Technical and Vocational Education for Male Essay
Technical and Vocational Education for Male
Females in Pakistan tend to be less visible with respect to their enrolment in education, labour force participation and contribution to economic activities. Pakistan is a labour-intensive economy with a high demand for skilled manpower. It is noteworthy that current female participation in the labour force is merely 26. 48 percent and stands at the lowest among neighbouring countries in the region (World Development Indicators, The World Bank, 2008). This demand for skilled labour can only be met through increased participation of females in the labour force and the need still remains to equip them with relevant skills.
Ownership of institutes within the public sector do not fall under one purview but rather come under the Technical Education & Vocational Training Authorities (TEVTAs), Directorate of Manpower Training, Directorate of Technical Education, Pakistan Bait-ul-Maal, Fauji Foundation, Social Welfare Special Education & Women Development Department, Industries and Commerce Department and training centres established under the armed forces. It is found that there are 442 public sector female institutes, out of which 397 are vocational and 27 technical institutes.
In these institutes 129 different types of trades are being offered and 2,590 teachers are associated with these institutions. Presently, 74,112 females are enrolled in the morning shift while enrolment in the afternoon shift is just 16,856. The reason for lower enrolment in the afternoon shift is attributed to a fewer number of courses being offered in the afternoon shift.
In general, females have less access to Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Females (TVET) than males but in our case, cumulative enrolment for females is higher than males. Further break-up shows that vocational institutes for females have a higher number of trainees than males while the opposite is true for technical institutes (see appendix).
The aggregated student-to-teacher ratio for females and males is 35:1 and 12:1, respectively. Moreover, average number of teacher per institute is 6. 0 for females and 15. 0 for males. Female enrolment levels with respect to course type is highest in short and certificate level courses with aggregate share of (68.68%) followed by Diploma in Associate Engineering (DAE) (0. 83%), vocational diploma (8. 49%), G-II level (0. 10%) and G-III level (3. 04%).
There are 27 DAE courses recognised by the federal government, however, only five different kinds of DAE courses are being taught, which include electronics, architecture, ceramics, food technology, and computer information technology. Furthermore, enrolment in DAE level courses is well below the total installed capacity thus, demonstrating that it is less popular among the country’s females.
Out of 442 institutes, only four do not have any classroom, 105 have no computing facilities, 96 are lacking in laboratory/workshop facility and 270 institutes have insufficient equipment and teaching materials. By and large, males have better access to classrooms, laboratory/workshop and computing facilities. On an average, the number of classrooms per female institute is 4. 0 as compared to 5. 0 for males. Similarly, computing machines per institute for females are 4 against 16 for males and availability of laboratory/workshop per institute is 1.
0 for females as opposed to 5. 0 for males. Comparing the relevance of courses by major industrial divisions, percentage of courses related to community, social and personal services (46. 86%) is highest followed by manufacturing (29. 04%), handicraft (15. 98%) and the rest of the sector (8. 12%). As compared to this, the Labour Force Survey reports that the percentage of employed female labour force by economic sectors is as follows: agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing 68. 84%, manufacturing 14. 52% and community, social and personal services 13. 57% (See Appendix).
In terms of geographical coverage, 191 (48%) tehsils have at least one public sector female institute. In the light of our analysis regarding TVET institutional set up for females in the country, certain policy measures are required in recognition of the particular needs and issues discussed as above. Policy Implications Policy involves the prioritisation of resources across different segments of the society and the range of sectors. Signifying that TVET system in Pakistan is non-responsive to the labour market, having little or no relationship to the industry and suffering from the absence of clear, coherent policy and strategy.?
It is necessary to understand the relationship between expected labour market outcomes and investment on female training. The returns from training females in Pakistan are more complex because their participation and labour supply is usually more variable than males. Owing to their domestic roles and socio-cultural factors, females are more likely to experience temporary or permanent withdrawal from the labour force. However, the returns to female training (measured as effect on wages) appear to be quite high. Females receiving any type of vocational training receive 8. 0% higher wages than those with no vocational training.
Vocational training in Information Technology (IT) has an even more pronounced effect and females receiving such training can earn 18% higher wages than those with no training (Skill Development in India, The World Bank, 2005). ? The scope of technical education and vocational training should be expanded to areas with relatively low coverage, under-served rural and peri-urban areas. ? There is a need to initiate and expand an information/media campaign covering a range of issues like access, economic opportunities, trades related to females, which will ultimately give an economic boost.
