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Sustainable Tourism Essay

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1. Which of the following represents the correct historical sequence of Jafari’s tourism platforms?

a) Adaptancy, cautionary, advocacy, knowledge-based
b) Advocacy, adaptancy, cautionary, knowledge-based
c) Advocacy, cautionary, adaptancy, knowledge-based
d) Advantageous, cautionary, adaptancy, knowledge-based
e) None of the above

2. Which one of the following observations about the destination life cycle model is not accurate?

a) It has been described as the culmination of the adaptancy tourism platform. b) Major negative impacts within a destination appear during the ‘development’ stage. c) The evolution of tourism is described by an S-shaped curve.

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d) It assumes that unregulated tourism growth eventually leads to its own destruction. e) ‘Rejuvenation’ and ‘decline’ may occur as post-stagnation stages.

3. International stayover growth in tourism from 1950 to 2004 is accurately described by all of the following statements except:
a) It has increased by a factor of 30.
b) At least some growth has been recorded for each year.
c) The 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001 did not result in a downturn in numbers in 2002.
d) Approximately 750 million international stayovers were reported for 2004.
e) Allowing for inflation, associated revenues have increased at roughly the same rate as the growth in numbers.

4. The spatial expansion of global tourism since 1950
a) has been dominated by the flow of tourists from the more developed countries (MDCs) to the less developed countries (LDCs).
b) has given rise to the creation of the pleasure periphery around the Asia-Pacific rim.
c) is described in the textbook as a four-stage process.

d) was initially dominated by the flow of tourists between MDCs. e) is currently dominated by the flow of tourists from LDCs to MDCs.

5. Cautionary platform criticisms of mass tourism include
a) the allegation that leakages tend to erode the multiplier effect in most destinations.
b) cultural commodification.
c) employment that tends to be part-time, seasonal, and low-paying.
d) disparities in wealth between the tourists and the local residents.
e) all of the above.

6. Sustainable tourism is
a) the application of sustainable development principles to the tourism sector.
b) a major theme of the Brundtland Report.
c) a concept that emerged during the cautionary platform.
d) all of the above.
e) none of the above.

7. With regard to the institutionalization of sustainable tourism, a) the World Travel and Trade Council (WTTC) has been playing a lead role in promoting this concept at an inter-governmental level. b) the World Tourism Organization (WTO) has been the leader in coordinating the efforts of private sector tourism businesses. c) the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 provided a major catalyst for this process. d) environmental organizations such as Conservation International (CI) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) have not played a significant role. e) none of the above statements is true.

8. Which ONE of the following statements about the knowledge-based platform is not true? a) It argues that decisions about tourism development should be based on objective scientific research. b) It contends that alternative tourism is only a partial solution to global tourism-related problems. c) It is closely associated with the emergence of sustainable tourism as a concept. d) All types of tourism, according to its supporters, give rise to both positive and negative impacts. e) It uses scientific knowledge to promote and facilitate the development of alternative tourism in all destinations.

9. PATA is an abbreviation for
a) Pacific Asia Travel Association.
b) Pacific-American Travel Association.
c) Pacific Asia Tourism Association.
d) Pan-Asian Tourism Association.
e) Pacific Asia Travel Alliance.

10. The advocacy platform is so-called because
a) it advocates the spread of sustainable tourism practices.
b) criticism of tourism is strongly advocated.
c) it supports the sustained growth of tourism.
d) early supporters tended to be lawyers.
e) sustainable development is advocated as a core principle.

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