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According to the United Nations human trafficking as: The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving and or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
As organizations and governments try to combat human trafficking a number of challenges occur ,which may lead to some complications in the process of try to help the victims.
Here are the problems facing governmental organizations:-
Failure to identify victims. Because of a constrained view of what constitutes trafficking, government actors often fail to recognize exploited workers as trafficking victims. Legal definitions of trafficking may fail to include labour trafficking.
Mistreatment of victims. When exploited migrant workers are not recognized as trafficking victims, they may lose their work and residency permits or be arrested for violating immigration laws or deported.
Lack of social service providers. Because almost all trafficking victims are far from home, they are in need of a vast array of social services and support – medical care, housing, transportation, interpreters, counselling, and legal advice.
Inability to enforce statutory workplace protections. In many countries, labour inspection is limited or nonexistent in the agricultural sector In Spain, for example, there are six labour inspectors for the whole province.
84 Even where there are regular work site visits, inspectors may not speak the right language to communicate with workers or workers may be given no opportunity to speak privately with the inspector.
Lack of co-ordination to enforce workers’ rights. Different government agencies are charged with enforcing labour laws, managing migration, and investigating and prosecuting criminal cases. There may also be a separate agency responsible for rural affairs or agriculture. A lack of co-ordination among these agencies may lead to inadequate protection of workers rights.
In addition to government organizations, there are also non governmental organizations (NGO) that deal directly with Human trafficking matters and here are some of the challenges they face:-
Lack of full access as Just as workers may be prevented or stopped from reaching services, NGOs and trade unions have difficulty travelling to remote workplaces.
Language or communication limitations as NGOs and trade unions need to be able to effectively communicate and comprehend the workers in their own languages, and to use non-written forms of communication or else they may convey the wrong message ,which could result with mass misunderstanding.
Short on resources. Victims of trafficking typically require shelter, medical care and psychological support, legal advice, financial assistance, and job training. NGOs and unions may not be equipped to provide the comprehensive services needed by victims.
Poverty,can be understood as the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions. Poverty is said to exist when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs. In this HYPERLINK ” context, the identification of poor people first requires a determination of what HYPERLINK ” constitutes basic needs. These may be defined as narrowly as those necessary for survival or as broadly as those reflecting the prevailing HYPERLINK ” standard of living in the community.
The globe is heating up. Both in the land areas and in oceans as they are getting warmer now than when record keeping began in 1880, and temperatures are still going upward. This temperature rise in a nutshell is what we call global warming and it results in many ecologically negative effects which make the future of our world seem like its changing to the worst. Here are some of the direct effects of global warming:-
Arctic ice HYPERLINK ” glaciers are melting due to the rise in temperature resulting in the sea levels rising rapidly, HYPERLINK ” cloud forests are dying and this causes deforestation, as well as HYPERLINK ” wild life is scrambling to keep pace. It has become clear that humans have caused most of the past century’s warming by HYPERLINK ” releasing heat-trapping gases as we power our modern lives and life style. Identified as green house gases, their levels are HYPERLINK ” higher at persent than at any time in the lasts few centuries. The main catalyst of today’s warming is the use and burning of fossil fuels which create these hydro carbons that heat up the planet by means of HYPERLINK ” the green house effect, which is caused by the interaction between HYPERLINK ” Earth’s atmosphere and with incoming radiation from the sun. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, humans have been at a rate changing the balance of gases with in the atmosphere. Burning fossil fuels like coal and oil releases harmful gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) which could be classified as HYPERLINK ” the primary greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide is the most common of the green house gases. Years ago and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, its presence in the atmosphere amounted to about 280 parts per million ppm. Today, HYPERLINK ” it’s about 400 ppm now this number means there are 400 molecules of carbon dioxide in the air per every million air molecules and its still increasing at an alarming rate and this is exactly what made the world countries have a summit or meeting in Paris, France in 2017 in order to see alternative measures to the current environmental crisis and for the main part it was working except when the president of the United states, Mr Donald Trump declared that the United states will not participate in the terms stated in the meeting ,and proceeded later to reopen coal operated power plants which are in reality only making thing a lot worse for the United states ecosystems and local environment as well as increase the amount of direct heat in the areas as the Ozone layer weaken further.
Child abuse could be identified as Any recent act or failure to act on the part or on behalf of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or serious emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation; or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm and child abuse could be classified into several types or forms which are :-
Physical abuse is understood as a non accidental physical injury ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death as a result of punching, beating, kicking, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting with a hand, stick, strap and the list goes on or otherwise harming a child, that is inflicted by a parent, care giver, or other person put in charge of that minor or child.
Sexual abuse which is understood as anything that includes activities by a parent or caregiver towards a child, such as fondling a child’s genitals, penetration, incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials.
Psychological abuse or emotional abuse is a pattern of behavior that impairs or deteriorates a child’s emotional development or sense of self worth to the point that they become suicidal as an after math.
Abandonment could be defined in many as a form of neglect. In general, a child is considered or presumed to be abandoned when the parent’s or care giver’s identity or whereabouts are unknown, as the child has been left alone in such circumstances where the child may suffer serious harm, or the parent has failed to maintain contact constantly with the child or provide reasonable parental support for a specified period of time.
Neglect is the failure of a parent, guardian, or other caregiver to provide for a child’s basic needs. Neglect may be: – Physical in the sense of failure to provide necessary food or shelter, or lack of appropriate care – Medical in the sense of failure to provide necessary medical or mental health treatment required by the child 2 – Educational in the sense of failure to educate the child or attend to special education needs if required – Emotional in the sense of inattention to the child’s emotional needs, failure to provide psychological care, or permitting the child to use alcohol or other drugs. Sometimes the cultural values, the standards of care in the community, and poverty may contribute to maltreatment of the child and an extremely dysfunctional up bringing.
Bales, K., 2014, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, University of California Press.
David A. Feingold, 2010, ‘Trafficking in Numbers’ in P. Andreas and K. M. Greenhill (eds.) Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts, London: Cornell University Press.
Goodey, J., 2008, Human trafficking: Sketchy data and policy responses, Criminology and Criminal Justice, Vol. 8, No. 4, p.421-442, Online available at:
The world Bank, 2018,Going Above And Beyond To End Poverty: New Ways Of Measuring Poverty Shed New Light On The Challenges Ahead,www.world bank.org
Angela Lusigi, 2017, Eradicate poverty everywhere,www.undp.org
Out reach international, 2018, 5 Ways to Fight Poverty, outreach-international.org
HYPERLINK ” Pappas” Stephanie Pappas, 2017, What Is Global Warming?, www.livescience.com
Christina Nunez, 2018, Causes and effects of climate change, national geographic.com
Child help, 2018,The issue of child abuse, child help.org
Psychology today, 2018, Child abuse, psychology today.com
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