The Development of Machine Translation Essay
The Development of Machine Translation
Introduction What is machine translation? Simply put, machine translation is the application of computer text from one natural language into another natural language text translation. The translation climax in the history of China again and again set off, the translation of Buddhist scriptures in the Eastern Han to the Tang and Song dynasties, the Ming and Qing technology translation and the Opium War to the May Fourth Movement “to promote the progress of history. Today, the advent of the global information age is the translation climax conditions, requirements, involved in the field of computer science, mathematics, linguistics.
However, the science of translation career how? Effects? How we will develop and make progress? In this paper, a review of the development of machine translation, disadvantages, role and prospects of superficial discussion, to answer these questions. i. A history of the development of machine translation The 17th century French philosopher, mathematician Descartes and the German mathematician Leibniz put forward the idea of using the machine dictionary overcome language barriers.
In 1946, the world’s first electronic computer was born, after 50 years of development, through the tortuous road success, there are setbacks, presented numerous challenges for researchers. Machine translation potential social and economic benefits, some Western countries as well as Japan and other countries have spent a lot of R & D, machine translation into the boom by its start-up period of the trough, the recovery period and make showing unprecedented prosperous and developed. The following is a brief overview of the various periods of its development.
That is start-up period (1947 to 1954), Trough period (1954 to 1975), Recovery period (1975 to 1989),Prosperous Period. ii. The problem of machine translation The machine translation prosperity does not mean it does not have any problems. According to statistics, machine translation with human translation, translation accuracy and readability is less than 70%, many ways, there are a large number of problems, yet computer, language experts and machine translation users to jointly overcome.
Opened the translation history at a glance the criterion the eyes of the beholder, the wise see wisdom. Three Kingdoms period “follow essentially, Gavin ornaments” East Jindao An “best of Record, not so prejudicial statements were made tour word” Tang Xuan Zang, neither shall seek the truth, and shall Yu vulgar “to modern Yan Fu”, “letter the relentless pursuit of Dayak Chinese “letter, Fu Lei” quite similar “,” environment “of Qian Zhongshu Gu Zhengkun” best approximation “.
Tytler’s “three principles” abroad, the famous translator Nida’s “dynamic equivalence” the the fee Road Rove equivalents’, otherwise Gorlee, “alleged” meaning on qualitative “quantity. ” But are all demanding translation standards. The machine is translated as a translation, of course, should pay attention to the quality of the translation. The translation quality of machine translation can understand and loyalty, it is difficult to achieve the ideal standard. These examples to illustrate (1) The erroneous translation of part of speech and meaning.
These problems with the machine error on the part of speech, meaning Discrimination are inseparable. Once the parts of speech in this connection vocabulary to syntax bridge is the wrong resolution, the translation will be wrong. Therefore, it is the wrong resolution mistranslation phenomenon should arouse the attention of machine translation researchers. (2)Adverbial wrong translation Of mistranslation. Such as the num ber and type of vehi2cles be misinterpreted as such a number of types of vehicles. Comparative sentence mistranslation.
“The earlier a smog alert can be issued, the greater its effectiveness is as it al2low s … ” were wrongly translated: “constitutes more time this smoke alarm can be as early as issued, the greater its efficiency as it does allow …… “and the correct translation should be:” the sooner the alarm, the greater the role, because it will make the … Sketch word mistranslated. Small words, such as articles, conjunctions, English is not fluent in English. Chinese On the contrary, they become redundant, this machine translation can not be a good conversion.
On these issues, there have been a lot of research, but always simple description, do not be traced. I believe that the key to these problems is not a simple computer program driving hard to the issue of slavery, but the context of the language itself is not a thorough analysis, we should ponder the question is how to make the machine with minimum knowledge. How to make the long-term accumulated cultural knowledge to penetrate into the machine translation. When they make the machine and from the search context, and in a certain culture play a role in its translation, what will?
Mentioned Context, we can get some inspiration from the M alinow ski and Firth, Firth linguist’s task should be to study the “text” language phenomenon and its context combination, machine translation is the translation of a natural language another natural language should be set analysis, Discrimination select processing as an integrated process, asked to do “,” Shindaya. Gave us think of fruitRevelation, “the word of the keys on the piano, alone has no effect. Keep context together makes sense. “
Another factor is the cultural context. Firth social scene decided to play social role social role is limited. Therefore, the social scene is also limited. Event enables the machine translation “These limited role in society, the social scene analysis processing, translation will be able to improve the” understandability “credibility” and “While this robot suspected, but this is the trend. Since the machine translation represents the high-tech should be a breakthrough in the current information age. ii. The role of machine translation.
Machine translation through a “saddle-type” process, PaulDeposit and flourish, today turned into a tool, the reasonIt is its role in promoting. (1)Promote social progress Human leave no stone unturned to develop and complete a machine. Is translation systems, has developed a translation software, promoted by Economic development, social progress, eliminating the language in the world among people Introduction obstacles, communicate with the entire world. (2) Improve translation efficiency With the machine translation research has improved continuously, the field of translation achieved unprecedented success.
In our translation work, We can make use of a variety of translation systems or software to complete the translation task, Samples can improve the speed and accuracy of the translation, translation efficiency. (3) Promote the development of other areas Machine translation to get involved in mathematics, computer science, linguistics, translation Science and other multi-discipline areas need strong development of these disciplines, substantial based on the outcome, so as to promote the development of these areas.
Fourth, the outlook on the prospects for machine translation. The birth of the machine translation system, especially to people translation, who brought hope. Although machine translation the understandability and loyalty also not ideal, but if the mathematics, computer science, translation studies and language science and other researchers in the field of work together, will make the machine translation out more beautiful flowers, bear more fruit.
In the above mentioned, if the context of the language environment and cultural context for consideration in the process of programming, will be able to make the translation discourse stronger language three functions, namely the concept of function, people interpersonal function and textual function was more prominent. It is also the author most would like to suggest, hope, serve role. It should be believed that through the tireless efforts of many researchers make machine translation. Having been properly developed, thus will be able to promote vigorous translation cause development.