Indicate if the ff. statements hold true or INCORRECT: Just compose True or Incorrect
1.1 Life Orientation is an umbrella term that encompasses all the work that teachers should be doing with learners & & consist of school assistance, counselling & & life skills. Real
1.2 Approval is concerned with all aspects of knowing. Real
1.3 3 (3) different types of thought advancements can be differentiated. False
1.4 An extensive, prolonged career education program assists learners to acquire knowledge of who they are. True
1.5 Lindhard & & Oosthuizen distinguish between the following concepts of decision making, specifically: goals & & worth; info; solution & & choice making.
1.6 A facilitative process is where the specific take a look at his/her own interests. False
1.7 Assessment ought to just concentrate on the learner’s intellectual capabilities. False
1.8 Observation is an exploratory strategy that should belong to every educator’s role. True
1.9 The implication of the structured interview is that the job interviewer & & the student encounter each other as equivalent partners.
1.10 Individual counselling is predominantly utilized as a mode of counselling in school settings. True
Make a note of only the missing out on word/s beside the appropriate number:
2.1 In Life Skills education the Learner is the centre.
2.2 In Life Skills the material needs to exist in such a method that learners themselves achieve personalization.
2.3 Research study methods & & reading skills are categorized as Thinking abilities, & & putting together a spending plan & & writing a CV is categorized as Survival abilities.
2.4 Perception depends on the senses & & is a prerequisite for knowing.
2.5 The learner is able to go beyond reality & & enter a world of “nonreality” through the procedure of Imagination
2.6 The Composite interview method is made up of the very best aspects from the direct & & indirect interviews.
2.7 The three primary factors to consider governing a profession choice are Job description, working conditions & & Task chances.
2.8 In the choice making process the Fatalistic decider is the “whatever will be, will be” type.
How would you explain the ff. concepts to a group of parents? (Dont use more than 4 sentences to discuss each concept.) Marks will be allocated for correct interpretation of concept 
(a) Corrective teaching:
• Teacher alerts & corrects learner immediately when error is made
• Teacher creates opportunities for learner to practice corrected method & ingrain new understanding.
• If learner still cannot grasp correction then other ways of teaching the correction is implemented until learner can understand the error, & is able to correct it.
• Its hoped that by pointing out when a learner makes a mistake & showing them the correct/appropriate answer, any misgiving/misunderstanding/problems may be remedied.
(b) Educational guidance:
• A facet of guidance concerning students’ motivation to learn; the unrealistic expectations of both parents & educators; methods of study & reinforcing /assisting with academic work.
• Educators work out learners learning styles / reasons for problems / possible solutions
• Educators will take holistic approach to support learner & establish trust to facilitate learner’s progress
• Is to judge / measure learner’s performance in terms of PIES; intellectual, social, physical & emotional abilities/skills
• Assessment is done through various types of tests, questioning, portfolio-type/ project-style work.
• Assessment is the means to get to know learners as a whole to facilitate their maximum potential.
• Learning needs can be identified, & problems addressed,
• Lack of motivation can be corrected with encouragement & support of a more beneficial learning experience
• The strategy of “assessment” is a technique of recording information about the learner, relating to all the aspects mentioned above to get a holistic impression of the learner.
(d) Counselling skills:
• Counselling is getting a youngster to open up to an outsider, to relate personal information on trust.
• This process is used to uncover & direct towards beneficial guidance.
• For a youngster to be spontaneous, an easy going conversational relationship has to develop over a span of time to build trust & confidence.
• The success of this procedure depends on the counselor’s qualities & characteristics, like SCETCHER-sincerity, commitment, empathy, truthfulness, concern, sense of humor, encouragement, responsibility etc.
• Youngster must feel reassured that counselor has attributes to SPLUG solve the problem at hand, listen, understand, guide.
(e) Career education:
• To get learners involved at the young age to project long term vision, e.g. what they’d want to become 1day
• To aim for these goals with the assistance of the teacher.
• The idea is to instill in the learner awareness of strengths
• To gradually guide this journey towards the workplace well equipped with skills & work ethic to empower learners to deal with any situation successfully.
• In the senior phase of schooling learners are aided with career guidance.
• Instilling skills plays a major role in career ed because choice of a career is one of the most important lifetime decisions a learner makes.
• Is a conversational exploration between a counselor & learner during consultation,
• Assists in gaining specific information about the learner.
