Sustainability in Stadium
Sustainability in Stadium
‘Sustainability’ is critical to all aspects of society in the 21st century. Evaluate the concept of sustainability and impact that it is having on 21st century Stadium and Arena management practices. This essay is going to talk about the issues of sustainability related to stadium and arena in 21st century. This essay will give the definition in different historic and contemporary concepts, then talks about the triple bottom line that how sustainability effect on people, profit and planet.
At last this report will going to talk about the sustainability development in the future. This paragraph is going to talk about the definition in different historic and introduce the triple bottom line. During the long course of age, human being developing rapidly base on immoderate use of limited resource on the earth. A series of environmental problems appeared that people start to think about the green issues and focus on the best solution to solve these problems. There is no universal attention for sustainability until the Stockholm Conference in 1972.
The UN Conference on Human Environment identified “the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guild the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment”. (UNEP, 16 June, 1972, Chapter 11) It also pointed out “Both aspects of man’s environment, the natural and the man-made, are essential to his well-being”, and “the protection and improvement of human environment is a major issue which affects the well-being of peoples and economic development throughout the world”.
The Stockholm Conference recognized the importance of environment improving and protection which affects the human society. It was the fundamental of sustainability. Then in 1980, World Conservation Strategy by IUCN first recognized the concept of sustainable development. It pointed out “human activities are progressively reducing the planet’s life-supporting capacity at a time” caused by the increasing of population and demand for resource; It pointed out “a new environmental ethic adopted, human populations stabilize, and sustainable modes of development become the rule rather than the exception”.
It was defined as: “the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations”. (IUCN, section 6, 1980) A few years later, Brundtland Commission in 1987 gave the clear definition of sustainable development: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Our common future, chapter 2, 1987) It recognized two key concepts: needs for world’s poor and limitation of technology and social organization to meet present and future needs. (Our common future, chapter 2, 1987) (Brundtland, 1987) The report of Our Common Future increased a far-reaching consequence in the world. Sustainable development became an important element of environment issues. The triple bottom line was first created by John Elkington in 1994.
The report of WCED and UN Conference on Environment and development (UNCED) which held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 also recognized integration of social, economy and political has been the central of sustainable development. (Elkington, 1994) It also recognized the relationship between human rights, population, social development, women and men settlement and the need for environmentally sustainable development. (UN, 1997) Sustainable development has also become the centre of business and social. This article considered a new strategy to “simultaneously benefit the company, its customers and environment”.
It pointed out that business is playing an important role in sustainable development. “Sustainable requires that we pay attention to the entire life cycles of our products and to the specific and changing needs of our customers. ” (Schmidheiry, Elkington, 1994) That means sustainability is not only about the environment but also focus on the balance between people, planet and profit. CSR is become more important in this society. Business activities will influence the sustainable development and played a centre role in the sustainable development.
Business should focus on the world trend and being responsible because it’s important to lead a business to success as “competitive conditionsand corporate social responsibility (CSR)”. Business need to transform for sustainable development. “CSR” is not only an empty talk which is also become the determinate factor of a company. “Jacoson and Nelson(2004) take more of a how-to approach, offering a principle-based framework for mastering what they called ‘new rules of the game’. ” (Alessia, 2009) CSR of business began to wake. “There is growing ense that looking after the people and the community as well as the environment are all relevant to long-term business survival. ” (Alessia, 2009)
As the CSR become a esthetic standard and sustainability standard for a business, companies focus more on triple bottom line-people, profit and planet-also could definite as environmental, societal and business arenas. CSR is a start to lead business to sustainability. It is more likely a principle to measure companies’ ethics and sustainability. Berkhout indentified some challenges for companies under the CSR principle. How to balance its social and environmental responsibility with its economic responsibility to earn a profit. The rule determines what is acceptable for corporate behavior. How to get value under the CSR principle. ” These are lead CSR toward to sustainability which includes the keep the balance between people, profit and planet also let companies to emerge a new business strategy to achieve the sustainable development. (Berkhout, 2005) This paragraph is going to talk about how sustainable stadium benefit on people. People start to consider that how stadium could benefit for the residents around.
Firstly, let’s look at the Beijing Olympic Stadium. The Beijing Olympic has a good theme that is green Olympic. A generalized sense is achieved the sustainability in humanity and natural to keep a balance between them. Bird’s Nest is made of special steels which have advance technology on less weight but same quality. And the shape is like a nest which feed the sustainable development. The government also planning to create a new city centre on the Olympic Park that provides convenience for residents in Beijing. Because of this Olympic stadium, Beijing government improved Beijing’s bad traffic and underground.