? More active coordination of existing programmes should be materialised among various stakeholders and training providers. ? In places where traditional beliefs cause parents to be reluctant in sending their daughters to institutes/school, the media should be used as a tool for spreading awareness to promote the benefits of equipping the females with skills. ? New advanced technological trades should be introduced with content relevant to regional qualifications, which will ultimately be translated into income-generation activities.
? It is encouraged to take positive steps in ensuring the participation of females and assigning them priorities in existing policies and new programmes. ? It shall be an onus to develop training and capacity building programmes to increase females’ participation in TVET. ? Female skill development should not focus on traditional trades alone as higher returns may be associated with non-traditional trades. ? The scope of TVET trades for females should be broadened by introducing new trades (both at the technical and vocational level).
? Female TVET institutes are smaller in number and probably attract low budgetary provisions. References ? Survey of TVET Institutes, 2007, National Vocational & Technical Education Commission, Islamabad ? Skill Development in India, 2005, The Vocational Education & Training System, The World Bank. ? World Development Indicators, 2008, The World Bank Appendix |Table 1: Teaching Strength | | |Female |Male | |Teaching Strength |2590 |6823 | |Number of Institutes |442 |454 | |Average number of teachers per institute |6. 00 |15. 00|.
Source: National Vocational & Technical Education Commission (2007), Islamabad |Table 2: Stream-wise Institutes | |Stream |Female |Male | |Not Classified |280 |888 | |Commerce |1,997 |22,129 | |Technical |4,552 |52,251 | |Vocational |84,139 |9,817 | |Total |90,968 |85,085 | Source: National Vocational & Technical Education Commission (2007), Islamabad |Table 3: Enrolment by Industry Divisions | |No. |Major Industrial Division |Enrolment |TVET Enrolment |Employed Females by Industry | | | |(Nos. ) |by Industry Sectora |Groups | | | | | |(10 Years of Age & Above)b | | | | |% Share |% Share | |1.
|Agriculture, Forestry, Hunting and Fishing |136 |0. 15 |68. 84 | |2. |Community, Social & Personal Services |42,630 |46. 86 |13. 57 | |3. |Electricity, Gas, Petroleum & Water |- |0. 00 |0. 02 | |4. |Construction |740 |0. 81 |0. 41 | |5. |Financing, Insurance, Real Estate & Business |3,526 |3. 88 |0. 19 | | |Services | | | | |6. |Handicraft |14,537 |15. 98 |- | |7. |Manufacturing |26,420 |29. 04 |14. 54 | |8. |Transport, Storage & Communication |28 |0. 03 |0. 32 | |9. |Mining & Quarrying |- |- |0. 01 | |10. |Whole Sale & Retail Trade, Restaurants & Hotels |- |- |2.
10 | |11. |Information Technology |2,513 |2. 76 |- | |12. |Others (activities not adequately defined) |438 |0. 48 |- | | |Total |90,968 |100. 00 |100. 00 | Source: National Vocational & Technical Education Commission (2007), Islamabad a. NAVTEC Survey b. Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2006-07 |Table 4: Level-wise Enrolment | |Course Type |Enrolment |% Share |[pic] | |DAE |757 |0. 83 | | |Degree |0 |0. 00 | | |Vocational |7,721 |8. 49 | | |Diploma | | | | |G-II Level |95 |0. 10 | | |G-III Level |2,769 |3. 04 | | |Short Coursesa |37,075 |40.
76 | | |Certificateb |41,775 |45. 92 | | |Otherc |776 |0. 85 | | |Total |90,968 |100. 00 | | Source: National Vocational & Technical Education Commission (2007), Islamabad a. Short courses having less than 12 months duration b. Certificate courses of more than 01 year but less than two year duration c. Courses not specified in the questionnaire. |Email Article |[|Print Article |[pi|Next Article | | |p| |c] | | | |i| | | | | |c| | | | | |]| | | | [pic]About | Contact Us | Copyright © 2004 SDPI – All Rights Reserved SDPI Research and News Bulletin Vol. 17, No.
2, April — June 2010 ************************************************************************************************************************************************ Associated press of Pakistan , Pakistan premier news agency. 30. 05. 2011 |Technical and vocational education support program launched |[pic|[pic|[pic| | |] |] |] | |LAHORE, May 19 (APP): The government of Pakistan jointly with the Government of Germany and the Embassy of Netherlands launched a| |new Technical and Vocational Education and Training Reform Support Programme on Thursday here.