• Interviewer’s attitude, personality, & approach plays a major role in administering a successful interview,
• Educational trust, understanding, & authority must be displayed to give the learner comfort, security & assurance.
• The idea is to guide learner towards maturity; & help solve a problem,
• Learner must be made to feel confident enough to disclose relevant information to complete the process,
• In order to achieve a learner’s cooperation, an atmosphere that guarantees intimacy must be provided.
(g) Life skills:
• This is a holistic development of learners, to progress academically, & instill lifelong learning.
• Aim to instill traits that would develop personality characteristics, ethics, values, morals, & human outlook.
• Empowerment to embrace the challenges in life; overcoming emotional & daily stresses.
• Maturity to make rational choices & informed decisions
• To develop self & community responsibility, & serve to solve problems & pursue communal upliftment.
-explanation of the interrelatedness of these facets. 
➢ An educator’s duty is to provide a holistic guidance to a learner.
➢ In order to achieve this aim, three facets where learner needs guidance:
Personal & social guidance is a human need
Educational guidance is an umbrella covers every aspect of learning:
schoolwork; methods of learning; memorising work; & writing tests.
Vocational: is aspiration inborn in every person.
Personal, social & educational guidance are an interrelated unit which must be investigated as a partnership to address /resolve problems of a personal, social, or educational kind. Since a learner is a “whole” person, any form of crisis or problem impacts differently levels of his/her entire being. The goal of providing complete guidance to a learner is too vast & extensive to be achieved alone, hence it has to be a collective effort involving the input & services of different people for the guidance process to become an effective service. Like everything else there is strength in unity, & the united efforts of educators, parents & other role-players will bestow a powerful guidance to the learner.
L. plan on area of life-skils(LS) in personal development that students need to develop. Folo plan to teach appropriate LS.
LESSON PLAN: Social & Communication Skills
Topic/ theme / program organiser: All About Friendships
Grade:..9……………………………… Duration of lesson: .60 minutes……………………….
Lesson Objectives/Learning outcomes:
At the end of the learning process, learners should be able to:
• Learners get to know about the value of having good friendships.
• Learners recognise what makes good friendship.
• Learners realise that it is normal for friendships to change as we grow up.
• Learners acquire & portray the etiquette of how to make friends.
• Learners learn how to maintain good friendships through the tumultuous changes of adolescence.
• Learners will get to know what makes good friendships work. values)
• Learners understand that it’s good to be open to friendships with people of different cultures.
Educational media or other sources (eg. magazines, newspapers, calendars):
• Play Phones for role play
• Class, Homework, & Family Activity Worksheets
• Discussion Sheet (Copies on Next Page)
Aspects For Discussion & Structure Of Unfolding The Lesson:
Introduction: Students will be told that the principal skills in making friendships, depends on a physical approach & a mental attitude of what one believes to be a friend. It is human nature to be able to recognize or perceive someone who has the traits of being a good friend. It is also true that sometimes what you perceive is not the way it is. The idea is to first know what you’re looking for in a friend, & then to match these needs with someone whom you think seems to have the personality to reward these needs. Students will be asked to explore perceptions created about a person when confronted in different ways, eg. Pleasantly, abruptly, boisterously, roughly, etc. Formulation of a problem: Many of us have a need to “belong”, either amongst our peers, or sometimes even among family. Many times we worry about how our extended hand of friendship will be received, & this fear prevents us from making the move to take the opportunity to introduce & get to know someone. It is true that acceptance is beyond our control, but we still have to try to create friendships, & give the risk of being accepted or rebuffed a go!
Smart Recognition: The chemistry required to click into a meaningful friendship may be beyond our control, but the traits required to seal the deal so to speak is definitely within our control! Sincerity, honesty, support, encouragement, assistance, healthy entertainment, companionship are all important traits of a good friend. People automatically warm to good traits & personality characteristics, so it becomes important to harness these qualities & practice them from a young age. It’s important to recognize what qualities create good friendships & which qualities to be wary of, so as not to be duped into a newly formed relationship, which is only “posing” as a friendship.
Creating Different levels of friendships:
• Parents as friends
• Close friends
• Best friends
• Friendly acquaintances
• Platonic friendships
Tools For Meaningful Friendship:
• To be concerned about each other’s well-being.
