A team sport includes any sportwhich involves players working together towards a shared objective. It is an activity in which a group of individuals, on the same team, work together to accomplish an ultimate goal which is usually to win. This can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, communicate, manage conflict, and solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. This can be seen in sports such as hockey,football, American football, baseball, association football, basketball, volleyball, tennis, water polo, lacrosse, rowing, rugby league, rugby union, cricket, handball and many others.
Different kinds of team sports
* American football
* British baseball
* Beach volleyball
* Sepak takraw
* Underwater rugby
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team’s court under organized rules It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964.
Objectives of volleyball
PUT THE BALL INTO PLAY
Every volleyball point starts with one team serving the ball and the other team receiving it. The serving team must clear the ball over the net and in bounds, and the receiving team must return over the net and in bounds before it hits the ground. Before the match begins, the referee will conduct a coin toss to determine which team serves first and on which side of the court each team begins the match.
Win the Rally
To score a point in volleyball, you must win a rally or have your opponent commit a fault. The rally begins with the serve and ends as soon as the ball hits the ground. If the serving team wins the rally, it receives 1 point and retains service. If the receiving teams wins the rally, it receives 1 point and gains service. Faults occur whenever one team breaks a rule of the game. If both teams commit a fault at the same time, you replay the rally with neither team receiving a point.
Win the Set
The first team to score 25 points in a set, except for the fifth set, wins that set. You must win a set by at least 2 points, however, so play continues until one team has a lead of two points after reaching 25.
Win the Match
To win a match, you must win three out of five sets. If each team wins two of the first four sets, your final set will go to 15 points instead of 25. Teams must still win the final set by at least 2 points, so play continues past 15 until one team achieves this. In a tournament, teams will play only three sets, so the first team to win two sets wins the match. If a tournament requires a playoff to determine which team advances, you will play a one-set playoff. Tournament organizers will predetermine whether you play the set to 15 or 25 points and you must win by 2 points.
As the name suggests, players rotate into their “read” position based on how the play is developing. For instance, if the opponent sets to its outside hitter, the middle front and right-side front players block. The outside blocker stays home and covers the rest of the front court. The right back defender edges up behind the blockers to pick up balls tipped over them. The left back is responsible for the deep angle ball. The middle back rotates to the same sideline where the ball was set. The rotation changes if the opponent sets to its right-side hitter or the middle hitter.
In the perimeter defense, players start in the same base position as in rotational defense. But as the play unfolds, there is less movement into the “read” positions. This is a good defense to dig out hard-driven balls. It is more vulnerable to tips, relying on players to take away those plays with their athletic ability. As such, it is more popular with men’s teams with more size and range.
Man Up or “Red” Defense
As the name suggests, the man up or “red” defense moves a back player up to support the front three players. This protects the middle of court from middle attacks and tips. It keeps the wing players deep. This formation minimizes the movement from base position to defensive zone. The deeper base positions allow players to keep most plays in front of them.
Fine-Tuning the Schemes
Within these basic concepts, countless adjustments can be made to suit the ability of the team. Hybrid defensive schemes are common. As volleyball coaching legend Bill Neville once said, “Defense should be designed so that it allows for putting the best diggers in areas that will most often be attacked.”
Brief history of volleyball
In 1995, the sport of Volleyball was 100 years old! The sport originated in the United States, and is now just achieving the type of popularity in the U.S. that it has received on a global basis, where it ranks behind only soccer among participation sports. Today there are more than 800 million players worldwide who play Volleyball at least once a week. In 1895, William G. Morgan, an instructor at the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) in Holyoke, Mass., decided to blend elements of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball to create a game for his classes of businessmen which would demand less physical contact than basketball.
He created the game of Volleyball (at that time called mintonette). Morgan borrowed the net from tennis, and raised it 6 feet 6 inches above the floor, just above the average man’s head. During a demonstration game, someone remarked to Morgan that the players seemed to be volleying the ball back and forth over the net, and perhaps “volleyball” would be a more descriptive name for the sport. On July 7, 1896 at Springfield College the first game of “volleyball” was played. * In 1900, a special ball was designed for the sport.
* In 1916, in the Philippines, an offensive style of passing the ball in a high trajectory to be struck by another player (the set and spike) were introduced. * In 1917, the game was changed from 21 to 15 points.
* In 1920, three hits per side and back row attack rules were instituted.
* In 1930, the first two-man beach game was played.
* In 1934, the approval and recognition of national volleyball referees.
* In 1947, the Federation Internationale De Volley-Ball (FIVB) was founded.
* In 1948, the first two-man beach tournament was held.
* In 1949, the initial World Championships were held in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
* In 1964, Volleyball was introduced to the Olympic Games in Tokyo.
* In 1974, the World Championships in Mexico were telecast in Japan.
* In 1987, the FIVB added a Beach Volleyball World Championship Series.
* In 1990, the World League was created.
* In 1995, the sport of Volleyball was 100 years old!
* In 1996, 2-person beach volleyball was added to the Olympics
While serving, coaches may make more zones to serve to so that they can make the other team move and force a bad pass. Some people determine zones according to the net. These are where their sets are going to go in the offensive.
Basic skills in volleyball
Volleyball play is comprised of the following basic components: passing, setting, spiking, blocking, serving, and receiving serve. * Passing is the act of sending the volleyball to a setter so that he or she can, in turn, present the ball to the spiker for an attack. The two primary passing methods are the bump and the dig. * Setting the ball is a critical area of the overall offensive attack. If the set is poorly placed, it can dramatically lower the effectiveness of even versatile spikers, because it limits their hitting options and their likelihood of hitting a kill shot for a point or sideout. Conversely, a well-delivered set gives a hitter a much better chance to avoid blocks and direct the ball strategically.
* Spiking is the act of driving the volleyball hard into an area of your opponent’s court. The two basic power shots are the cross-court shot and the baseline shot.Once an opponent has developed a healthy respect for a team’s spiking power, alternative offensive shots such as tips and dinks can be employed with greater effectiveness. * Blocking is the primary defensive skill used to neutralize strong spiking attacks. It involves using players’ arms to form a wall in front of the spiker, thus making it more difficult for him or her to hit the ball into the opposite court. When properly executed, a good block can be an effective weapon in scoring points or securing sideouts. In high-level competition, teams commonly employ more than one blocker against good spikers.
* Serving is a very important element of volleyball. A server who can serve the ball reliably and skillfully will help his or her team far more than will a player who, for instance, is inconsistent with their serving. There are a variety of serves that are employed in competitive volleyball, from “floaters” that seem to shimmy and shake on their way over the net to hard-driven jump serves. * Receiving the serve is vital to success for any team. Poor reception of service puts teams hoping to get a sideout at a huge disadvantage right from the beginning. If the person receiving the serve is unable to make a good pass to the setter, then the setter’s task of setting a good ball to the spiker is made that much more difficult. Receiving the serve sets the tone, then, for the whole offensive sequence that follows.
Subject: Olympic Games,
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 30 October 2016
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