The ceremony was attended by the | |Chairperson of the Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (TEVTA) of the Government of Punjab, Saeed Ahmad Alvi, | |the Ambassador of Germany to Pakistan Dr. Michael Koch and Stefan Hulisz First Secretary of the Embassy of the Kingdom of the | |Netherlands. | |Starting in 2011, the five-year programme aims to renew the technical vocational education and training (TVET) system in | |Pakistan, particularly in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
It targets increased access, equity, relevance and | |quality of TVET. | |Implementation will be supported by the Deutsche Gesellschaft f? r Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. Funds have been | |provided by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Pakistan (euro 15 million) and the German Ministry for Economic | |Development and Cooperation (euro 2 million). | |Technical vocational education and training is the backbone of economic development in all countries anywhere in the world, but | |it has been largely neglected for many years in Pakistan.
| |“We are pleased to assist our Pakistani counterparts in revitalizing this important sector in which Germany has proven | |expertise,” said Ambassador Dr. Koch. | |Hulisz supported this notion and added: “the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, as a major contributor to this programme,| |believes in the relevance of TVET for economic growth through the provision of qualified and skilled labour. ” | |As a result, the TVET Reform Support Programme will establish market-oriented and certified training programs as well as | |accredited training institutes.
Up to 10,000 TVET teachers and administrators will be trained in specific pedagogical and | |administrative skills to implement the new system. | |In addition, access of TVET for women, youth and marginalised groups will be increased through special grants and other schemes. | |By improving the quality and relevance of technical vocational education and training, the TVET Reform Support Programme will | |help to foster economic development and alleviate poverty in Pakistan. It will contribute to a better and more peaceful life for | |Pakistan’s citizens. |
[ Back ] NEVTEC report on web, 30. 05. 2011 |Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani, Prime Minister of Pakistan |[pic] | |A skilled and Hunarmand Pakistan is the vision of the present government for social and economic | | |advancement of the nation. This priority is reflected on skill development in all our major National | | |Policies. National Vocational and Technical Education Commission (NAVTEC) under Prime Minister’s | | |directions, has launched the Hunarmand Pakistan Programme. | | |NAVTEC is in the process of standardization and streamlining Technical and Vocational.
Education in | | |Pakistan, which has launched many initiatives such as TVET survey, skill training, launch of National | | |Skills Strategy (2009-13), establishment of Centers of Excellences, skill training by private | | |organizations, modification of Apprenticeship Ordinance 1962, Accreditation and Certification, | | |establishment of new training institutes etc. | | |I hope the proposed programmes of NAVTEC will achieve an important shift from supply-led training to | | |demand-driven training leading to far-reaching benefits of having a skilled, mobile workforce in the | | |country. | |
|Chairman, NAVTEC |[pic] | |Mr. Muhammad Mumtaz Akhtar Kahloon has got a global vision and joined the office of national Vocational | | |and Technical Education Commission (NAVTEC) as Chairman with an objective to create employment | | |opportunities through linkage with international renowned organization having the capability in regard to | | |his experience with the development sectors, in order to formulate the policies relating to human resource| | |development, creation of mutual facilities for skilled workers in different technical fields with the | | |capability to manage the business plans on the said strategy.
| | |The experience in the above said segments envisage that he has rich experience for arrangements of related| | |seminars, workshops, training and development issues with the provision of assistance to | | |trainees/internees to develop through entrepreneurship management and marketing skills by formulating a | | |market oriented communication skills and strategy with a view to establish the linkages through corporate | | |offices in many global organization like transport, trade, services, tourism, Automobiles of all
kinds in | | |view of his strong business family background with the entrepreneurial position in more than 8 | | |subsidiaries of his own group as regarded professional and visionary activities. | | |He has a wider experience to visit Asia, Gulf, Middle East, Europe and America for the facilitation and | | |development of international linkages through participative approach in various global seminars and | | |workshops to organize the business development and promotional activities in the field of technical | | |education & vocational training.
| | Pakistan / British Council / Vocational and Technical Education / Employability : A new partnership announced Posted on March 28, 2011 by SkillsInfoCompetences Associated Press of Pakistan announces the successful completion of Pak-UK partnership in Technical, Vocational education. “In May 2008 as a part of Skills for Employability (SE) programme, the British Council established four college partnerships between UK and Pakistani technical colleges.
The step aimed at supporting skills developments in Pakistan by strengthening national reforms in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) and encouraging closer links between education and industry. ” “Some of the highlights of many achievements of these partnerships are the rolling out of Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE) Electronics in all technical colleges across Punjab by TEVTA Punjab in 2010 along with the development and the updating of over 50 modules/courses of electronics as well as textile and hospitality sectors across the country. ” adds the article. Source & details @ :.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 26 October 2016
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