• Being able to be open & upfront about touchy issues.
• To give good balanced advice.
• Always showing care, support, understanding, & comfort.
Methods Used to Unfold Content:
I’ll ask questions that would require deeper evaluation of the aspects featured above & use hands on activities to consolidate the information. I’ve formulated activities, & a discussion pattern to facilitate probing questions, which would require learners to reflect & think deeply about discussed issues. I’d personalise the content to make it pertinent to them, so that learners explore self-assessment as well.
Presentation of content:
A reduction of the most important facts & concepts in a board scheme:
I would facilitate opening learner’s eyes to deeper views by directing them to explore discussions, by probing questions which would promote self-assessment, & invite learners to reflect & see deeper into what personal aspects are involved in the art of communication. I’d discuss & go through the activities & worksheets with them as well.
Presentation of Learner Activities:
Phase 1: After an introduction to the content of the lesson, each aspect would be highlighted, & a discussion would be opened to the class, infusing opinions, personal experiences, fears, desires, thoughts etc. on the particular aspect. I would pause them intermittently to bring an issue to attention by asking related questions from the discussion sheet, & probing discussions in which learners would engage in during the lesson activity.
Phase 2: A role play relating to the aspects would be carried out to realize the content & consolidate information acquired during the discussions.
Phase 3: Individual & more personal activities requiring intimate reflection would be done as homework.
Note: Learners would be encouraged to share the outcomes of these activities with each other. They would give a report as part of their Homework Written Activity to discuss their experiences & what they enjoyed about the theme.
Conclusion: Prepared Learner Activities to follow:
There are five class activities formulated around each aspect of the theme, & a reflective consolidation activity, along with a “family activity” formulated as homework assignments. A note to the parents is attached with this activity. The questions I will pose during the discussion with the class; my input; & instruction for each of the activities, is attached to a worksheet formulated for the learner’s orientation of each aspect.
P.S. An example of these activities follows after the description of my assessment for the lesson.
I’ll assess learners during group activities within their respective groups; their interaction during brainstorming, role-playing, & class discussions. I’ll do individual assessments on the Activity Worksheets, & the written homework activity. I’ll assess their attitude, etiquette during interaction, (giving each other a chance to air their views etc.), & will make notes of their weaknesses; to be addressed with them privately. I’d be able to assess quick perception, depth of thinking, & comprehension of the content, as well as their understanding of the emotional & moral issues related theme.
• Homework Activity
• A Learner – parent involvement activity to be sent home with learners:
Introducing you to the purpose of guidance and counselling and life skills in order to make education relevant to learners to fulfil their needs and expectations.
1.2 Support Base:
Learners are faced with problems – major/minor – they need help dealing with them. May not be able to avoid pitfalls of problem situations if they are not given the proper support & guidance. Guidance, counselling & development of life skills can contribute to the educational process in such a way that learners are able to make informed decisions about their lives.
Guidance & Counselling & the Development of life Skills: an Educational Support Base
1.3 Guidance, counselling & life skills:
– should be made available to learners at – preprimary, primary and secondary school levels
– School Guidance and Counselling and Life Skills collectively represent:
– Life Orientation – umbrella term encompassing all the work that teachers should be doing with their learners.
“Life Orientation: We live in a rapidly changing society. To cope with these challenges, learners need to develop life skills. Life Orientation includes the building of self-esteem, survival skills and healthy lifestyle.”
From here on S.G.C = School Guidance & Counselling
S.G.C – helps children to – get to know themselves
– become acquainted with different careers – deal with academic problems – teaches children to deal with situations in their lives
Draft NCS (2001:16)
Learning Outcome 1: learner is able to make informed decisions abt, PEC
Learning Outcome 2 : leaner is able to demonstrate an active commitment to CSS constitutional rights
Learning Outcome 3: learner is able to use acquired life skills to achieve and extend personal potential so that they can respond effectively to challenges in their world.
Learning Outcome 4: learner is able to demonstrate an understanding of & participate in activities that promote movement & physical development.
Learning Outcome 5: learner is able to make informed choices & decisions about further study & career options.
1.4 School guidance and Counselling (SGC)
• Vision, nature & aims of SGC are interrelated & totally dependent on each other, exist because of one another & through each other
• Life skills, guidance, & counselling are all-encompassing, interdependent in achieving the Goal of building up life skills in a learner.
