*** & the City

Feminist
a person who believes in and/or works toward social, economic, and political equality for women

goal of feminist inquiry and political struggle
to move towards a society that is based on the inclusion and celebration of diversity, rather than exclusion and discrimination.

Biological Sex
determined by anatomy, hormones and genetics-distinctions between male and female

Gender
socially constructed though the popular view was that it is biologically determined; we are born male and female but we learn gender through society; masculinity and femininity

Race
also a social construction- but like gender biological theories have been used. In fact, there is no one gene for race; based on outward physical features, socially defined as belonging together because of physical markers

Ethnicity
shared cultures and experiences

Class
a social category based on wealth and occupation; refers to people of the same socioeconomic level; based on job or profession as part of social status

Sexuality
behaviors and ideas/attitudes about sex; relationship between the two

Sexual Scripts
basic ideas we have about how one should engage in sexual activity; for example: men are supposed to initiate sex, men have a bigger sex drive; women are supposed to be pursued not the pursuers; etc.

Popular Culture
media disseminated to a mass audience

Feminism
there are many definitions of feminism, but generally it is considered a movement/attitude for equality between and among the sexes, not superiority of one sex over the other – equality in all realms of society

Beauty Myth
women of all ages who “buy into” the youth/beauty culture and will engage in many types of beauty regimens/rituals to obtain or maintain society’s standards of “beautiful”

Madonna/Whore Dichotomy
straddling the lines between innocence and promiscuity; childlike and innocent but sexy; women/girls have been socialized to play with their sexuality in this manner – “look but don’t touch” – one icon who set the standard for this in American culture is Marilyn Monroe

The Male Gaze
view of women through the male “lens” camera/film women are presented in an overly sexual manner in the media: magazines, films, TV, music industry to appeal to the male gaze

“good” girl
women who fit into society’s definition of a good girl, for example women who meet beauty standard expectations and are not openly promiscuous or promote that image – these women have perfected straddling the virgin/ whore dichotomy

“bad” girl
women who do NOT adhere to “good” girl standards, for example women who are overweight or do not take care of their appearance as society has indicated we do, or women who openly embrace their sexuality either in overly promiscuous dress or having many sexual partners with little discretion

Patriarchy
The universal political structure which privileges men at the expense of women; the social system which feminism is determined to destroy.

Double standard
Patriarchal moral code which sets different rules for behavior according to gender. Under the double standard, behavior condemned in a woman is accepted or even applauded in a man.

Objectification
The term describes the process of viewing women not as individual, complex persons, but as sexual objects which exist only in relation to male desire. This is done by identifying women solely with their bodies, either whole, or fragmented and fetishized as parts…