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Bullying is a major public health problem, which occurred when one person is exposed to emotional and/or physical aggression (WHO,2020). Bullying has become more visible as an area of professional concern in the school context (Khamis, 2015). The results of the international surveys have indicated that 4-45% of all children are bullies or victims of bullying(Shams, Garmaroudi & Nedja, 2017). Studying teachers’ perspectives may provide useful information, to enhance our knowledge of bullying, the majority of student research or observations have been adopted their aggressive behavior, Moreover, teachers often play a critical role in implementing bullying interventions and largely contribute to the overall school climate (Holt & Keyes, 2004; Rosen, Scott, & DeOrnellas, 2017).
The study of teachers’ perceptions in the school was chosen, because they are among the school employees who witness direct bullying among students in the school, and on the basis of these perceptions and their positive impact on adopting strategies and programs to prevent bullying in the school environment.
In these three qualitative descriptive studies, I tried to know the teachers’ perceptions and knowledge about bullying among different school students levels, in different places and with the many outputs, to find out the strategies adopted by teachers to counter bullying between bullies or victims.
In this qualitative study ‘Teachers’ Perceptions of Bullying: A Focus Group Approach'( Rosen, Scott, & DeOrnellas, 2017). Focus group of 35 (28 male and 5 female) teachers, 7-10 per session from the public school have shared in this study, the study conducted from four schools in different levels, two elementary school, one from middle school and one from high secondary school in Southern of United State.
Five questions has been asked to the participants about risk factors of aggression and victimization, effective and non- effective responding to victimization, and the advice to victimized youth, the discussion lasted between 45-60 min.
The main purpose of this article is, to investigate teachers’ perceptions of the aggressors and victims, identify risk factors for aggression and victimization, and identify adaptive measures that teachers take to cope with victimization. Through the questions asked in the discussion, several themes emerged that contributed to the occurrence of bullying among students, including risk factors that affecting the aggression, and risk factors that affected the victimization, considered personal characteristics and external influences. Regard the effectiveness, teachers believed that the effective way of responding is the intervention and support from adult, the variation between effective and non effective is the presence or lack of emotional regulation, seeking adult support and intervention.
According to the fifth question, teachers suggestions for the victimized youth, strong connection with peers, or joining with groups or school organization, not to respond impulsively, one comment teacher pointed to ‘I think they need to fill their heads with things that are positive’. Another suggestion by teachers, ‘adolescent can benefit of social support and the developmental and employment of cognitive and affective resources’.
The result shown, teachers have pointed to risk factors for aggression, including harsh parenting, lack of parental supervision, and exposure to violent media, many of these risk factors can be considered for the victim’s personal characteristics: insecurity, impulsivity or high emotional interactivity, lack of social boundaries, high or low intelligence, differences in personality, appearance-based factors or physical differences. Very few external influences were recognized, although teachers referred to some parents and the school factors that contribute to bullying.
We conclude from this study that, for the response to aggression, it is clear they overlap in the strategies, identified by some teachers which are ineffective, and need in the future research enabling professionals, to design interventions better in helping all young people to overcome victimization. The teachers point out how to help students by developing skills self-regulation, working with victims who may be seen as easy signs, because they showed a great deal of emotion or were socially isolated, teachers believe they can help victims students by directing them to new social networks, such as school clubs and organizations.
Some limitations appeared in this study, The term bullying was not defined for the participants, as all questions asked about aggressive behavior were considered broader and more comprehensive, shared samples participants were not randomized, which may limit generalization. Participants not discuss their classroom management strategies, which unable to study the relationship between their beliefs and their behavior. It is recommended in this view, future research examine whether interventions targeted, at increasing teachers’ understanding can be effective in reducing peer aggression In the study ‘Perception Of Bullying By Teachers – A Qualitative Study’ (Ruzicka, Kluson & Urbanovská, 2017). This study has been conducted in Czech Republic school, the method of data collection was the semi-structured interview, 8 participants were sharing the study, with different specialty and length of experience (1- 40 yr), specific information has categorized to the participants of the research study. For the purpose of research the participants was purposive sample, the theoretical and descriptive analysis was applied for the purposes of research content analysis. The aim of this study is to identify how current teachers see their readiness to engage with bullying in elementary schools.
To achieve the goal of the research, a set of questions was asked which includes, How would you describe the readiness of teachers to confront bullying in the elementary school? What is the effect of teachers ’length of experience to cope with bullying? Can the school rely on the school system to prevent and define bullying? The interpretation of research is appeared in 6 areas, these categories revealed when comparing the research questions, and assumptions has defined to meet the research objective.