1.4.1 Vision of School guidance & counselling:
• Vision – dream held by a person or institution, underlying reason for the person or institution’s existence
• Vision of SGC = to create a healthy society
1.4.2 Nature of School guidance & counselling:
1.4.3 Aims of School guidance & counselling:
1.5 Obj’s & perf. outcomes of School guidance & counselling:
• School guidance teacher knows that the learner finds themselves in different situations in the learning environment & life in general:
– educational situation
– personal situation
– career situation
* Performance Outcomes give tangible results.
|Differential education |Future-oriented education | – system based on principle that learners vary so vastly in their|- learners will be taught the necessary skills for their future | abilities, aptitudes & interests that they will not all benefit |survival & well-being | from a uniform method of education
1. guidance, counselling & life skills are concerned with guiding the learner (guiding the learner)
2. understanding the learner as a total
being (learner as a total being)
3. comprehending that the learner is a relational being who will need assistance in developing relationships ( learner as a rational being)
4. supporting the learner in the real world (leaner in reality)
1.Guiding the learner (S.C.O.A.F.)
S – securing
C – confronting
O – orienting
A – allowing
F – facilitating
2. Pg 14 – Learner – total human being – whole learner (S.P.A.N.C.C)
S – social
P – physical
A – affective
N – normative
C – conative
C – cognitive
3. Pg 16 Leaner as a rational being (S.O.O.T.)
S – self
O – others
O – objects
T – The Other (Superior Being)
4. The learner in reality
counselling relationship, assessment & observation
* dev of life skills – holistic approach
– specific areas of focus
Principles of personal & social guidance
1. Indiv uniqueness
Modes of learning
2. Paying attention
Eight Problem Areas (Learning Problems)
2. Attention deficits
3. Reading problems
4. Counting problems
5. Mathematical Problems
6. Language deficiencies
8. Emotional instability
Figure 2.1 shows the interrelatedness of the
functions of the three guidance facets.
• The three sides of the triangle are equal, → each facet is equally important.
• triangle also shows – boundaries of each guidance facet – not always definable → may overlap.
2.2.1 Personal and social guidance
• learners need it, sometimes lonely, indecisive, etc.
• convert negative feelings into positives
• Develop a positive self image
*Crises a learner can experience: (necessitate personal guidance)
• Death of parent/sibling
• Changing schools
• Violence in home or community
• Physical abuse
– interact with learners, educators, parents, siblings and other members of the community, which is a form of social guidance.
– Although these forms of interaction may result in social and emotional satisfaction, they can also lead to:
• Disruptive behaviour and activities in class
• Physical fights and name-calling
Any kind of behavioural disorder needs social guidance.
All the problems we have mentioned are of a personal and social nature. Although guidance in general is usually carried out in a group situation, personal and social guidance is usually conducted on a one-to-one basis (ie between the individual learner and the educator or guidance counsellor) because of its personal nature (Petrick 1986:73).
2.2.2 Educational guidance
Educational guidance needs to take note of the following issues:
• Study methods
• Academic assistance and reinforcement of academic work
• Parents’ unrealistic expectations
• Educators’ unrealistic expectations
• Learners’ motivation to learn
Educational problems don’t occur in isolation – when offering educational assistance – consider other facets like: person himself/herself, peers, the home, school and community
2.2.3 Vocational guidance
Learner as a unique person, should be guided to make a realistic career choice. – should be started at primary school level – learner become familiar with the concept “the workplace” Emphasis at primary school level – exploring work opportunities rather than a specific selection of work.
2.3 Principles of personal & social guidance
• educator must be learner on a personal level of support – so all aspects v learner eligibility
• four principles of personal and social counseling rests: individual uniqueness, acceptance, association, meeting Four principles on which p & s guidance rest:
1. Indiv uniqueness
Educators should always take the following factors into consideration:
• Physical weakness can lead to poor coordination and lack of endurance.
• Learners may isolate themselves from their peers because of physical weakness. They may hide behind books, but inwardly long for more social contact.
• Physical differences, especially when learners feel inferior, may cause a learner to develop a poor self-image.
• Learners may need to be taught how to accept themselves.
• Learners at this stage of development are keenly interested in their appearance. They generally
have strong feelings about puberty and adolescence, and often want to ask a lot of questions.
