The execution stage regarding the task is that the complete aim is essentially changed keen on running code. Intend regarding the stage is towards interpreting the aim keen on a finest likely result within an appropriate programming language. In this section, it covers up the execution phase concerning the task, providing particulars regarding the programming language as well as improvement background employed. It as well provides a general idea about the important sections regarding the task by means of its bit by bit course.
The execution phase involves the following tasks: Cautious scheduling Examination regarding structure as well as constraints Aim concerning the techniques towards accomplishing the conversion Assessment concerning the conversion technique Accurate judgment about the choosing of the proposal Suitable choosing regarding the language intended for function growth5.1 HARDWARE USEDThe necessary hardware components used :1. Microcontroller – P89V51RD2-Phillips2. PROXIMITY sensors3. Comparator4. Red and Green LEDs5. GSM modem [RS232 based] 6. LCD – 16 x 27. GPS Modem8. 7812/ 7805 voltage regulators for power supply9.
Power supply circuit5.2 SOFTWARE USED1. Operating System: Windows 10 (64-bit)2. Language: Embedded c3. Keil-c compiler4. Flash magic burner software.5. Orcad Capture6. Orcad Layout5.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION Operating voltage of embedded circuitry is 12vdc Current consumption of device in active mode 200mill amp Operating frequency of device is 11.0592MHZ5.3.1 Applications Finding Out Signal Offenders In A Accurate Way Vehicle tracking system Human tracking System By doing little modifications, this same project can be used for any other tracking System.5.3.2 Features of the System Provision for reserving a parking slot. Entry is prohibited without reservation.
Automatically cancellation of the reservation after certain time (2Min). User-friendly interaction system. Automatic cost calculation system. Wireless interface between the user and the system. Dedicated RTC, EEPROM hardwares for better performance and accuracy.5.3.3 Advantages Cost effective. Highly secured.5.4 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILSThe smart parking system, as described in this paper, has been deployed in a garage at Boston University, which contains 27 parking spaces. At each parking space, we have installed a parking detection sensor on the ground and an LED device for controlling our light system described. A Street line gateway receives data from each sensor in the network and forwards it to an upper level database, which serves as the PRMC with the state (vacant or occupied) of each parking space. The real-time parking information is published and updated on the web and can be obtained by users. Thus, our system still provides the service of a normal PGI with a single parking space.The state S = L,R, P,C,D,A is defined as follows: Light Status (L) = GREEN(G), RED(R),Y ELLOWBLIN K(BY ), REDBLIN K(BR), OF F (O); Res N OTRESERV ED(nRD), RESERV ED(RD); Parking Status (P) = V ACANT(V ), OCCUPIED(O); Drivers Response Status (C)=Y ES(Y ), NO(N), PENDING(P), TIMEOUT(TO), NULL(NA); Drivers Position Status (D) = NEARBY (NR), FAR(FR), NULL(NA); Drivers Self-Confirmation Status (A) = CONFIRMED(P), NULL(NA).5.5 SYSTEM SPECIFICATION5.5.1 Embedded SystemEmbedded systems are computers that are integrating within other equipment in such a way that user are often unaware that a computer is present at all. Embedded systems are frequently included within electronics system in cars, homes, offices, production lines and many other places. Internet application and next generation networking and telecommunication equipment will expand still further the spreads of embedded system. Software for embedded system should be able to run in the small amount of memory and often has to work in real time. Typically the embedded system is made as small as possible and lack many of the facilities expected on a traditional computer. There is no keyboard of displays the software is normally developed on another computer and transferred to the target system, the embedded software provide for real time data handlingvg and processing capability, faster response time and enhanced mobility in the product. It is instrumental in the product delivering highest performance with minimum resources.Embedded software development involves various real time operating system such VxWorks, pSOS, WinCE, OSE. It also involves C, C++, device driver programming, object oriented methodologies for electronic design, hardware design language like Verilog and VhDL and many design automation tools like simulator.Embedded system are electronics devices that incorporate microprocessor with in their imple- mentation. The main purposes of the microprocessors are to simplify system design and provide flexibility. Having a microprocessor in the device means that removing bugs, making modifi- cation, or adding new features. And also no matters for writing the software that control the devices. Unlike PCs however, embedded system may not have a disk drive and so the software require either replacing or reprogramming the ROM.Originally they are used only for expensive industrial control applications, but as technology brought down the cost of dedicated processors, they began to appear in moderately expensive application such as automobiles, communication and office equipment and television. Todays embedded systems are so inexpensive that they are used in almost every electronic product in our life.Type of Embedded System Simple Embedded System Complex Embedded System1. Simple embedded systemThese systems use an assembler or cross compiler to develop our application program. After of source file we get an executable file which is ported to the memory of the microcontroller.2. Complex embedded systemThis system uses a RTOS to develop an application. This real time operating system consists of cross compiler, cross assembler, simulator in a single package. Embedded ap- plication program provides reliability, cost effective and performance oriented. Reliability expectations place greater responsibility on programmer to eliminate bugs and to design our software tolerates errors. Performance goals are achieved by applying the techniques such as multitasking and scheduling. 5.5.2 Embedded ToolNormally microcontroller programs are written in assembly language. The tools used for debugging a microcontroller program are termed as embedded tools. They are Simulator Emulator Assembler Cross Compiler Monitor1. SimulatorA simulator runs your microcontroller program on a host machine. We can step through the code to see exactly what is happening as the program runs. Contents of registers or variables can be altered to change the way the program runs. Eliminates the erase / burn/ program EPROM cycle common in microcontroller program development. A simulator cant support real interrupts or devices, and usually runs much slower than the real device the program is intended for.2. EmulatorAn emulator is a most useful tool you can get your hands on for or intermittent problems. In this case, an emulator is an important debugging tool, but it should not be considered as a part of application development, The big disadvantage of the emulator is that it can only run at slow speed. Another drawback of the emulator is the total reliance on software to provide hardware feature such as timer and serial ports, which means that some event can be missed or some feature cannot be properly tested out in the emulator.An emulator is a piece hardware that is placed in to an application circuit to allow us to run and observe the operation of the application. It is a hardware debugging tool. The emulator kit consists of bound out chip. This chip is typically an actual microcontroller chip with pads and circuitry accessed that will allow external hardware to control its operation. The cost of this type of emulator is high. But if an application is wired wrong and the bound out chip is damaged, then it can be repaired earlier by user, at a low cost.3. AssemblerAssembly is a software routine, which is used to convert a source program written in assembly language to machine-readable code. The source program will be written instruc- tion and after compilation we get an executable file, which convert the instructions into corresponding mnemonics. The output file of an assembler is platform dependent. For Intel 8051 it is the form of Hex format, which means the data inside the file will be of hexadecimal values. Usually programmers prefer compiler than assemble for developing their application because of the language ease. 4. Cross CompilerCross complier is software that converts a program written in high level language to ma- chine language on a different platform. For example when a user wants to develop code for 8051 based platform, he loads the cross compiler software to the host machine and after compiling the source file he gets a output file for Intel 8051 platform. Apart from usual header files they also contain header file for each platform. So whether the user wants to develop an application on different platform he needs to include the header file for that platform. There are so many cross compiler available e.g. Keil, Ride, SDCC, Rigel, RXTX51 etc.5. MonitorA monitor is a program that controls the execution of an application program and gives a user a view about whats happening. It is a PC running a terminal emulator program.The Functions of a monitor program are: Application loading Application execution control Single stepping Set, reset and list break point Display application code Modify application code Display scratchpad RAM and registers Modify scratchpad RAM and registers