This stadium is with high technology and mixed-use. It emerged a new business centre. (Erten, 2011) Sustainability make stadium more competitive and also emerged a new way to manage stadium to make it more sustainable. It is a challenge but it also make people progress. However, because of Chinese government’s despotism, the Olympic stadium is not used as the government has guaranteed. The Olympic Stadium makes Beijing become better, but there are still a lot of things to do on sustainable development. There is another example about the 2000 Olympic Game which was held in Sydney Australia.
This is a multiple-use stadium located in the Sydney Olympic park and very successful on sustainability. It will concern about profit and planet but they will be discussing in the following paragraphs. Sydney Olympic Game in 2000 is the most successful Olympic game. It created employment for building this stadium. After the Olympic game, the stadium becomes vacancy. The government makes the Olympic stadium as tourism for visiting. And Sydney Olympic Park provided an outdoor spaces and natural campus venue. People can order the venue to doing conferences, meeting and special events.
The non-match day use and tourism use makes the stadium has more sustainable benefit on people. This paragraph is going to talk about how stadium benefit on planet. There is also a concept of sustainability in the built environment, which refers to two important entities. The first one is the sustainable urban development, which means the efficient use of urban land and infrastructure resources (like water, electricity, heating system, public transportation…etc) The second one is the sustainable architecture, creation and responsible management of a healthy built environment on efficient resources and ecological principles. CIB Report, 1999)
Firstly, let’s look at the Salford City Stadium. It is a stadium has been designed to meet the highest sustainability and environment standards and considerations. It include aspects related to energy and water use, the internal environment, pollution, transport, materials, waste, ecology and management processes. It has energy recycle, energy saving, green transport, healthy stadia that people can go there experience playing and watching sport. It’s a sustainable stadium that benefits the environment effectively with high standard pollution and sustainable energy recycles.
Let’s go back to look at the Sydney stadium. The Sydney stadium is not only the most successful commercial Olympic game but also has the biggest success on environment. It could house 110,000 spectators. The stadium used advanced technique to make the stadium more sustainable. The natural ventilation using on louvers, natural warmer air and a reduction on air condition demand by 40%. And translucent roofing that saves energy by 20%. The roof also can collect the rainwater into four tanks for irrigation and other uses in the venue. It has 10 ? iles of translucent to make full use of sunlight directly to create electricity. Most important is after the Olympic Game, the government uses the Olympic stadium for tourism for visitors and sports using. Sydney Olympic Stadium has advance technology to save resource recycling water and use sunlight to make electricity. Even a stadium can benefit on people and planet, but it’s very hard to get the investment back of a stadium. Firstly, let’s look at the new Wembley. Old Wembley was built at 1923 that called Empire Stadium at that time.
The new wembley stadium was built at 2007 which is one of the best stadia in the world. It offer advanced technology equipment, brilliant architecture design and located in a very beautiful place in London. It has a capacity of 11,000 that could fit all kinds of matches also boost football very well. It’s not only has great facility but also aimed at sustainability development. There is a Wembley Stadium’s Green Team aimed at reducing carbon footprint and managing in energy, waster, waste, transport and purchasing. Wembley stadium also offers wedding, conferences, tourism, restaurant for people.
Wembley is quite successful on people and planet. However, the cost of Wembley Stadium is alarming. It expected to cost 750 million pound to redeveloping Wembley originally but because of a series of delays over its completion there was expected to pay ? 35 million more. The cost of new Wembley Stadium up to multiple millions pound annually. (Wembley, 2011) It’s really hard to get the money back that building a stadium always cost a lot of money. (Wembley, 2002) ( But, Sydney Olympic Game is successful on commercial.
Some stadium are has really good facility, capacity, non match day management and high standard environmental use. The combination of sustainable and stadium is get success in implement but it still hard to get investment break-even on profit. But it still loses money. n future, stadium should become more mixed. It may mix with all the things together. It could build in the centre of a city or make a city became a stadium. Use sunlight, water, wind and new tech to create energy. Stadium must have mixed with high street, restaurants, training, tourism, conferences.
Maybe there will be a technology to move the ground and building. The Stadium is joint with different building by moving the ground. If there is no events it will closed to move these building back for multiple uses. In conclusion, sustainability stadium in 21st century is focus on people, profit and planet that is really hard. So in the future, people may consider about the reducing of cost to build a stadium with new technology to use cheap but high quality material. There is still a lot of work to do on the sustainability development in stadium.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 20 November 2016
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