The result shown for the 6 categories that, in the first category, which revealed the Level of university teacher training with respect to bullying. The result of the analysis, which aims to train teachers in bullying, clearly indicates during university, none of the participants received the enough information related to their profession. In regard to significance of teaching experience, almost all participants believed that, their experience is very strong related to their work. In the part that focuses on correlation between teachers and school counselors, the results shown from participants, in case of a problem they consult the counselor staff.
The category which focuses on the communication between teachers, by means for increasing their awareness toward bullying, that communication among colleagues is beneficial, some of participants focus in increasing their competence in cases where they are it is difficult for them to solve, and to increase their awareness of the situations they face competence to deal with bullying related problems. In area focuses on the differences in the perception of bullying, between urban and rural elementary schools. the result shown the differences, ‘There are problems in the village school, we try to solve them but I don’t think we do it as much as in urban schools'(Ruzicka, Kluson & Urbanovská, 2017).
In the category of perception in the context of the teacher-student relationship the answer; the environment in which children grow is changing, and leading misunderstanding of the concept of bullying. In overall findings it is concluded that, The level of readiness is very low and , most of as a result, there is no information or prerequisites for effective interventions in the area of bullying are provided. The limitations for this article were, the length of experience in teaching was not a determining factor. This study cannot be generalized as there is a difference between urban and village schools in the way of dealing with bullying. It is recommended that the University preparation for pre-service teachers is how to deal with bullying, the suggestion of good cooperation between teachers and with respect to school counselors.
Another qualitative method of study, which talked about teacher and parents perception, that aimed to learn about bullying behavior among primary students in Iran, and study the perceptions of teachers and parents in this regard (Salehi, Taghavi & Pooravari, 2016). The sample was purposive, the participants were four primary school teachers, seven boys in the classroom and playground were reported, to explain the teacher’s knowledge of bullying, eight parents with various levels of education 31-46 years, the four bullying category and four victims’ parents were questioned. Teachers experience was 5-28 years, audio tape recorder data were gathered for semi-structured meetings with each teacher or parent, taking about 30 minutes.
Seven parts of the result as six questions has to be answered by interviewers, in addition to behaviors observations of students: What are the attitudes and understandings of the teachers over bullying? What sorts of techniques or measures do teachers implement when they face in-class abuse by students? What strategies or approaches do teachers recommend to prevent bullying? What in their own terms do the parents understand and describe bullying? What suggestions do the parents have about the position of school and teacher to eliminate bullying? What parenting styles do bullies ‘ parents and victims use to communicate and deal with their children, especially in disciplining bullies?
The result shown that, teachers stressed the use of violence is the main factors of bullying, both verbally and physically, in relation to school strategies, the various types of intervention methods used by teachers included supervision, punishment reporting to affected families and removing students from peer groups. In order to avoid bullying, teachers wanted to establish communication with students and parents through a parent-teacher meeting to discuss strategies for avoiding bullying and encourage parents to help both bullies and victims. and also sharing of roles among students to prevent bullying in classroom teamwork.
All participants parents whom children were either bullies or victims, considered the child threatened with insults or resorted to physical abuse as rejection by peers, the parents suggestions for three roles of school are, the empathy for victim’s parents, constructive disciplinary methods and providing advice to the parents, three ideal ways promoted by parents to make their children behave properly ‘using punishment, warning the child and informing parents about their children’s inappropriate behavior’ (Salehi, Taghavi & Pooravari, 2016). Regarding ‘What are teachers’ perceptions and understandings About bullying?’. It turned out that, the teachers were not able to accurately distinguish the meaning of bullying, as the classification of bullying was limited by focusing on witness of physical attacks.
Based on the results we can conclude that, it shown an insight into the importance of their perceptions of bullying, that physical and psychological bullying factors should be taken into account. It is recommended that, encouraging parents to attend bullying control programs, and highlighting that parents need to communicate with counselors and teachers. The size of sample was small in this study, which caused results cannot be generalized, that’s why need of conducting studies on different types of intermediate and high schools. And it was limited to student notes and interviews with parents, this study can be applied to girls as it is to males.
Through these included studies, it was found that there is a disparity in the level of information and experiences of teachers, and that there are no clear strategies for dealing with cases of bullying, whether at the level of the bully or the victim, and that the need for programs against bullying and methods of dealing with this phenomenon.
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