The educator plays an important role in observing and identifying problems. Be alert for some of the ff:
• symptoms that indicate physical exhaustion
• signs that the learner may not be receiving proper care at home
• a careless attitude towards personal hygiene
• indications that the learner is overweight or undernourished
• any sign that may suggest physical abuse
• any indication of a negative body image or negative self-image
Educators should, therefore, focus on the following issues:
• gross motor ability and fine motor ability
• the ability to spot similarities and differences between objects
• visual memory
• understanding of relationships such as up, behind, in front of, under
• whether the learner is easily distracted
• whether the learner can repeat what he or she has heard
2.9 Modes of learning
The function of educational guidance is to support the learner in the learning process. Before any educator can endeavour to offer educational guidance, he or she needs to understand the different modes of learning. We will now look briefly at the seven different modes of learning.
The process can be presented schematically in the following way:
Modes of learning
9. Paying attention
Eight Problem Areas (Learning Problems)
10. Attention deficits
11. Reading problems
12. Counting problems
13. Mathematical Problems
14. Language deficiencies
16. Emotional instability
2.16 Career education programmes
a. One practical way of helping them is to provide career education in the form of a career education programme from an early age.
b. The educator should instil a sense of “calling” in their learners.
c. we need to make learners aware that they have to make career development choices at appropriate times in their educational careers (Mwamwenda 1995:473).
d. This task is a difficult one for the educator and it is further complicated by the fact that the workplace is changing all the time.
• Each new invention means that a new occupation is created or an old one
is no longer necessary.
• Eighty percent of careers that will dominate in the year 2020 probably do not even exist today. People’s needs are also changing and the nature of occupations must change in order to supply those needs.
Let us take a look at the following points on career education before we look at how you, the educator, can go about providing career guidance.
➢ Career education is a purposeful endeavour and not merely an attitude or point of view.
➢ It is a programme that begins in grade one and continues into adulthood.
➢ It is a programme for all learners.
➢ Career education stresses that education prepares the learner for the workplace.
➢ Vocational guidance is one aspect of career education, but the terms are not synonymous.
➢ The subject, Career Education, should form part of the whole teaching programme and should not be seen as an addition to a learner’s education. This means that career education is a far broader
➢ concept than vocational training. It is an educational programme aimed at giving the developing learner appropriate guidance and counselling so that he or she may make the necessary choices and so eventually arrive at self-actualisation and job satisfaction.
➢ You may not think that your learning programme or subject has much to do with careers. If so, you are going to have to undergo a major mind shift. Curriculum 2005 (1997:3) states: “Soon all South Africans will be active, creative, critical thinkers living productive and fulfilling lives.”
• the new curriculum prepares learners for an active life in a career or in employment.
• prepare them for such a life while you are transferring knowledge about your learning programme or subject.
2.16.1 Theoretical basis for providing career education
a few basic categories which form the foundation of a career education programme.
We refer to the learner as a person in the world who should be evaluated
according to the following anthropological categories:
▪ being in the world of significance
▪ being someone in your own right.
*** temporality and being someone in your own right NB to career education.
A person is a creature of time who is constantly planning for the future and trying to bring those plans to fruition.
(a) Hope for the future
(b) Task of designing possibilities
(c) Fulfilment of destiny
184.108.40.206 To be someone in your own right
A person is part of a community but also has the desire to be someone in his or her own right. This is a general human phenomenon and so the individual is committed to cultivating his or her own unique way of being in the world.
We will now briefly examine each of these and see how they relate to career education.
(a) Respect for one’s dignity
(b) Task of self-understanding
(c) Freedom for responsibility
We summarise these principles and the implication for career education in table 2.3.
2.17 A career education programme
Career education is a systematic, educational programme which helps learners to choose a career and will provide them with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge needed for survival and progress in the workplace.
a career education programme will cover the following fields:
▪ awareness of careers
▪ decision-making skills
Many learners do not have enough knowledge about themselves to make an important decision like deciding on a career. An intensive, extended career education programme helps learners to gain knowledge of who they are in terms of nature, personality, ability and values. Self-awareness is, therefore, gained through a gradual process of self-exploration which starts as soon as the learner enters the early childhood development phase and continues through the senior primary years and into the senior secondary phase. It is during this final phase that the learner needs to decide on an occupation.
