The European integration
The European integration
Various studies have considered the effects of European integration on the national liberalization and on national capacities in their intent to formulate policies and implement them effectively. Analysis revealed that economic integration has seriously reduced the ability of the state in response to shaping their national policy. Although the national government supports the European integration, it also seeks to control the timing and the scope that are involved in liberalization. They may need to provide the enterprises with time and enough resources so as to get prepared for the stiff competition against them.
As the European integration process developed, some essential liberation steps have been imposed on the reluctant state governments, especially by supranational body like the European commission. This act has reduced the national executive capacities in controlling the scope and timing of the process (Mark, 1997). Although the national governments have agreed on the objective of free and fare competition as stated by the European Integration policy, they frequently required exclusions in sectors such as national bank, postal service and broadcasting.
If the European union start offering more services provided by the national government, then the significantly role of the national government may ebb over time. Similarly, services such as fire protection, police, elementary education, and local roads currently funded by the government should remain. However, due to increase autonomy of the European union in pursuing liberalization and promoting the interest of private sectors, the government cannot control the liberalization process (Mitchell, 1998).
While the European union may be able to develop general economic liberalization, the forces they release by committing to this goal put selective economic liberalization untenable. Although, the national executive may gain more power to break down the domestic political opposition to a desired policy level, some societal actors may experience new opportunities to confront the state government in areas that have not been marked for liberalization.
The growing autonomous European institutions such as court of justice and the European commission have several implications, for the capability of the societal interests to seek alternatives methods of preferences satisfaction (Wayne, 1993). In deed, the European integration process of changing the opportunities and incentives for political actors, has affected the multi-level political arena, which occur between governments and the publics and within government.
Similarly, it has allowed private sector actors to scrutinize and constrain government actions in new way (Andrew, 1994). It is obvious that the process of European integration sometimes strengthen the capacity of the state. In case where political mobilization does not allow the societal actors to overcome information asymmetries, then integration may strengthened the ability of some executive members to realize their requirement relative to others or government institutions.
But, areas like state aid policy, where the European commission has promoted potential autonomous capacities, private sector actor destroyed by the competition from the public sector perceived strong incentives for action, economic integration changed the political opportunities facing private sector actors and could restrict the state capacities. As demonstrated by the state aid policy, selective economic liberalization is indefinable since there is no single actor that strongly controls the liberalization process set in the member state agreement.
While the foundation of the economic integration can be initiated by the national government in their search to solve national policy issues, the dynamic of integration shows that the society matters most (Alan, 1992). There are two trends brought about by the European integration. First is the formal rationality increment for the protecting the human rights and for union measures implementation. Second, is the economic rationality increment and the orientation of the market based on the prohibition and competitions rules against the realization of the liberalization objectives.
The basic pattern that emerge from the described measures are characterised by the mismatched of the governance procedures and policy (Frances et al. , 1993). The separation of the public bodies and the social trends in controlling measures and condition of work is an area that has also been affected by the European integration. Community legislation can be implemented through the mutual agreements so long the state enjoy powers towards conformity. This implies that in European nation, the state has to involve in areas that could be under the organised interests of management and labour (Andrew, 1993).
An impact as a result of the various aspects of union policy and the community requirements for the member states is the constraints capacity for pursuing the national policy and to synchronize law. This barred the union from shaping the national member states to a larger extent (La Vanguardia, 1995). Observed together, the need for providing human rights, and the compliance to the negative integration, form requirements and restrain trend on the national governance arrangement. The worse assaulting requirements are embedded within the various measures of the sectorial policy.
Of these, the competition compliance policy is the most difficult to achieve (Gary et al. , (1996). From this angle, competition policy could be treated as a national state responsibility towards conforming to the community protection policy. In short, this involves separation of the economic and regulation functions and stopping the monopolies, exclusive rights and trade impediments to maintain the general economic prospects (Bruce, 1994). Another impacts are the directive policies, which are created to obligate competition policy on the public responsibility.
Invading of the community policy to national policies seems indirect and inconsistent (Mitchell, 1997). Although the amount of measures embedded from community rules seems remarkable, the impacts should not be embroidered. The court of justice principles are not specific and does not introduce new elements into national law of the member states and are limited to situations where the member state practice competencies to derogate from the roles like free market mobilization.
Other instance of the governance estimation is the frequent involvement of member state officials among themselves or with the European commission and regulating the traditional perceptions and anticipation (Cameron, 1991). A second perspective is based on the union attempt to shaping the member state national governance and national policy. This is a default policy. It’s compliance pegged on protection of individual right, efficient implementation, and reorganization and compliant to the competition policy.
