The Determinants of Health Problems and Potential Interventions on the Example of a Relative with Type 2 Diabetes

My uncle is a forty-five year old African-American male who has type 2 diabetes. He is an overweight male who has a general equivalency diploma (GED). He has lived in Brooklyn, New York for the past twenty-five years. My uncle resides in East Flatbush Brooklyn, New York, and diabetes is the third top reasons of death within that neighborhood. (NYC Health, 2015, p. 12). Some of the common characteristics of diabetes that pertains to my uncle are his age, gender, race, income, and education level.

According to Ruberto, Brissette, Spence, & Mills (n.d.) stated the “prevalence of diabetes among New York State (NYS) adults between the ages of 45 and 64years is 12.0%” (p. 9). The “prevalence of diabetes among New York State (NYS)” males are 8.9% (Ruberto et al., n.d., p.10). The prevalence of non-Hispanic black adults with diabetes among New York State is 12.1% (Ruberto et al., n.d., p.13). The “prevalence of diabetes among New York State (NYS) adults” of the annual household income level of -49,999 is 9.

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3% (Ruberto et al., n.d., p.15).

Individuals that complete their GED has 11.0% “prevalence of diabetes among New York State (NYS) adults” (Ruberto et al., n.d., p.16). Determinants of the Health Problems Social determinant. The social determinants that affect individuals are location, education, socioeconomic status, and cultural (Hill, Nielsen, & Fox 2013, p.70). According to Hill et al. (2013) stated, “Moreover, the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes appear to be socially graded, as individuals with lower income and less education are 2 to 4 times more likely to develop diabetes than more advantaged individuals” (p.

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68). Behavioral determinant. The behavioral determinants are poor diet, lack of exercise, and “inadequate sleep” (Hill et al., 2013, p.70). According to Hill et al. (2013) “Over time, these physiologic reactions, coupled with detrimental psychological responses, and behavioral practices increase the likelihood of obesity and Type 2 diabetes” (p. 68). Physical determinant.

The physical determinants are the lack of access to nutritious food, and “increased automobile travel time from home” (Ershow, 2009,p.729) Environmental determinant. The environmental determinants are a lack of security and “physical activity venues” (Ershow, 2009, p.727) within the community. There are easy and cheap access fast-food outlets with large servings size (Ershow, 2009, p.728). Priority Person. The social, behavioral, physical, and environmental determinants affect my uncle. My uncle has a low income and resides in a community that essentially consists of fast-food restaurants which he consumes daily. Healthier food options are more expensive which makes it difficult for him to purchase these items. His friends and co-workers are always consuming unhealthy foods which encourages his bad habit. He resides in a community with a high crime rate and with inadequate security it is challenging to complete a thirty- minute walk around the neighborhood.

Also, his community does not have “physical activity venues” (Ershow, 2009, p.727). According to the NYC Health (2009), “Neighborhoods with high prevalence of diabetes also have high levels of diabetes risk factors, such as obesity and lack of physical exercise” (p. 2). Potential Interventions Individual-level. An individual must moderate their blood glucose by utilizing blood glucose meter, taking medication, regularly performing some form of exercise for thirty minutes, and eating healthy (World Health Organization (WHO), n.d.). Interpersonal-level. By going to the physician, the physician will measure the blood pressure, check the cholesterol level, and check blood sugar level (A1C) every three months. (NYC Health n.d., para. 2).

Organizational level. By having health insurance, it allows individuals’ access to health care (Hill et al., 2013, p.70) to monitor the progress of themselves and the disease. Community-level. By having a district’s ordinance, it provides education on purchasing and preparing healthy food, adequate access to nutritious food, and having and promoting venues to perform physical activities. Public policy-level. By having policies that allowing all individual with or without medical insurance to check blood sugar level (A1C) every three months and for patients that are confirmed diabetic to be sent to A1C Registry (NYC Health n.d.). Priority Person. The intervention that would be most beneficial for my uncle is individual- level because if he took his medication, ate healthily and exercise it would help. Taking medication, eating healthy, and exercising is a form of primary prevention because its intent is to prevent disease. It would also be secondary because the individual is screening their blood glucose with a machine. Another intervention that would be beneficial is community-level intervention because he needs education and access to nutritious food, and venues within the community to exercise. This form of intervention is primary because these are forms of prevention by promoting physical activity and education. Ethical Concerns There is one ethical concern in the public policy-level intervention which is confidentiality. The registry would be violating the patient’s privacy because they are sending the patient’s personal results information without their consent.

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The Determinants of Health Problems and Potential Interventions on the Example of a Relative with Type 2 Diabetes. (2022, Sep 20). Retrieved from

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