The exploratory techniques used in a self-awareness programme,
* dependent on the developmental stage of the learner
* geared to help the learner to arrive at a clearer definition of his or her:
▪ physical abilities and limitations
▪ intellectual prospects
▪ social skills
2.17.2 Career and job awareness
choice of an occupation – begins when the learner chooses subjects
essential that educators and parents become involved in the career and job awareness process.
Learners should choose subjects and careers – can be self-employed / number
of career options are open to them. Learners should not choose subjects which will limit their career opportunities.
How to implement career education
• Orientation of careers
• Considerations governing a career choice
• Basic aims of career education
• How to collect career information
• Guidelines for educators
220.127.116.11 Orientation of careers
(a) General orientation
(b) Specific orientation
(c) Orientation in respect of the economy
(d) Orientation in respect of occupational choices
18.104.22.168 Considerations governing a career choice
three main considerations governing a career choice:
a) job description
b) working conditions
c) job opportunities
(a) Job description
It is important to ask questions such as the following:
• What does the work entail?
• What are the responsibilities, tasks and duties?
• What is the nature of the work?
(b) Working conditions
(c) Job opportunities
22.214.171.124 Basic aims of career education
The basic aim of a career programme is based on the following statements:
• You must be prepared for life.
• You need to live up to expectations.
• Circumstances can change and you have to make the necessary adjustments.
• You have to have a positive attitude towards work.
• You must do your own work.
• You can work together with others.
• You can choose your work.
• Work is honourable.
• All work is important.
• It is a privilege to work.
• Good work is rewarded.
• You value work that is done for you.
by the time the learner reaches the stage of making a career choice:
• an awareness of personal skills and abilities
• an ability to make decisions independently
• access to opportunities that build self-knowledge
• skills to be able to make meaningful choices
• a great measure of self-fulfilment
126.96.36.199 How to collect career information
the media teacher (school librarian), parents, other teachers, learners and people in our community can assist learners to collect information.
How then can information be collected?
• Learners with the same aptitudes and interests could form a group and try to obtain information about a particular group of careers
• Parents and the community at large There are a large number of media-related sources that can be consulted.
• centre has subject literature on careers. The Department of Labour issues a comprehensive guide to literature about careers; write to them and request a copy of this guide.
• Audiovisual media Pamphlets and brochures on specific careers and vocations may be collected.
• Newspapers and periodicals
Narrative literature (stories)
• Outside institutions:
➢ Department of Labour
➢ South African Defence Force
➢ Human Sciences Research Council
➢ universities, technikons and technical colleges
➢ private guidance centres
➢ employment agencies
➢ take learners to a career exhibition.
188.8.131.52 Guidelines for educators
We have only included a few guidelines, so please feel free to add to the list.
• Educators often only have one period per week for career education. You can use this time to deal with specific topics. Do not forget that your topic must be relevant to the age level of the learner. You should do a needs analysis before deciding what you will cover with the learners.
• The educator in the intermediate and senior phases should consider himself or herself as a facilitator.
• Make use of small group discussions, depending on the topic you are dealing with and the maturity level of the learners.
• Give learners opportunities to work on projects or to go on excursions. Encourage your learners to gain work experience related to specific careers.
• Guide the learner on a future course of study and the career options that he or she may follow as a result of the particular course of study by conducting individual interviews with each learner.
• Learners should also be aware of what educational qualifications are necessary for different jobs and professions. At the early childhood stage you need not go into too much detail; simply help learners to understand that certain jobs have different requirements or require more years of study than others.
• Learners can visit different working environments such as banks, industries, farms and business and commercial centres, as part of the career programme.
• You can ask individuals, including parents, to talk to the learners about their
• Ask the learners to list their parents’ occupations; you could even include their relatives or other people they know. Ask them to explain the nature of these occupations in detail. You can ask them what kind of work they would like to do and why (Mwamwenda 1995:473). As the learning programme educator, you need to understand the value of your subject. The skills which you teach via your learning programme will more than likely help the learner in his or her future life. At the very least, your learners should know what skills are needed in different professions.
*** choice of school, subjects and career are central in the intermediate and senior phases, we will briefly discuss decision making in the next section.
2.17.3 Decision making
A decision is a choice between different solutions to a problem.
– a mental process or activity which involves the mind.
– Decision making abilities can be improved with practice
– always involves a choice.
– Choice → the act of choosing
– “decision” means to make up your mind.