However, they may converge at a particular point. For example, many of the requirements are focus at the need to enable individuals achieve their community right. Although the pattern is clear, the emphasis on the implementation rules are deterred and in many case not effective in the implementation of the community policy. Procedures and solutions that may be transparent to a national observer are not acknowledged as clear from the community perspective.
Judicial review requirements may change the normalcy between judiciary and governance thereby resulting to alien forms of judicial review (George, 1985). Implementation requirements have effects that transcend the protection of individual rights. The implementation of market integration policy for example may provides the citizens with right contrary to their national government requirement. Currently, the national policy involve coping with constraints that European integration has created (Kohler & Eising, 1999).
A third observation is that although measures from the national policy are diverging, a suitable national state policy can be formulated. The requirements of Union demand market orientation where the economic is separated from the regulation functions based on the competition policy. Furthermore, they require more emphasis on formal legality, a restraints to the national governance requirement towards national rules and procedures. The traditional legal values are imposed to such an extent that changes must be made within the member states (Lyons, 1994).
Market orientation and emphasis on legality and individual rights development are in conflicting. There is requirement of the separation of the functions, in which the regulation functions are separated from services provision and economic managements. On the other hand, the regulation functions are based on the legal procedure of protecting individual rights. The total impacts of this measures on the national policy is to provide regulation functions to the growing legal rationality among other functions to an economic rationality.
As observed from the national contracts measures, this goes beyond national capacity in carrying our various functions. These measures enforce regulatory institutions to comply with the market policy when purchasing in the market (Meyer et al. , 1997). The legal rationality measures are however, beyond the national capacities. The restraints, which the union imposes on the member state, extend to public authorities as well as to any entities under it. The same apply to the policy such as free access to the environment information.
These controls can be in the form of funding, supervision, appointing an influential member to a managerial board of a body. This may result to subjecting the economic enterprises to different rules through the funding of their undertakings (Padgett, 1992). It has been observed that the social legislation of the European directly influences national policy and communal agreements. Moravcsik (1998) argued that this effect could have been undervalued. Nee, and Strang (1998) pointed out that contrary to the national law, the EU law was not deregulation.
What was weak some years back, could now be an important safety today. The EU law about equality between male and female had an effect in many places where the national laws were based on the men as a breadwinner model. Free movement of employees also had consequences in the interconnection of various welfare systems and creation of right for mobile people (Morgenthau, 1973). EU court is another institution that had been central in interpreting the treaty about competition law, free movement of citizens and directives of the national policy.
According to Peterson (1995) court legislation analysis, the ruling of the court have restraining such as the national control over beneficiaries, spatial control over consumption, coverage exclusive on the national territory, and the control over accessing the producer benefits status. This effect of the EU court of justice ruling can be regarded as unintended. National polices can also be restrained by the European integration economic and competition policies (Peterson and Bomberg, 1999) and the monetary union (Pierson, 1996) that has an impact to the social security funding.
The asymmetrical integration and prejudice and the economic side prejudice are the consequences of the indirect impacts. European Monetary Union contains potential effects since some of its policies seems or are now ineffective (Scharpf, 1988). In general, European legal impacts have decreased the potential capacity of the national governments to promote the growth and recruitment opportunity to their citizens whom they are accountable to. This has resulted to incorporating strategies such as tax burden, deregulation differentiation of wage, and cutback of welfare to check the wages for reservation (Stern, 1992).
The first impact of UMU arises as a result of being compliant to the requirements that are set by the EU. Most of the member state countries resolved to budget consolidation, increasing taxes, and so forth. This scenario may force governments to look for ways of reducing expenditures and to promote private provision as alternative. Rising of tax could promote the current technique of removing taxation from capital to labor causing damage to employee condition (Strang & Meyer, 1993).
Furthermore, in view of combating inflation and sustaining the Euro value, the European central bank, will keep monetary policy tight, which may result to depression of the economic activities and hence increase pressure on national budgets. The eventual consequences of this act will be potential pressure on the national protection and it’s funding (Tallberg, 2000). Conclusion The effect of the European integration on the administration of the European Union member states has faced increasing attention in recent times.
In evaluating the national systems of Europeanization, intergovernmental aspects are essential, especially in a firmly federal or decentralized system. In most of the European states, it can be seen that European integration has caused detrimental effect towards the national policy shaping and governing procedures.
Conversely, apart from the known issues affecting the intergovernmental system, European Union has tended to strengthen, if not imposed, major structural techniques on the national federalism of the member states. European integration is thus, not automatically shaping or transforming the national systems of governance of the member states.
Mark P. (1997). The delegation, agency & agenda setting in Europe community: Internal organization 51, 1. Mitchell P. S. (1998). An autonomy by the rules: the European commission & the state aid policy development: Journal of Common market studies 36(1), 55. Wayne S. (1993). Collective action institutions: The telecommunication in Europe. World Politics, 242-70.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 5 January 2017
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