as a defendant

What happened when Cicero tried to deliver his defendant’s speech for Milo? 2 marks
When Cicero saw Pompey at court with soldiers, he was speechless
Stammered a few words and then sat down relieved

What did the jury decide at Milo’s trial? 3 marks
First wounding happened without Milo knowing
After he was wounded, killed on Milo’s orders
Milo went into exile in Massilia

Milo’s reaction when he heard what Cicero planned to deliver: 2 marks
Good the court didn’t hear it
Couldn’t have enjoyed seafood of Massilia