Learners need to be taught how to arrive at a decision.
We should distinguish between:
▪ simple decisions, with no or little influence on the future (“Shall I go to the party?”, “What shall I wear to the party?”) AND
▪ complex decisions, which are usually very important for the future (choosing subjects, choosing a career).
184.108.40.206 Decision-making styles
numerous ways in which people make decisions. Here are a few examples:
▪ The paralysis decider – he is the “I just cannot face it” type.
▪ The intuitive decider – she is the “it feels right” type.
▪ The agonising decider – he is the “I cannot make up my mind” type.
▪ The compliant decider – she is the “tell me and I will do it” type.
▪ The delaying decider – he is the “I will think about it tomorrow” type.
▪ The fatalistic decider – she is the “whatever will be, will be” type.
▪ The systematic decider – he is the “I am systematic and organised” type.
220.127.116.11 Principles for decision making
four principles of decision making:
▪ Aims and value. The objective has to be determined. What do you want to achieve?
▪ Information. Collect as much information as possible that will influence the decision. The various possibilities have to be weighed against each other.
▪ Solutions. Write down as many solutions as you can. The possible solutions have to be sought out, particularly since some may not be immediately apparent.
▪ Decision. Decide which is the best solution. Test the solution against the aims and values. Also test the solutions for any consequences by asking the following questions, for example: “Is it possible to carry out this solution?”, “Is it the best solution in the long term?”, “How will I be affected and will it also affect others?” The decision is then made and action is taken.
Learners – consider – when making their decisions:
▪ Which options are available?
▪ Will my choice affect me personally or will I have to compromise in matters of conscience, people or feelings?
▪ Will my decision hurt my families and friends?
▪ Once I have made my decision, will I be able to live with my decision?
NB: learner be given the opportunity to acquire decision-making skills. learner must practise, but first he or she must know the rules. The more the learner practises the easier it becomes for him or her to solve the problems and make the right decisions.
|P |T |S |S | |S |S |A |C | |A |C |C |W |
1. Personal skills: (S.A.)
• Assertiveness and how to say NO
2. Thinking skills: (S.C.)
• Study/memory skills
• Creative skills
3. Social & Communication skills: (A.C.)
• Ability to make friends
• Communication/listening skills
4. Survival Skills: (C.W.)
• Compiling a personal budget
• Writing a CV
1.Personal skills (S.A.)
– basis of personal life skills – element of self-discovery
– self-discovery/awareness – dependent on dev. of no. of personal skills
• Self-knowledge (Socrates’ – self-knowledge is indispensable)
• DEFN: – insight that people have into their own personalities that enables them to know what they are capable or incapable of doing or reaching – picture we have of ourselves – everything we think & know abt ourselves
1. basis of self-reliance, maturity & confidence
2. NB when making decisions
3. self-knowledge leads to self-identity formation – hinges on question: Who am I? & therefore on the learners’ cognitive attribution
4. choices a person makes throughout their life depend on answer to the “Who am I?” question.
• Assertiveness and how to say NO
|Nonassertive behaviour (N.A.) |Aggressive behaviour (Ag.) |Assertive behaviour (As.) | Passive & direct |complex |Active, direct & honest | |Msg. of inferiority |Active/passive |Person views wants, needs & rights equal to those of| Direct/indirect |others | Honest/dishonest | You don’t respect your own right to express your ideas, needs, wants, feelings or opinions
|Honestly state feelings without denying your right to express yourself or denying the rights of others to be respected |Impression of superiority & disrespect →victim, not winner
*Difference bet. assertive & aggressive behaviour = lies mainly in whether any damage is caused or not.
2.Thinking skills (S.C.)
1. when a person is thinking they are actually forming connected ideas – connection forms bet. what we already know & what we are now learning
2. Thinking – seen as giving meaning to situations & events by a person, in which the person is involved
3. Thinking skills – those skills that help a person to exercise the mind – help a person to make better plans, think in a more original way & come up with more interesting explanations for things that have already happened.
• Study/memory skills
• Creative skills
1. person’s ability to make something new i.e. something that did not exist before
2. an acquired intellectual skill aimed at generating new ideas that may be more useful than previous ones
3.Social & Communication skill (A.C.)
• Ability to make friends
• Communication/listening skills
4. Survival Skills (C.W.)
• Compiling a personal budget
• Writing a CV
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